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Abstract

The efficiency and structural performance of steel-concrete decks

Design of Steel-Concrete is highly improved in composite action. This is because the high

tensile resistance of steel complements the compression strength of

Composite Decks concrete in bending.

connecting steel girders with concrete slabs by means of shear

connectors such as Nelson studs. As such, they may be analyzed

and designed as composite T-beams based on principals of

structural mechanics.

evaluation of applied loads and analysis of member bending

moment and shear capacity based on user-specified loads, member

sizes and material strengths. For this purpose, a spreadsheet and a

complementary Visual Basic software tool have been developed.

The spreadsheet accepts information about the applied loads, the

dimensions of the floor, member sizes and material strengths and

strength factors from the user. Given the above information, the

spreadsheet then calculates cross-sectional properties such as the

location of neutral axis, the section's transformed moment of

inertia and section modulus, as well as its bending moment and

For: Dr. Stiemer shear capacity in a step-by-step procedure according to established

CIVL 510 codes and standards. It also determines the number of shear

University of British Columbia connectors required to ensure composite action is achieved. As

such, the spreadsheet developed for this project can be used as an

By: Nazli Azimikor efficient design tool that is easy to follow and document. The

41055021 complementary Visual Basic software was developed based on the

same procedures used in the spreadsheet and outputs the same

cross-sectional properties. Therefore, it is a great analysis tool that

Date: April 24, 2010 allows the rapid evaluation of cross-sectional properties for cases

in which a number of iterations are required.

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Table of Contents

Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks ................................... 1

Abstract ....................................................................................... 1

Table of Contents ............................................................................ 2

Table of Figures .............................................................................. 2

1.0 Introduction ............................................................................... 3

2.0 Background ............................................................................... 3

3.0 Statement of the Problem and the Solution Approach .............. 4

4.0 Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet .................................................... 5

4.1 Calculation of Specified and Factored Loads ....................... 6

4.2 Analysis and Design Procedure ............................................ 6

5.0 Visual Basic Analysis Tool..................................................... 12

5.1 Limitations on the Use of the Visual Basic Analysis Tool . 13

5.2 Program Set-Up .................................................................. 13

6.0 Conclusion .............................................................................. 15

7.0 Bibliography ........................................................................... 16

Appendix A: Visual Basic Code ............................................... 17

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Composite T-Beam cross section . Error! Bookmark not

defined.

Figure 2: Stress distribution along member's width and equivalent

width. .............................................................................................. 7

Figure 3: The possible locations of neutral ..................................... 8

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

1.0 Introduction analysis, complementary visual basic software has also been

Design of composite steel and concrete structures has become an developed that calculates important section properties upon the

essential component of engineering due to the widely popular use click of a button.

of the two materials in construction. Applications of design with

composite sections range from buildings, to bridges, to This report provides a general overview of the theory behind

foundations, and to special structures. composite design and construction. The approach taken to develop

the above design tools is discussed. Thereafter, an overview of the

The high tensile resistance of steel and the compression strength of step-by-step design procedure outlined in the spreadsheet is

concrete complement each other in construction and their provided, followed by a detailed description of the methods used in

combination makes for highly efficient design. Therefore, steel- implementing the complementary visual basic software. The

concrete composite sections can be advantageous in that they allow directions for use and the limitations of each tool are also

for use of shallower steel beams in construction, consequently discussed.

reducing the steel weight. The highly efficient cross section also

means stiffer floors and/or decks for the same depth and therefore It is our assumption that the engineer using the spreadsheet and the

increased span. complementary software presented in this project has an adequate

grasp of the fundamentals that govern how composite structures

To ensure composite action between concrete and steel, shear work. As such, the procedures outlined in the subsequent sections

connectors such as Nelson studs are required. Therefore some of are derived mainly by using codes of practice or by the direct

the disadvantages of composite section design can be the extra cost application of prescribed equations as quick design procedures for

of shear connector and their presence as a tripping hazard during composite members.

construction. Also, during service, the vibration of the floor/deck

may sometimes be an issue due to the shallow depth of the 2.0 Background

sections. Finally, design of composite sections requires more Composite structural members are made by joining a steel

engineering time and effort. component to a concrete component. For the purposes of this

project, the composite steel-concrete section for a deck is analyzed.

Therefore, it is worthwhile to develop tools to help with rapid Such a section consists of a steel member, such as a wide flange

analysis and design of steel-concrete sections and to assess the steel beam, connected to a concrete component, such as a floor

usefulness of their application for projects. The objective of this slab. The connections between the materials are created by the use

project is to develop simple and easy to use tools to allow rapid of shear connectors such as Nelson studs, as is shown in figure 1.

engineering calculation and documentation. As such, a spreadsheet

has been developed that takes user input information with regards

to loads and dimensions of the section and performs step-by-step

analysis to aid with design. For the purposes of very quick

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

possible due to various factors such as fatigue, installation,

spacing, etc.

Solution Approach

Composite section design can be a time consuming process with

many steps involved in calculating shear transfer between the

materials and full and partial moment resistance for a given

section. Therefore, a well-laid-out spreadsheet or a computer

program would be an asset to any engineer who completes

composite section design on a regular basis. Although limit state

design requires checks for both ultimate limit state and

Figure 1: Composite T-Beam cross section (Bradford, 1999) serviceability limit state, the focus of this project has been on

ultimate limit states.

