Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10
Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885 www.elsevier.com/locate/engfailanal Failure analysis of the impeller of
Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885 www.elsevier.com/locate/engfailanal Failure analysis of the impeller of

Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885 www.elsevier.com/locate/engfailanal Failure analysis of the impeller of

www.elsevier.com/locate/engfailanal

Failure analysis of the impeller of slurry pump used in zinc hydrometallurgy process

Ping Li * , Qizhou Cai, Bokang Wei

The State Key Laboratory of Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China

Received 24 June 2005; accepted 14 July 2005 Available online 6 September 2005

Abstract

The failure of the trial impeller of slurry pump used in zinc hydrometallurgy process occurred only after a service of about a month, the expected service life was more than 3 months. The failure impeller was subjected to serious corrosive wear. This paper deals with failure analysis of the impeller (mainly including composition analysis of the slurry, cor- rosive wear surface characteristics by visual inspection and optical microscopes as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM), composition analysis of the impeller material by spectrum analyser and SEM–EDX, microstructure analysis by optical microscopes) and an improved method. Failure analysis revealed that an improper austenite/ferrite ratio of duplex stainless steel (DSS) material resulting from a too high nitrogen content was primarily responsible for the rapid failure of the impeller. In addition, a melting test in a vacuum furnace verified again that nitrogen content had a sig- nificant effect on austenite/ferrite ratio of duplex stainless steel, a comparing corrosive wear test revealed further that DSS consisting of equal austenite/ferrite volume showed better corrosive wear resistance. 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: Failure analysis; Impeller; Corrosive wear; Duplex stainless steel; Nitrogen

1. Introduction

Eighty percent of world s total zinc is produced by the traditional zinc hydrometallurgy process [1] . Among the equipments used in the service condition, slurry pumps are easily damaged , mainly because the serious failure of their impellers is subjected to not only the erosion of the slurry but also the corrosion of the slurry, namely the combined erosion–corrosion (E–C) or corrosive wear(C–W) [2–5] . Therefore,

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 27 87543876; fax: +86 27 87541922. E-mail address: leeping68@163.com (P. Li).

1350-6307/$ - see front matter 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

doi:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2005.07.004

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

877

increasing attention has been paid to the serious problem and many researchers have been embarking on the studies of corrosive wear in recent decades [2–8] . The failure of the trial impeller occurred only after a service of 28 days. The expected service life was more than 3 months. The failure impeller was received for failure analysis. This paper presents the failure analysis of the impeller of slurry pump and an improved measure, in addition a corrosive wear test was carried out for verifying improving effect.

2. Experimental procedure

The slurry composition was examined by chemical analysis. The surface characteristics of the failure impeller were carried out by visual inspection and optical microscopes. The sample materials for composi- tion, microstructure and property were taken from either the vane or the soleplate of the impeller. The com- position of the impeller material was determined by using a standard spectrum analyser as well as a Quanta 200 type scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis facility (SEM–EDX). The microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopes. The samples for micro- structure studies were prepared in the usual metallographic manner, they were polished and etched with aqua regia (also called: nitrohydrochloric acid). Hardness testing was performed by using a Vickers Hard- ness testing machine and HB 3000 Brinell hardness testing machine.

3. Results

3.1. Service condition of the impeller of slurry pump

Zinc hydrometallurgy process involves roasting, leaching, purification, electrolyte deposition, melting into zinc ingot and so on, in leaching process a number of slurry pumps are used to transport solid–liquid mixed slurry containing ZnSO 4 particles, silica and diluted sulfuric acid and so on to a filter to be purified. The analysis result of slurry solution is shown in Table 1 . The temperature of the slurry solution is about 70 C,the density of that is 1.681 g/L, the mass ratio of liquid to solid for the slurry is about 8:1 and its pH value is about 3. The pumps run at a speed of 2900 rpm, the capacity is 60 m 3 /h, the new impeller weighs 8 kgf with a base thickness of 12 mm and diameter of 200 mm, main vain height of 53 mm, auxiliary vane height of 10 mm.

