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Autonomous Liquid Temperature Controlling System


The design is fully autonomous and mainly aimed at the controlling action without human
intervention. The main objective is to construct a system which autonomously regulates or controls the
temperature. Many companies specifically, chemical companies requires water at set temperature for
cleaning purposes, boilers, cooling purposes etc.

For this design, it would be possible in focusing mainly on the part which is liquids temperature
regulator, whose main function is maintaining the temperature of liquid in a vessel or container, below a
certain range of temperature using the 2 LM35DZ temperature sensors (they are the ones which detects
the temperature change in the 2 liquids vessels, 1 RC servo motor (required to open and close the valve
or clit for allowing the liquid to flow from one vessel to other), 1 DC geared motor (required to cool
down the liquid as by attaching a fan or a stirrer to it), PIC 16F877A (the brains of the system which
decides when to open the valve and allow the cooling process to start and stop) and 16x2 LCD (which is
used to display the temperatures in the 2 different vessels). Those are the possible main ingredients for
this project.


The main objective is to construct a system which autonomously regulates or controls the
temperature. Many companies specifically, chemical companies requires water at set temperature for
cleaning purposes, boilers, cooling purposes etc. To meet that demand they can flow 2 ways:

The first way is they use some kind of cooling source which works continuously, keeping the
temperature of the water at defined temperature. But, for the cooling system, the need for electricity is
high, which is expensive.

The other way is that they use cool water from some source in company and mix it together
with the hot water, and then they can mix the two together using some kind or mixer or cool it by using
fan until the temperature comes down to the desired limit and then stop. This method has low
electricity consumptions and results are got faster than the previous which has to get the temperature
down by cooling continuously.
The system we want to construct can be even used in schools, hospitals etc. If somebody wants
to have bath in summer and the tank is containing hot water, the temperature sensor detects the
temperature and opens the valve from the other cool water source using the servo motor, so that it can
mix the water from that source with cool water using the mixer attached to dc geared motor or can cool
down the mixed water using fan. Any of the two methods can be used. Once the temperature comes to
the range defined by the user, computation done by the microcontroller. The dc geared motor stops and
the servo motor closes the valve, hence closing the source of the water from cool water tank to the tank
which had hot water.

So the developers have to make a system which can work as defined above, as the system is
more economical and gives faster results.

Actually the system was designed for using the cool water source to cool the hot water without
using any fan or mixer. As, this project demanded to have a dc geared motor. We put up the fan or
mixer to increase the speed of cooling.


The system consists of 2 LM35DZ temperature sensors whose input is the temperature of the
liquids or water in Tank A and Tank B. The output of these sensors is analog voltage signals which go into
PIC16F877A microcontroller. The temperature sensors are connected to the ADC ports of the
microcontroller, which takes in the analog signal and gives out digital values across specified ports.

Across the defined output port of the microcontroller, LCD is connected with takes the values of
the temperature sensor and displays them, which change as the temperature of liquids in Tank A and
Tank B change.

Now comes, the actuators which are the hands and legs of the system. We have RC servo motor
which is connected to a slit (valve) in the Tank A. When the temperature is above 50 C the servo motor
moves right (2.35ms) and cause the slit to move aside let the cool water from Tank A to flow into hot
water Tank B. While at same time the dc geared motor is given command to run at full speed when the
temperature in above 50 C and mix hot and cool water or cool the mixed water using fan, anything can
be chosen as they are replaceable.

When the temperature drops below 50 C the servo motor attached to Tank A turn left (0ms) and
causing the slit to close and stopping the flow of cool water into the Tank B having hot water, while at
same time the dc geared motor stops. This remains until the temperature increases again above 50 C.

This is the basic function of the system designed. Improvements will be suggested at end, which
can be done once the developers have time to research more and experiment using the microcontroller
and other ICs
Possible Components:

As it said on the description above, the possible components for this project are:

Containers (2)
LM35DZ Temperature Sensors (2)
PIC 16F877A Microcontroller
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC): (converts analog signal to digital, specifically for LM35DZ
whose output are analog voltage values.)
Servo Motor
DC Geared Motor

Block Digram:
Possible Flow of the Project System. (Flowchart):