When a bending member, such as a floor deck, is subjected to a

positive bending moment, the top face of the member undergoes The project presented here provides the following two

compression stress, while the bottom is subjected to tension. complementary tools for rapid analysis and design of composite

Composite sections are a great way to combine concrete and steel sections:

in constructing highly efficient bending members. High resistance

against positive bending moments is achieved in composite 1. An Excel spreadsheet outlining the step by step analysis

sections because the high strength of concrete in compression procedure to aid with design according to codes and standards

complements that of steel in tension, resulting in resistance to the

2. A visual basic software implemented within Microsoft Excel

internal stresses.

that simply outputs important section properties

The complementary relationship between steel and concrete is

most effective when there is an efficient connection at the interface

Both the Excel worksheet and the Visual Basic software accept

of the two materials. This connection allows for transfer of shear

user input for material properties and sectional dimensions. The

forces at the interface between the materials, hence preventing

Excel worksheet also accepts specified loads and calculates

their vertical separation. In the absence of such a connection, the

factored applied bending moment and shear.

forces developed in one component would not be transferred to the

other component and the section would behave as two separate

members. Note that although calculations may be completed based

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

The main outputs of the spreadsheet and the software herein 1. CISC Sections

presented are the following: 2. Loads

3. User Input

Effective width of concrete slab, b1

4. Analysis

Moment resistance of composite section, Mr, for full and partial

shear transfer Worksheet "CISC Sections" is simply a database of steel sections

Sum of factored resistances of all shear connections, Qr, for 100 that provides section properties for specified steel wide-flange

percent connections members. The user need not utilize this worksheet. Worksheet

Transformed moment of inertia, It

"Loads" accepts user input loads, dimensions and limit states load

factors and determines specified and factored applied bending

Transformed section modulus, St

moments and shear on the member.

In addition to the above outputs, the Excel spreadsheet performs

Worksheet "User Input" accepts material properties, factors, and

checks to ensure conditions during construction are satisfactory

sectional dimensions for the concrete deck, steel beam and shear

and determines the number of shear connectors required.

connectors to be used in analysis and design. The worksheet is set

In the sections that follow, the functions of each tool and their

flange member or a built-up section from a drop-down menu. If a

methods of development are discussed in more detail.

wide-flange section is used, then the worksheet will use the

information from the "CISC Sections" worksheet to automatically

4.0 Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet display section properties of the specified section based on its

To ease with the ease of analysis and design of steel-concrete designation. Another drop-down menu is incorporated to allow the

composite deck sections, and to provide a tool that allows easy and user to specify whether the section is stiffened or not. For the

accurate documentation, a spreadsheet has been developed for this concrete slab, the user is also able to specify whether the concrete

project that takes performs analysis tasks in a stepwise manner. slab was solid, poured on steel deck parallel to ribs or

Within the spreadsheet, the definition of all parameters and the perpendicular to ribs.

symbols used to represent them are given. At each computational

step, the equations used are clearly displayed, and where Worksheet "Analysis" uses the information in the above three

provisional clauses in codes and standards are used, they are worksheets and outlines the analysis and design procedures for the

referenced. composite section in a stepwise manner. Major outputs of this

worksheet are highlighted for clarity. The following section

The Excel spreadsheet developed for this project consists of four explains in detail each analysis step as laid out in this worksheet.

worksheets labeled as follows:

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

4.1 Calculation of Specified and Factored Loads that in calculating the live load, the area reduction factor Rf is

The construction of composite sections consists of the following utilized. This factor which is influenced by the tributary area of the

three major stages: composite deck section, is introduced in NBCC 2005 clause

4.1.5.9.(3) to account for the unlikelihood of the event that the

1. Stage 1: Steel beams/girders are installed entire specified live load is applied at the same location on the

2. Stage 2: Decking and/or formwork is laid above the steel beams roof/floor deck.

and wet concrete is poured

3. Stage 3: Concrete has hardened and acts together with steal Section 17.11 of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) S16-01

requires that the stresses in the tension flange of the steel section

During the first stage, the steel member must have enough capacity due to the loads applied before the concrete strength reaches

to withstand its own weight. At the second stage, the steel member 0.75f'c plus the stresses at the same location due to the remaining

and the concrete slab are still in non-composite action since specified loads considered to act on the composite section shall not

concrete has not yet hardened. As such, the steel member must exceed Fy.

hold up its own weight as well as the live loads during construction

due to the placement of decking/formwork and pouring of the Therefore, moments due to specified loads (unfactored) during

concrete slab. Finally, once concrete has hardened at the third phases 1, 2 and 3 of construction as previously discussed are also

stage, steel member and the concrete slab must resist all specified calculated in this section. These unfactored applied moments are

loads in composite action. then used in combination with the transformed section modulus to

determine stresses during each construction phases. It is then

During stages 1 and 2, the steel beam is treated like a temporary ensured that the sum of these stresses does not exceed the yield

structure. Work Safe B.C. requires that all temporary structures strength of steel.

have capacity to resist a minimum of 2 kPa construction live load.