3.2. Visual inspection

Fig. 1 shows the appearance of the slurry pump. From Fig. 1 we can see that the shell of pump at oper- ation stage was seriously corroded by slurry solution. Figs. 2 and 3 show the appearance of the new impeller and the failure impeller. In comparison with a new one, the impeller after the failure was severely deformed. As shown in Fig. 3 , we easily found that there was an obvious gap at the different parts of the failure impel- ler. Erosion–corrosion of the working side (towards main vanes) was more serious than that of nonworking side (towards auxiliary vane). The color of the working side is bright, there is no passivation film on it, it could be divided into three different regions slightly different as reported by Fan et al. [5] . At the region I

Table 1 The analysis results of the slurry

Constituent

Zn

Mn

SiO 2

CaO

SO

2

Cl

F

Cd

Fe

4

The content (g/L)

100–180

3–5

0.1–0.5

0.1–0.3

41.245

0.638

3.87

0.3–1.0

0.1–2.0

878

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885 Fig. 1. The appearance of the

Fig. 1. The appearance of the slurry pump.

(2006) 876–885 Fig. 1. The appearance of the slurry pump. Fig. 2. The new impeller. Fig.

Fig. 2. The new impeller.

The appearance of the slurry pump. Fig. 2. The new impeller. Fig. 3. The impeller after

Fig. 3. The impeller after the failure.

within a circling diameter of 50 mm, there was almost negligible attack and the surface was still in its integ- rity. At the region II with a circling diameter from 50 to 120 mm, a strongly tangential stress and slightly normal force due to strong swirl flow existed which caused the destruction of the main vanes and irregular scratches of the soleplate and vanes (see Figs. 4 and 5 ). At the region III with the circling diameter above 120 mm (peripheral velocity is 18.2 m/s), due to the action of higher peripheral velocity and slighter swirl flow, we clearly found that the rim of the soleplate was severely eroded due to which one region was nearly

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

879

al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885 879 Fig. 4. Large erosion ravines at region

Fig. 4. Large erosion ravines at region II.

876–885 879 Fig. 4. Large erosion ravines at region II. Fig. 5. Ripple-like worn surface at

Fig. 5. Ripple-like worn surface at the inner side and outer side of main vanes 50 ·.

worn-out, namely the corrosive wear level raised drastically with the increase in the diameter of impeller. There were clear and regular erosion ravines at the rim of the soleplate (region I), therefore, 18.2 m/s may be regarded as a critical value of peripheral velocity (namely breakthrough velocity) in this case, above which the mass loss of the impeller increases violently with the increase of the velocity. Whereas nonwork- ing side showed slight erosion, the passivation films were clearly seen on it.

3.3. Chemical analysis

The chemical composition of the impeller material is shown in Table 2 . It shows that the impeller was made of duplex stainless steel (DSS).

3.4. Microscopic analysis

The microstructure of the failure impeller is shown in Fig. 6 . The microstructure is austenite–ferrite DDS, the black matrix is austenite, while white patches indicate ferrite in the matrix, the ferrite consists of below 30% in the total volume. The average hardness of austenite and ferrite is 400 and 455 HV, respectively.

Table 2 Chemical composition of the studied DSS samples (wt%)

Alloy

C

Si

Mn

Cr

Mo

Ni

Nb

Cu

V

N

Cr eq /Ni eq

The failure impeller The improved

0.065

1.25

0.54

25.22

1.73

4.95

0.408

2.08

0.39

0.319

29.029/16.74 = 1.734 28.825/14.665 = 1.966

0.073

1.20

0.61

24.98

1.66

5.03

0.77

2.97

0.409

0.238

880

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885 Fig. 6. The optical micrograph of

Fig. 6. The optical micrograph of the failure impeller 100· (austenite in black, ferrite in white).

The results analyzed by EDX are shown in Fig. 7 and Table 3 , respectively. The result shows that aus- tenite consists of enriched nickel and copper, but poor chrome, molybdenum and silicon; ferrite consists of enriched chrome, molybdenum and silicon, but poor nickel and copper.

3.5. Hardness testing

The average hardness values for steel S1 and steel S2 were 283 and 306 HB, respectively.

values for steel S1 and steel S2 were 283 and 306 HB, respectively. Fig. 7. EDX

Fig. 7. EDX results of phases in the failure impeller.

