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Last Lecture Important Reminders Kinematics: Description of Motion

Kinematics - describing 1D motion


All measurements require an origin, a coordinate
Relative velocity (yes, more vectors!) Pset #2 due here tomorrow at 10 am system, and units
Today Next complication is reference frame, the term used to
describe the motion of observer
More dimensions Finish Mastering Physics #3 before next Monday at
Constant velocity is OK, accelerated observer is not
More examples 10pm
Basic definitions:
More vectors
Position
Important Concepts Exam #1 is next Friday at 10am Distance versus displacement
Change=derivative=slope Velocity - change of position
Multiple dimensions are as independent as many objects Speed is the magnitude of velocity
Think carefully about directions (changes the +/- sign) Acceleration - change of velocity

More complicated situations Vector Connections Multi-dimensional Kinematics Problems

More objects ! ! ! Need to think carefully about directions (signs!)


! dr ! dv d 2 r
Write an additional set of equations
v= a= = Need to think carefully about initial conditions
More dimensions dt dt dt 2 Write separate equations for each dimension
Write an additional set of equations
! Read problem carefully to understand the specific

v =
dx dv
a = x = 2
d2x v = vx2 + vy2 + vz2 constraint to use to solve
x dt x dt dt
!
v =
dy
a =
dv 2
y d y
= 2
a = ax2 + ay2 + az2
y dt y dt dt

Special Case of Constant Acceleration Extra special case Super special case

x = x0 + v0 x t + 12 ax t 2 Trajectories with gravity near the surface of the Earth


and no air resistance or other drag forces
Range of a projectile near the surface of the Earth
and no air resistance or other drag forces

vx = v0 x + ax t v0
Y x0 = 0 y0 = 0 y final = 0 x final = Range
y = y0 + v0 yt + 12 ayt 2
X v02 sin(2! )
Range =

vy = v0 y + ayt
g
Physics ax = 0 ay = !g
You should immediately forget you ever saw this formula
Initial conditions v0 x = v0 cos(! ) v0 y = v0 sin(" ) but remember the technique used to find it.

Quadratic Equations Summary


Study special cases (like range of a projectile) but
understand the assumptions that go into all formulas
ax + bx + c = 0
2
Position, velocity, and acceleration are ALL vectors
and need to be manipulated using either arrows
!b b ! 4ac 2
(qualitative) or components (quantitative)
x=
2a Directions (or signs in 1D) of position, velocity, and
acceleration can all be different
Important property: Such equations can have 0, 1, or 2 solutions
depending on the value of b2 -4ac.
Negative: 0 solutions Zero: 1 solution Positive: 2 solutions

Warning: Only one of the 2 solutions may be physical!