This construction live load may require the selection of deeper 4.2 Analysis and Design Procedure

steel section for construction purposes even though a shallower In this section, each step of analysis and design as outlined in the

member would suffice once composite action is achieved. This spreadsheet are discussed in detail. The equations and CSA

may be a source of inefficiency in design where shallower references employed at each step are also provided.

members are crucial.

Step 1: Check to ensure steel beam/girder has adequate capacity

The factored applied moment and shear are calculated according to under construction loads

the provisions of National Building Code (NBCC) 2005 and using

the live and dead load factors as appropriate. These factored As was mentioned before, before concrete is poured or hardened,

applied moment and shear are used in the analysis section to assess the steel beams installed act as temporary structural members. The

the strength of the section in composite action. It must be noted

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

moment resistance of the steel section is determined based on its uniformly distributed along the width of the element as shown in

yield strength and its plastic section modulus as follows: Figure 2.

(1)

than the factored bending moment due to construction loads as

previously discussed, then the user must specify a larger steel

beam/girder.

Calculating the section's strength and its properties requires finding

the location of its neutral axis. This is because at the neutral axis,

the section does not experience any strains and therefore, this point

is an important reference point in determining the magnitude and

direction of internal forces and subsequently the section's bending

moment capacity. The sections moment of inertia and section

modulus are also dependent on the location of the neutral axis.

conditions. The location of the neutral axis may vary depending on

the value of the compressive strength of concrete in relation to the

tensile strength of steel. Assuming a rigid-plastic approach, the Figure 2. Stress distribution along the element width and

unfactored axial strength of steel can be determined by multiplying equivalent width

the area of steel in tension, As, by its yield strength, Fy. Similarly,

the compressive strength of concrete is equal to the area of the As can be seen from Figure 2, the actual width of concrete

concrete in compression, Ac, multiplied by the compressive subjected to stress approaches infinity. However, for practical

resistance of concrete, fc. purposes, an equivalent width may be defined over which stresses

However, before the area of concrete in compression can be can be assumed to be uniformly distributed. According to CSA

calculated, the effective width of the concrete slab must first be standard S16-01, section 17.4.1, the effective width of the concrete

determined. The concept of effective width is useful in design of slab in compression in a composite steel-concrete T-beam is taken

composite steel-concrete structures since the stress is non- to be the minimum of one quarter of the length of the concrete

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

member and the span of the member. This effective width is then Step 5: Determine whether the neutral axis is in concrete or in steel

used in the subsequent calculations. section

As mentioned before, the location of the neutral axis can be The location of the neutral axis can be determined through

determined by establishing the location at which equilibrium of comparing the values for Tr and Cr. Figure 3 illustrates the possible

forces is achieved. For this the concept of shear flow is used. locations of the neutral axis in a composite steel-concrete section.

resistance of concrete, Cr, and tensile resistance of steel, Tr, are

calculated based on cross sectional dimensions and material

properties. Tr and Cr are determined using the following two

equations as provided in CSA S16-01 sections 17.9.5 and 17.9.6

respectively:

C f A (2)

T f A (3)

previously determined is used in calculating the area of concrete.

According to CSA S16-01, section 17.9.5, the shear transfer is

taken as the minimum of the two values of Tr and Cr. This logic

allows for the satisfaction of static equilibrium of the cross section,

which requires that compressive and tensile forces be equal and

assumes that the tensile resistance of concrete is negligible. Figure 3: The possible locations of neutral axis (Bradford, 1999)

Therefore, in step 4, the maximum possible shear flow is taken as

the minimum of Tr and Cr. As shown in Figure 3a, if the compressive strength of the concrete

component is greater than the tensile resistance of the steel section,

Having determined the shear flow, it can be determined whether then the shear transferred between the two materials is as much

the neutral axis lies within the concrete slab or the steel section. resistance as the steel can offer and therefore the neutral axis will

This is done in step 5. be in concrete. This is because either there must be more tensile

force available across the cross section of the concrete slab or less

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

compression. Since the tensile resistance of concrete is assumed to If the neutral axis was found to be in concrete, the location of the

be zero, the only available direction for the neutral axis to move, neutral axis relative to the top fibre of the section is determined in

from the steel-concrete interface, to establish static equilibrium is Step 7. If the neutral axis was determined to be in steel, the exact

upward into the concrete. form of the equation of equilibrium and the moment resistance of

the section will depend on whether the neutral axis is in the steel

Similarly, as shown in Figure 3b, if the compressive strength of flange or the steel web. Therefore, if the neutral axis was found to

concrete is smaller than the tensile resistance of the steel section, be in steel, Steps 8a through 8c help determine whether it is in steel

then the shear transferred across the interface will be as much flange or steel web. Steps 9a through 9c, determine the exact

resistance as concrete can offer. Therefore, the neutral axis in this location of the neutral axis, the resulting internal compressive and

case will be in the steel section. tensile forces at the cross-section of the composite member and

their corresponding moment arms. Given the above information

Taking the above concepts into account, Step 5 on the spreadsheet the moment resistance of the section for all three possible locations

identifies whether the neutral axis is in concrete or in steel. Once of the neutral axis; in concrete, in steel flange and in steel web can

this is identified, it becomes easier to find the exact location of the be found respectively.

neutral axis.