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

Table 3 Element contents of a and c phases in the failure impeller (wt%)

881

Phase

Si

Cr

MO

Ni

Cu

Fe

a

1.58

28.98

2.06

4.03

1.17

66.28

c

1.05

22.13

1.23

6.35

3.04

65.43

4. Discussion

4.1. Bibliographical review

This section presents briefly the information studied about the effects of nitrogen on the microstructure, and the corrosive-wear characteristics for different volume fractions of ferrite and austenite of CD-4MCu duplex stainless steels (DSSs) . The ultimate aim of this work is to find out the rational nitrogen content and proper volume fractions of ferrite and austenite in order to meet the best corrosive-wear property of DSS, which will be the best possible to guarantee the expected service life of the impeller of slurry pump used for traditional zinc hydrometallurgy process. Duplex stainless steels (DDSs) are characterized by having a two-phase microstructure consisting of approximately equal volume fractions of ferrite (a ) and austenite (c ). Generally speaking, the volume frac- tion of fewer phases is desired above 30% [9–11] . DDSs have a combination of excellent corrosion resis- tance and high strength similar to that of ferritic stainless steels, as well as toughness of austenitic stainless steels [9–13] . These properties suggest that DDSs are excellent materials for wide industrial appli- cation on oil and gas refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plates, pulp and paper industries, nuclear reac- tors and process systems, etc. [14–20] . Nitrogen is a kind of austenite stabilizing element, its Ni equivalent (Ni eq ) is 30 [21] and pitting corrosion resistance equivalent (PREW) is 16 times that of Cr [22] , and therefore nitrogen addition can substitute costly and scarce nickel with a small amount like 0.1–0.3 wt% [23–28] . Long and DeLong [21] suggested that the effect of the elements on Cr equivalents (Cr eq ) and Ni equiv- alents (Ni eq ) with the following equations:

Cr eq ¼

Ni eq ¼

wt % Cr þ wt % Mo þ 1.5wt% Si þ 0.5wt % Nb ;

ð1

Þ

wt % Ni þ 0.5wt% Mn þ 30 ð wt %N þ wt % C Þ .

ð2

Þ

Chemical analysis showed that N content of the failure impeller was 0.319%, above the recommended level (0.1–0.3%) [25,26] . It is found that the austenitic phase has a low stacking fault energy (SFE) and develops a planar dislo- cation structure during deformation,while the ferritic phase exhibits a higher SFE and cross slip can easily occur during deformation [29,30]. Research [31] found that during corrosive wear, the abilities of surface deformation strengthening of two phases in DSS were very different. In the given corrosive wear condition, high-density dislocations in the c phase of DSS made the c phase at surface and subsurface harder than that in the a phase of DSS, and suggested that a proper ratio of the c phase is very important [32] .

4.2. Experimental verification

The section presents an improved test in order to verify further the above analysis. The studied materials were firstly melted in a 15 kg vacuum furnace and cast into 180 mm · 150 mm · 60/25 mm Y-type blocks. For adding nitrogen, Fe–59.4Cr–5.5 N master alloy was used. The chemical composition of the ingots is shown in Table 2 , it is found that N content was 0.238% in the recommended level. The ingots were machined into 20 mm · 20 mm · 15 mm square samples to analyze

882

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

microstructure and 50 mm · 10 mm · 5 mm square samples for corrosive wear test. The samples were solu- tion treated at the temperature of 1050 C for 1.5 h and water quenched, then tempered at the temperature of 550 C for 1.5 h and air cooled. The microstructure of the improved sample is shown in Fig. 8 , the vol- ume fraction of austenite and ferrite is about 50%, respectively. Cr eq , Ni eq and Cr eq /Ni eq of two kinds of steels are also shown in Table 2 , Cr eq /Ni eq are 1.734 and 1.966, respectively. The actual ferrite–austenite content of Cr eq /Ni eq and the calculated results are in good accordance with Park s report [33] . To further confirm the effect of the phase ratio of DSS on the corrosive wear, a simulated corrosive wear test was carried out by a self-made rotating disk apparatus ( Fig. 9 ) with the samples removed from the fail- ure impeller (S1) and the improved material (S2). The medium is the slurry from zinc hydrometallurgy pro- cess . The tests were controlled at the temperature range 70 ± 3 C, the tests ran 5 times and the average results were taken as corrosive wear rate ( V t ), respectively. The peripheral velocity of tests is 18.5 m/s. The test duration is 10 h. At the same time, to compare the corrosive resistance of two kinds of steels, a corrosion test was per- formed. Pure corrosion rate test is similar to Zheng s method [34] , it means the mass loss rate under the corrosion condition without any effect of erosion, namely under static mass loss rate. For each material, five samples were used for static immersion test (the medium is the same as C–W test) and the average result

medium is the same as C–W test) and the average result Fig. 8. The optical micrograph

