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Solved Problems:

5-1 A 2.8 liter four cylinder square engine (bore=stroke) with two intake valves per
cylinder is designed to have a maximum speed of 7500 rpm. Intake temperature is 333K.
Calculate: a. intake valve area (cm2, in2)
b. diameter of intake valve (cm, in.)
c. valve lift (cm, in)

Solution:

a. Ci = = (1.4)(287 )(333) = 366 /

For one cylinder:


Vd = (2.8 L)/4 = 0.7 L = 0.0007 m3
B = S; Vd = (/4)B2S = (/4)S3 = 0.0007 m3
S = 0.0962 m. = 9.62 cm = B
Upmax = 2SN = (2 stroke/ rev)(0.0962 m/s)(7500/ 60rev/s)
= 24.1 m/s

Ai = CB2 where C is a constant = 1.3

24.1 /
Ai = (1.3)(0.0962m)2
366 /

Ai = 0.000792 m2
Ai = 7.92 cm2 = 1.23 in2

b. For each valve:


Ai = (dv2)/4 = 7.92 cm2

4 ( ) 4(7.92 2 )
dv = =

dv = 2.25 cm = 0.886 in.

c. lmax = dv/4 = (2.25 cm)/4


lmax = 0.56 cm = 5.6 mm = 0.22 in

5-2 Two engine options are to be offered in a new automobile model. Engine A is
naturally aspirated with a compression ratio of 10.5:1 and cylinder inlet conditions of
60C and 96kPa. Engine B is supercharged with aftercooling and has cylinder inlet
conditions of 80C and 130 kPa. To avoid knock problems, it is desirable to have the air-
fuel temperature at the start of combustion in engine B to be the same as in engine A.
Calculate:
(a) Temperature at start of combustion in engine A, using air-standard Otto cycle
analysis. [0C]

(b) Compression ratio of engine B which would give the same temperature at the start
of combustion.

(c) Temperature reduction in the aftercooler of engine B if the compressor has an


isentropic efficiency of 82% and inlet conditions are the same as in engine A. [0C]

Solution:

a. Using Fig. 3-5 and equation 3-4 in the book:

T2 = T1 (rc)k-1 = (333 K)(10.5)0.35 = 758K = 485 C

b. Using equation 3-4

758K = 353K(rc)0.35 , rc= 8.88

c. Using Figure 5-19 and equation 5-15, with k =1.4


T2s=T1(P2/P1)(k-1)/k = (333K)(130/96)(1.4-1)/1.4 = 363K

Eq. (5-14) (s)sc = (T2s-T1)/(TA-T1)

0.82 = (363-333)/(T2A 333)

T2A = 370K = 97C

T = T2A Tinlet = 97 - 80 = 17C

5-3 A six-cylinder,3.6-literSI engine is designed to have a maximum speed of 6000RPM.


At this speed the volumetric efficiency of the engine is 0.92. The engine will be equipped
with a two-barrel carburetor, one barrel for low speeds and both barrels for high speed.
Gasoline density can be considered to be 750kg/m3.

Calculate:
1. Throat diameter for the carburetor (assume discharge coefficient = 0.94)
2. Fuel capillary tube diameters (assume discharge coefficient = 0.74)

Solution:

= /
= (0.92)(1.181 kg/3 )(0.0036 3 /
)(6000/60rev/sec)/(2rev/cycle)
=0.1956kg/sec
= 236.5 = (236.5)(0.94) = 0.1956
= 0.000882 = 8.82

For each barrel:



= ( ) 2 = 0.000442
4
= 0.0237 = 2.37 = 0.93

Throttle of the second barrel would remain closed until engine speed
exceeded about 3000 RPM.
= 53.4
= = 101 53.4 = 47.6 ( )
= (Assume fuel capillary tube height differential 1.5cm)
= (47.6 kPa) (750 /3 ) (9.81 / 2 ) (0.015)/(1 / 2 )
= 47.49 kPa

0.5 47.6 0
=[ ] =[ ] . 5 = 1.0012
47.49
0.5
0.5
1.4
2 +1 [ 2 1.4+1 ]
53.4 1.4 53.4 1.4
[(1)( ) ( ) ] (1.41)(
101
) (
101
)
= = 53.4 = 0.7053
[1( )] [1( 101 )]

{ } { }
0.5

AF = ( ) ( ) ( )

0.94 0.00044 1.181 0.5
15.2 = ( )( ) ( 750 ) (1.0012)(0.7053)
0.74

Solving for the flow area in the capillary tuba


= 1.03 106 2 = ( ) 2
4

This gives a fuel capillary tube diameter of:

= 0.00115 = 1.15 = 0.045


5-6. A 2A-liter, four-cylinder engine is equipped with multipoint port fuel injection,
having one injector per cylinder. The injectors are constant-flow devices, so the fuel
flow rate into the engine is controlled by injection pulse duration. Maximum power is
obtained at WOT when injection duration is continuous. At this condition, engine speed
is 5800 RPM with stoichiometric gasoline and an inlet pressure of 101 kPa. At idle
condition, the engine speed is 600 RPM with stoichiometric gasoline and an inlet
pressure of
30 kPa. Volumetric efficiency can be considered 95% at all conditions.
Calculate: (a) Fuel flow rate through an injector. [kg/sec]
(b) Injection pulse duration in seconds at idle conditions.
(c) Injection pulse duration in degrees of engine rotation at idle
conditions.
Solution:
For one cylinder
Vd = 2.4 L / 4 = 0.6L = 0.0006 m3
a.)
use air flow rate (one cylinder)
ma = /
= 1.1181(0.0006)(5800/60 rev/s)(0.95)/(2)
= 0.03254 kg/sec
ma = ma/AF
= 0.03254 kg/s(14.6)
= 0.00223 kg/s
b.)
ma = [(1.181)(30/101)(0.0006)(600/60)]/2 = 0.001052 kg/s
mf = (0.001052 kg/s)/14.6 = 0.0000721 kg/s
mf(idle) = (0.0000721 kg/s)(2 rev/cycle)(600/60 rev/s) = 0.0000144 kg/ cycle
time of injection
t = (0.0000144kg) / (0.00223 kg/s) = 0.0065 sec

c.) rotational speed @ idle


(600/60 rev/s)(360/rev) = 3600/sec
Time of injection = (3600/sec)(0.0065 sec) = 23.4