In step 10, based on the actual location of the neutral axis

Step 6: Factored horizontal shear force determined in steps 5 and/or 8c, the appropriate moment resistance

of the composite cross-section is chosen and displayed.

Before moving on to finding the exact location of the neutral axis

and subsequently the section's moment resistance, having Once the section bending moment resistance is determined, it is

identified whether the neutral axis is in steel or in concrete, the time to check for total stresses. But before stresses can be found,

amount of horizontal shear force can easily be determined for full the section's transformed moment of inertia and elastic section

or partial shear transfer as follows: modulus must be determined. For this, the location of the centroid

of the section in the vertical direction must first be identified.

C if N. A. in steel

Q (4)

T % shear transfer if N. A. in concrete Steps 11 through 13: Determine the location of the composite

section's centroid in the vertical direction

Step 7 through 10: Find the exact location of neutral axis and

corresponding moment resistance The following general equation is used in order to find the

composite section's centroid:

Whether the neutral axis was found to be in concrete or in steel,

solving the equation of equilibrium for Tr = Cr provides the exact A

y (5)

location of the neutral axis in either case. A

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

first the transformed width of the concrete slab is determined using

the modular ratio. The modular ratio is the ratio of the elastic

When using equation (7), the transformed width of concrete and its

modulus of steel to that of concrete. Depending on whether the

depth in compression must be used. Also, note that di is the

neutral axis was determined to be in concrete or in steel, the

distance between the centroid of each area segment to the centroid

location of centroid is solved using equation (5) with the

of the section.

appropriate depth of concrete. If the neutral axis is in steel, solving

equation (5) is simple since the entire cross section of concrete and

Step 15: Transformed section modulus of the composite section

steel provide compression resistance. However, if the neutral axis

is in concrete, only the portion of the concrete slab in compression

In this step, the transformed section modulus is determined using

provides resistance. This is because for simplicity concrete tensile

the calculated transformed moment of inertia and the centroid of

resistance is assumed to be zero. In this case, the centroid of the

the section as follows:

section in the vertical direction could be solved for using the

following equation: I

S (8)

A

d t h x (6)

A The transformed section modulus is used to calculate the applied

stresses on the composite section in the steps that follow.

where x is the depth of concrete in compression. In the spreadsheet

for this project, x is solved for using the Excel Solver Add-in Step 16: Check of total stresses

feature. Step 13 displays the appropriate centroid of the section as

calculated above based on the previously determined location of As mentioned previously, section 17.11 of CSA S16-01 requires

the neutral axis. This location of the centroid is then used in that the sum of specified stresses during the three phases of

determining the sections transformed moment of inertia and construction be less than the specified yield strength of steel. In

section modulus. this step, the stresses during phases 1 and 2, where composite

action between steel and concrete has not yet been achieved, are

Step 14: Transformed moment of inertia of the composite section determined by dividing the applied moment resistance on the

temporary structure by the elastic section modulus of steel. The

Once the location of the centroid of the composite section has been stress on the composite action, which is achieved once the concrete

determined, the transformed moment of inertia of section can be slab has hardened, is determined by dividing the maximum total

determined from first principals and parallel axis theorem as applied moment by the transformed section modulus. If the sum of

follows: stresses is greater than Fy, then a warning message is displayed for

the user's consideration.

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Steps 17 through 25: Check shear capacity The load at which the web buckles in shear depends on both and

Since the spreadsheet allows the user to specify wide flange beams the aspect ratio, , which is the ratio of stiffener spacing to web

or built-up sections, before determining the shear capacity of the height. The aspect ratio of the section is calculated in Step 18.

section, its slenderness ratio must be checked. This is to ensure that

the cross section does not buckle before reaching its shear In Steps 19 and 20, the shear buckling coefficient, kv, and the

capacity. To prevent this from happening, clause 14.3.1 of the CSA aspect coefficient, ka, are determined based on the calculated value

S16-01 specifies a maximum slenderness ratio of , for of aspect ratio, respectively given the following equations as

F provided in CSA S16-01 section 13.4.1.1:

webs of beams and girders, where Fy is the specified minimum

yield point of the compression flange steel. 4

.

a

if h 1

k a (9)

In cases where the section is found to be slender, its shear capacity 5.34 if h 1

of can be improved and the onset of buckling delayed through the

addition of stiffeners.

k (10)

Considering the above, the slenderness ratio of the web is

calculated in Step 17 and a warning message is displayed if web

buckling is determined to be an issue. The user may choose to As can be seen from equation (9), for unstiffened beams and

change the design if the web slenderness becomes an issue. girders the shear buckling coefficient is equal to 5.34 since the

stiffener spacing is assumed to approach infinity.

It must be kept in mind, however, that the web of a slender girder

can carry loads even after it has buckled inelastically in shear. The shear buckling coefficient is then used to determine elastic and

Shear buckling is characterized by diagonal tension strands in the inelastic critical plate buckling stress in shear, Fcre and Fcri,

web. The diagonal pattern of shear buckles allows the development respectively, in Step 21 according to the following two equations

of zones of tension called tension fields. The shear strength respectively, as set forth in CSA S16-01 section 13.4.1.1:

arising from the tension-field action in the web develops a band of

tensile forces that occur after the web has buckled under diagonal

290 (11)

compression. Equilibrium is maintained by the transfer of forces to

the vertical stiffeners. As the girder load increases, the angle of

tension field changes to accommodate the greatest carrying (12)

capacity. The longitudinal component of the tension field must be

transmitted to the flange in the adjacent panel.