Fig. 8. The optical micrograph of the improved sample 100· (austenite in black, ferrite in white).

sample 100 · (austenite in black, ferrite in white). Fig. 9. Schematic diagram of corrosive-wear test

Fig. 9. Schematic diagram of corrosive-wear test apparatus. (1) AC mortor; (2) cone pulley; (3) AC mortor; (4) slurry; (5) sample disc; (6) sample fixing screw; (7) sample; (8) slurry vessel; (9) water vessel; (10) thermostat; (11) water; (12) cover board; (13) clamping setup.

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

883

al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885 883 Fig. 10. The pure corrosion rates (

Fig. 10. The pure corrosion rates ( V c ) of two kinds of the tested steels. (S1: the failure impeller sample, S2: the improved sample.)

(S1: the failure impeller sample, S2: the improved sample.) Fig. 11. The corrosive wear rates of

Fig. 11. The corrosive wear rates of two kinds of the tested steels ( V t ). (S1: the failure impeller sample, S2: the improved sample.)

is taken as its pure corrosion rate (V c ). The test duration is 720 h. The corrosive rate and corrosive wear rate are calculated by the following equation:

V

¼ DW t ; A

ð3 Þ

where V is the corrosive rate or corrosive wear rate (g/m 2 h); DW , mass loss volume (g); A , surface area of the sample (m 2 ); and t , the processing time (h). Figs. 10 and 11 show the pure corrosion rates (V c ) and the corrosive wear rates ( V t ) of the two kinds of steels tested, respectively.The pure corrosion rates ( V c ) of the two kinds of steels are very low and almost negligible, it manifests that the two kinds of steels have excellent corrosion resistance in the tested medium. Whereas the corrosive wear rates ( V t ) of the two kinds of steels show the significant difference, that of steel S1 is far higher than that of steel S2. The results of the C–W test also testify the above analysis.

results of the C–W test also testify the above analysis. Fig. 12. SEM micrographs of corrosive

Fig. 12. SEM micrographs of corrosive wear scar. (S1: the failure impeller sample, S2: the improved sample.)

884

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

From SEM micrographs of the worn surfaces of two kinds of steels after the corrosive wear tests, we found that large erosion ravines and serious brittle flake-off had occurred within the surface of S1 due to violent flow impingement and sequential extrusion-forging action (Fig. 12 ); whereas a slight wear track had taken place in the surface of steel S2 under the same condition. It further confirms the above analysis.

5. Conclusion

Under the service conditions of zinc hydrometallurgy process, the failure of the impeller of slurry pump initiated from the serious corrosive wear. Corrosion is in a subordinate position, but erosion takes up a dominant position in total erosion wear volume. Too high nitrogen addition in the duplex stainless steel (DSS) resulted in a too low ferrite content, as a result of too short service life; a recommended nitrogen content value is 0.1–0.3% The result of simulated corrosive wear test indicated that DSS possessing almost equal ferrite and aus- tenite volume showed better corrosive wear resistance.

6. Recommendations

It is recommended that in future, before being placed into service, a quantitative analysis of the nitrogen content for every batch of the impeller should be carried out by using chemical method, not using spectral analysis. At the same time for duplex stainless steels, it is important that heat treatment should be appro- priate, usually of the order of solution heat treatment for 1.5 h at 1500 C and water quenched, then aging for 1.5 h at 500 C and air cooled. In addition, after heat treatment it is necessary that for every batch of the impeller the microstructure should be inspected by using an additive sample with the same chemical com- position and heat treatment method.

References

[1] Akcil JA, Ciftci H. A study of the selective leaching of complex sulfides from the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. Miner Eng

2002;15:457–9.

[2] Neville A, Hodgkiess T, Dallas JT. A study of the erosion–corrosion behaviour of engineering steels for marine pumping applications. Wear 1995;186–187:495–507. [3] Walker CI, Bodkin GC. Empirical wear relationships for centrifugal slurry pumps-Part 1: Side-lines. Wear 2000;242:140–6. [4] Hu Zeng-wen. Effect of operating conditions on the wear of wet parts in slurry pumps. Wear 1993;162–164:1016–21. [5] Fan Aiming, Long Jinming, Tao Ziyun. Failure analysis of the impeller of a slurry pump subjected to corrosive wear. Wear

1995;181–183:876–82.

[6] Stack MM, Corlett N, Turgoose S. Some thoughts on modelling the effects of oxygen and particle concentration on the erosion- corrosion of steels in aqueous slurries. Wear 2003;255:225–36. [7] Hutchings IM. Mechanism of erosion of ductile metals by solid particles. ASTM, STP 1979;664:59–65. [8] Zhao HX, Yabuki A, Matsumura M, Takahashi T, Yamamoto M. Slurry erosion properties of ceramic coatings. Wear 1999;233–

235:608–14.

[9] Solomon HD, Devine TM. In: Lula RA, editor. Proceedings of conference on duplex stainless steels. Metals Park (OH): ASM; 1983. p. 693. [10] Nilsson JO. Mater Sci Technol 1992;8:685.

[11] Merello R, Botana FJ, Botella J, Matres MV, Marcos M. Corros Sci 2003;45:909–21. [12] Guha P, Clark CA. In: Lula RA, editor. Proceedings of conference on duplex stainless steels. Metals Park (OH): ASM; 1983. p.

355.

[13] Lovland P. Stainless Steel Europe 1993(November):28.

P. Li et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 876–885

885

[14] Singh AK et al. Duplex 94 stainless steels. Fourth international conference, vol. 4; 1994. p. 4. [15] Nilsson J-O. Mater Sci Technol 1992;8:685. [16] Ravindranath K, Mailhotra SN. Corrosion 1995;37:121. [17] Solomon HD, Devine TM. In: Lula RA, editor. Proceedings of conference on duplex stainless steels. St. Louis (MO); 25–28 October, 1982. Metals Park (OH): ASM; 1983. p. 693. [18] Oredsson J, Bernhardsson S. Mater Perform 1983;22:35. [19] Moll MA. The world of duplex steels—supply and demand of a heavy duty group of steels. In: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on duplex stainless steels, 21–23, October. Zutphen (Netherlands): Stainless Steel World, KCl Publishing BV; 1997. p. 723. [20] Francis R, Bukovinsky S. Duplex 94 stainless steels. Fourth international conference, vol. 3; 1994. p. 21. [21] Long CJ, DeLong WT. Welding J 1973;52:281. [22] Okamoto H. The effect of tungsten and molybdenum on the performance of super duplex stainless steels. In: Proceedings of application of stainless steel 92, Stockholm, Sweden, Jemkontoret; 1992. p. 360. [23] Park Young-Hwan, Lee Zin-Hyoung. Mater Sci Eng 2001;A297:78–84. [24] Park YH, Lee ZH. Nitrogen alloying in Duplex Stainless Steel and its effect on microstructure, In: Proceedings of the fourth Asian foundry congress, 32nd annual convention of Australian Foundry Institute, Broadbeach, Qld., Australia; October 1996. p. 65. [25] Kearns JR. In: Lula RA, editor. Proceedings of conference on new developments in stainless steel technology. Metals Park (OH): ASM; 1985. p. 117. [26] Bates CE, Rogers OV, Monroe RW. In: Lula RA, editor. Proceedings of conference on new developments in stainless steel technology. Metals Park (OH): ASM; 1985. p. 207. [27] Bi HY, Jiang XX, Li SZ. Wear 1999;225–229:1043–9. [28] Simmons JW. Mater Sci Eng 1996;A207:159. [29] Moverare JJ, Ode n M. Mater Sci Eng 2002;A337:25–38. [30] Moverare JJ, Ode n M. Metall Mater Trans 2002;A33:57. [31] Lu Xin-Chun, Shi Ke, Li Shi-Zhuo, Jiang Xiao-Xia. Wear 1999;225–229:537–43. [32] Lu Xinchun, Li Shizhuo, Zhang Tiancheng, Jiang Xiaoxia. Effect of solution annealing temperature on corrosive behaviour of duplex stainless steel in sulphuric acid medium. Acta Metall Sinica 1994;30:159–64 [in Chinese]. [33] Park Young-Hwan, Lee Zui-Hyoung. Mater Sci Eng 2001;A297:78–84. [34] Zheng Yugui, Yao Zhiming, Wei Xiangyun, Ke Wei. Wear 1995;186–187:555–61.