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

The above information is used in Step 22 to calculate the value of and 27 the area of shear studs and the concrete pull-out area are

shear stress, Fs, based on equations (a) through (d) of S16-01 calculated based on user input values for stud diameter and height.

clause 13.4.1.1 depending on the range within which the In Step 28, the factored shear resistance per stud in concrete is

slenderness ratio, , falls as follows: determined based on type of slab specified. In Step 29, the factored

shear resistance of each stud is determined based on their cross

h k sectional area and ultimate capacity using the following equation

F 0.66F if 439

w F given in CSA S16-01 clause 17.7.2.1:

F k k h k

F 290 if 439 502 0.5 A f E

h

w F w F q smaller of (14)

A F

k h k

F F k 0.5F 0.866 F if 502 621 Then, the number shear studs required is determined by dividing

F w F

the horizontal shear force determined in step 6 by the stud shear

k h capacity as determined above.

F F k 0.5F 0.866 F if 621

F w

Finally, in Step 24, the shear resistance of the cross section is 5.0 Visual Basic Analysis Tool

determined according to section 13.4.1 of S16-01 using the Although the spreadsheet discussed in section 4 is a very useful

following equation: analysis and design tool, it may not be very practical to use for

very quick checks of cross section properties. When sectional

V A F (13) moment resistance and properties are needed to be accessed very

quickly, it is often more practical to refer to tables or other rapid

where Aw is the area of steel web calculated in Step 23. In Step 25, access information tools. Tables with sectional properties of

the shear resistance of the section is compared with the factored composite decks can be found in the Handbook of Steel

applied shear and a warning message is displayed if the applied Construction. However, it may be useful to have a tool that allows

shear exceeds shear resistance of the section. a more flexible selection of sectional dimensions and/or material

properties. The complementary Visual Basic tool provided for this

Steps 26 through 32: project allows quick calculation of important section properties for

user specified section dimensions and material strengths.

To ensure that composite action is achieved, shear flow must be

transferred from the concrete slab to the steel section. This is why The proceeding sections provide a background on the assumptions

shear connectors, such as Nelson Studs are used to connect the based on which the complementary Visual Basic analysis tool was

concrete deck to the steel beams or girders. Therefore, in Steps 26 developed. Detailed descriptions of the methods used to create the

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

analysis tool are also given. Following similar procedures as in the dimensions and material properties of both steel and concrete

previous section this software calculates the shear transfer across components of the composite deck.

the interface of a user-specified composite steel-concrete deck

section, determines the moment resistance of the section for 100, The software operator, Visual Basic Application (VBA)

70, and 40 percent shear transfer, and calculates the cross section's subroutine, implemented as part of the spreadsheet, is called

transformed moment of inertia and elastic section modulus. CompositeSection() and its main function consists of the following

three components:

5.1 Limitations on the Use of the Visual Basic 1. Extract the user-input data and assign them to appropriate

Analysis Tool variables defined publicly in the subroutine

As is the case with any engineering software, the person using the 2. Call upon various functions to calculate all necessary values

composite section program for analysis must fully understand the to determine shear transfer, moment resistance for full and

fundamentals and methodologies used in the calculations. The partial shear transfer, transformed moment of inertia and

results obtained from engineering software should never be taken transformed section modulus

to be flawless; the user must have at least an idea of what results 3. Output the results at the user interface

are to be expected, and sample verifying calculations should

always be completed. The remainder of the VBA module created for this tool contains

several functions that will appropriately be called upon by the

The composite design program provided as part of this assignment operator subroutine CompositeSection().

is limited in that it assumes linear elastic-perfectly plastic

behaviour of both the steel and concrete. It also calculates the The first of such functions in the VBA module is called

transformed moment of inertia and section modulus based on 100 AreaSteel(). This function simply calculates the total area of the

percent shear connection. Moreover, the area of steel is calculated steel section according to the dimensions specified by the user. The

based on the assumption that the steel section can be divided into value of the area of steel returned by this function is used in the

perfectly rectangular segments. When using the program for main subroutine, other functions and is also output at the user

analysis, the user must keep these limitations of the program in interface.

mind.

Function EffecitveWidth() takes the values for the length and span

of the concrete member, as provided by the user, and through the

procedure described in section 4.2 determines the effective width

5.2 Program Set-Up

of concrete in compression.

The user interface for the complementary visual basic tool is a

spreadsheet designed to receive the user input for section

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Function AreaConc() determines the total area of the concrete extends from the centroid of the area of concrete in compression to

based on the provided thickness of concrete slab and the previously the centroid of the steel section.

calculated effective width.

Function NAinSteel() takes two parameters; the first parameter is

Function Shear() compares the values calculated for tensile the percentage of shear transfer and the second parameter is the

resistance of steel and compressive resistance of concrete and total area of the steel cross section. This function is designed to

determines the necessary shear transfer based on the procedure calculate moment resistance for full or partial shear transfer.

described in step 4 of section 4.2. This function returns the value

for Qr, and is later called upon by other functions as well as the First, function NAinSteel() determines the area of steel in

main subroutine in determining horizontal shear and the location of compression, Asc, in a similar fashion as described in section 4.2

neutral axis. The value of Qr then is also output at the user step 8.

interface.

Once the area of steel in compression is determined, the function

If function Shear() determines that shear flow, Qr, is equal to Tr NAinSteel() compares this value to the area of one steel flange.

(i.e. the case in which Tr<Cr) then, the main subroutine, This will determine whether the neutral axis is in the steel flange or

CompositeSection(), calls upon function NAinConcrete() to return the steel web. This function will then call upon one of two

the value of the composite sections moment resistance. This functions NAinSteelWeb() or NAinSteelFlange() accordingly.

function calculates moment resistance by assuming 100 percent

shear transfer and that the neutral axis is in the concrete. Function NAinSteelFlange() takes the area of steel in compression,

Asc, and the percentage of shear transfer as its parameters. It then

Alternatively, if the shear flow determined by function Shear() is determines the distance to the neutral axis from the top of the

equal to Cr (i.e. the case in which Tr>Cr) then, the main subroutine, flange based on the area of steel in compression and the user input

CompositeSection(), calls upon function NAinSteel() to return the for flange width.

value of the sections moment resistance, assuming, this time. that

the neutral axis is the steel. At this point, Function NAinSteelFlange() calculates the moment

arm for each compressive or tensile resistance with respect to the

Function NAinConcrete() determines the location of the neutral bottom of the section. This function will then calculate the

axis in concrete through the following simplified equation: compressive resistance in concrete as the full shear transferred, Qr,

multiplied by the function parameter, percentage shear transferred.

a = Tr / (Cr / thickness of concrete) Once this is calculated, the moment due to each force can be

NAinConcrete then simply calculates the moment resistance of the determined. The value returned by this function is the sum of all

section as the couple force Cr and Tr separated by a lever arm that moments calculated.

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Function NAinSteelWeb() follows the exact same procedure used sectional properties of a steel-concrete composite T-beam section

in function NAinSteelFlange(). However, to locate the neutral axis, for purposes of design and analysis. Among information output for

only the web portion of the area of steel in compression is used. the user are the effective width of the concrete slab, the bending

The location to the neutral axis is then determined as its distance moment and shear capacity of the composite section along with its

from the bottom of the top flange. From here, the moment arms transformed moment of inertia and elastic section modulus.

and moments are calculated as before and the sum of the moments These tools provide quick and accurate solutions to calculations

is returned as the final moment resistance. that would normally be tedious to complete by hand. However, as

is true with all engineering software, the user must be familiar with

Function MomentInertia() takes into consideration the location of the fundamental concepts underlying design of composite sections

neutral axis (for the transformed section) and the value returned by and utilize the output of the spreadsheet and the software

the function ybar() and determines the moment of inertia based on judiciously.

methodologies outlined in section 4.2 step 14.

section in the y-axis direction for the transformed section. This

value is dependent on whether the neutral axis is in the concrete, or

in the steel. If the neutral axis was determined to be in the

concrete, the area of concrete not in compression has no effect on

calculating the centroid or transformed moment of intertia.

functions MomentInertia() and function ybar() and returns the

value of section modulus.

Code used in creating the composite section analysis tool.

6.0 Conclusion

this project enable designers to quickly determine important cross-

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

7.0 Bibliography

Bradford, Mark A., Deric J. Oehlers. "Elementary Behaviour of

Composite Steel and Concrete Structural Members." Butterworth-

Heinemann, 1999. 1-15.

Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. "Handbook of Steel

Construction." Toronto, Ontario: Quadratone Graphics Ltd., 2006.

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Appendix A: Visual Basic Code 'Extract necessary data for concrete from the Input worksheet:

Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate

Option Explicit

Range("C4").Select

fi_c = ActiveCell.Value 'assign strength

'decalre public steel properties to be shared among various functions

reduction factor of concrete

Public fi_s As Double

Range("C5").Select

Public fy As Double 'yield strength of steel

alpha = ActiveCell.Value

Public tf As Double 'thickness of flange

Range("C6").Select

Public bf As Double 'flange width

fc = ActiveCell.Value 'assign compressive

Public d As Double 'overall depth of steel

strength of concrete (MPa)

Public tw As Double 'thickness of web

Range("E4").Select

Public Asteel As Double 'Area of Steel

t = ActiveCell.Value 'assign thickness of

concrete

'declare public concrete properties to be shared among various functions

Range("E3").Select

Public fc As Double 'compressive strength of

h = ActiveCell.Value 'assign thickness of

concrete

concrete

Public fi_c As Double

Public alpha As Double 'usually equals 0.85

Public t As Double 'thickness of the

concrete section

Public S As Double

'Extract necessary data for steel from the Input worksheet:

Public L As Double

Range("E7").Select

Public beff As Double

tw = ActiveCell.Value

Public Aconc As Double 'Area of Concrete

Range("E8").Select

bf = ActiveCell.Value

Public Cr As Double 'compression resistance

Range("E9").Select

Public Tr As Double 'tensile resistance

tf = ActiveCell.Value

Public Qr As Double 'shear flow

Range("C7").Select

Public A As Double 'distance from the top of the

fi_s = ActiveCell.Value 'assign strength reduction factor

compression zone to the neutral axis

for steel

Public h As Double 'deck thickness

Range("C8").Select

Public Es As Double 'Modulus of elasticity of steel

fy = ActiveCell.Value 'assign Yield strength of steel

Range("E10").Select

Sub CompositeSection()

d = ActiveCell.Value 'assign Total depth of steel

section

Dim Asteel As Double 'Asteel=total area of steel

Range("C9").Select

section

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

section 'Output the shear transfer on cell F17 in kN

Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate

'Call function AreaSteel to calculate total area of Steel ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 6) = Qr / 1000

Asteel = AreaSteel()

Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate

ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 1) = Asteel 'Output the calculated area of steel 'Calculate the Moment resistance Mr for 100% shear transfer

on the worksheet Dim Mrc100 As Double

'If the shear flow calculated earlier was equal to Tr then N.A. is in

'Calculate the maximum tension developed in steel if all steel was in concrete

tension If Qr = Tr Then

Tr = fi_s * fy * Asteel

'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate Mrc100 = NAinConcrete()

'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 6) = Tr 'Output the calculated Tr on the Else

worksheet; checked 'Otherwise the N.A. is in steel and Mrc should be calculated accordingly

Mrc100 = NAinSteel(1, Asteel)

Range("E5").Select End If

L = ActiveCell.Value 'Concrete Length

Range("E6").Select 'Output the Mrc for 100% shear transfer

S = ActiveCell.Value 'Concrete span Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate

ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 3) = Mrc100 'checked

'calculate effective width of concrete according to S16-01

beff = EffectiveWidth() Dim Mrc70 As Double

'output the effective depth calculated in cell B2 'Calculate the Moment resistance Mr for 70% shear transfer

Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate Mrc70 = NAinSteel(0.7, Asteel)

ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 2) = beff 'Output the Mrc for 100% shear transfer

Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate

'calculate the maximum compression developed in concrete if all ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 4) = Mrc70 'checked

concrete was in compression

Cr = fi_c * alpha * fc * AreaConc() Dim Mrc40 As Double

'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate 'Calculate the Moment resistance Mr for 70% shear transfer

'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 7) = Cr 'Output the calculated Tr on the Mrc40 = NAinSteel(0.4, Asteel)

worksheet; checked 'Output the Mrc for 100% shear transfer

Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate

'Call upon function Shear to compare value of Cr and Tr and return a ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 5) = Mrc40

value for shear transfer, Qr

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 7) = MomentInertia() / 1000000 'also (0.85*fi_c*fc*beff)=Cr/tc

ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 8) = SectionModulus() / 1000

A = Tr / (Cr / t)

End Sub

Dim e As Double 'lever arm for the couple moment

Public Function AreaSteel() 'calculate e

'calculate area of steel e = t + h + (d / 2) - (A / 2)

AreaSteel = (2 * tf * bf) + (tw) * (d - (2 * tf)) 'Moment resistance = Tr * e (kN.m)

End Function NAinConcrete = Tr * e / 10 ^ 6

'calculate effective width of concrete according to S16-01

If (L / 4) < S Then Function NAinSteel(PercentageShear As Double, Area As Double) As

EffectiveWidth = L / 4 Double

Else

EffectiveWidth = S Dim Asc As Double

End If Dim Af As Double

End Function

If Qr = Tr Then

Public Function AreaConc() As Double 'if Qr=Tr then for the incomplete shear transfer the Area of steel in

'calculate area of concrete compression simplifies to

AreaConc = beff * t

End Function Asc = 0.5 * (1 - PercentageShear) * Area 'Area of steel in

compression for Qr=Tr

Public Function shear() As Double 'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate

'Qr=min of (Tr & Cr) 'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 9) = 1 - PercentageShear 'checked

If Cr < Tr Then 'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate

shear = Cr 'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 8) = Asc 'checked

Else

shear = Tr Else 'if Qr=Cr then the N.A. was in the steel to begin with and it

End If remains in the steel

End Function 'simplified calculations for

Asc = (Tr - Cr * PercentageShear) / (2 * fi_s * fy) 'Area of steel in

Function NAinConcrete() As Double compression for Qr = Cr

'calculate a

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

End If Aw = tw * (d - (2 * tf))

Cw = d / 2

'calculate area of one of the steel flanges Af2 = Af1 - Area

Af = bf * tf Cf2 = d - (tf / 2) - (x / 2)

'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate Cf3 = d - (x / 2)

'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 10) = Af 'checked V = Qr * Percentage 'shear transferred in concrete is the

'compare the area of steel in compression Asc percentage of total Q

'if the area of steel in compression is less than the area of one flange, then CC = t / 2 + d + h

N.A. is in the flange

Dim Mr1 As Double

If Asc <= Af Then

Dim Mr2 As Double

NAinSteel = NAinSteelFlange(Asc, PercentageShear)

Dim Mr3 As Double

Else

Dim Mr4 As Double

'otherwise the N.A. is in the steel web

Dim Mr5 As Double

NAinSteel = NAinSteelWeb(Asc, PercentageShear)

'Calculate each individual moment

End If

Mr1 = (fi_s * fy * Af1 * Cf1) / 10 ^ 6

End Function

Mr2 = (fi_s * fy * Aw * Cw) / 10 ^ 6

Mr3 = (fi_s * fy * Af2 * Cf2) / 10 ^ 6

Function NAinSteelFlange(Area As Double, Percentage As Double) As

Mr4 = (fi_s * fy * Area * Cf3) / 10 ^ 6

Double

Mr5 = (V * CC) / 10 ^ 6

'Declare variables to calculate individual areas and their centroids

'take the sum of moments acting on the cross section about the bottom of

Dim x As Double 'distance from the top of top flange to

the steel

NA

NAinSteelFlange = Abs(Mr1 + Mr2 + Mr3 - Mr4 - Mr5)

Dim Af1 As Double 'Area of each flange (bottom flange)

Dim Cf1 As Double 'Centroid of bottom flange

End Function

Dim Aw As Double 'Area of web

Dim Cw As Double 'centroid of web

Function NAinSteelWeb(Area As Double, Percentage As Double) As

Dim Af2 As Double 'Area of the part of top flange in tension

Double

Dim Cf2 As Double 'Centroid of tension part of top flange

'Declare variables to calculate individual areas and their centroids

Dim Cf3 As Double 'Centroid of part of top flange in

Dim x As Double 'distance from the top of top flange to

compression

NA

Dim V As Double 'Total shear force transferred

Dim Af1 As Double 'Area of each flange (bottom flange)

Dim CC As Double 'Centroid of concrete in compression

Dim Cf1 As Double 'Centroid of bottom flange

Dim Aw1 As Double 'Area of web in compression

x = Area / bf

Dim Cw1 As Double 'centroid of web in compression

Af1 = tf * bf

Dim Aw2 As Double 'Area of web in tension

Cf1 = tf / 2

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Dim Af2 As Double 'Area of the part of top flange in tension

Dim Cf2 As Double 'Centroid of tension part of top flange Public Function MomentInertia() As Double

Dim Cf3 As Double 'Centroid of part of top flange in

compression Dim n As Double

Dim V As Double 'Total shear force transferred Dim btr As Double

Dim CC As Double 'Centroid of concrete in compression Dim dweb As Double

Dim y As Double

Af1 = tf * bf Dim c As Double

Cf1 = tf / 2 Dim ybar As Double

Af2 = tf * bf

Cf2 = d - (tf / 2) n = Es / 4500 / Sqr(fc)

x = (Area - Af1) / tw btr = beff / n

Aw2 = tw * x dweb = d - 2 * tf

Cw2 = d - tf - (x / 2)

Aw1 = tw * (d - (2 * tf) - x) y = (t * btr * (d + h + t / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel() + btr * t)

Cw1 = tf + 0.5 * (d - (2 * tf) - x)

V = Qr * Percentage 'shear transferred in concrete is the If y > d Then

percentage of total Q

CC = t / 2 + d + h c = -AreaSteel() / btr / 3 + Sqr(AreaSteel() ^ 2 + 6 * btr * AreaSteel()

* (d / 2 + h + t)) / btr / 3

Dim Mr1 As Double ybar = (c * btr * (d + h + t - c / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel()

Dim Mr2 As Double + btr * c)

Dim Mr3 As Double MomentInertia = 2 * bf * tf ^ 3 / 12 _

Dim Mr4 As Double + bf * tf * (ybar - tf / 2) ^ 2 _

Dim Mr5 As Double + tw * dweb ^ 3 / 12 _

'Calculate each individual moment + tw * dweb * (d / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 _

Mr1 = (fi_s * fy * Af1 * Cf1) / 10 ^ 6 + bf * tf * (d - tf / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 _

Mr2 = (fi_s * fy * Aw1 * Cw1) / 10 ^ 6 + btr * c ^ 3 / 12 _

Mr3 = (fi_s * fy * Af2 * Cf2) / 10 ^ 6 + btr * c * (d + t + h - c / 2 - ybar) ^ 2

Mr4 = (fi_s * fy * Aw2 * Cw2) / 10 ^ 6

Mr5 = (V * CC) / 10 ^ 6 Else

'take the sum of moments acting on the cross section about the bottom of ybar = (t * btr * (d + h + t / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel() +

the steel btr * t)

MomentInertia = 2 * bf * tf ^ 3 / 12 _

NAinSteelWeb = Abs(Mr1 + Mr2 - Mr3 - Mr4 - Mr5) + bf * tf * (ybar - tf / 2) ^ 2 _

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

+ bf * tf * (d - tf / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 _ Public Function SectionModulus()

+ btr * t ^ 3 / 12 _

+ btr * t * (d + h + t / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 Dim c As Double

End If c = d + h + t - ybar()

SectionModulus = MomentInertia() / ybar()

Public Function ybar() As Double Else

SectionModulus = MomentInertia() / c

Dim n As Double End If

Dim btr As Double

Dim dweb As Double End Function

Dim y As Double

Dim c As Double

n = Es / 4500 / Sqr(fc)

btr = beff / n

If y > d Then

* (d / 2 + h + t)) / btr / 3

ybar = (c * btr * (d + h + t - c / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel()

+ btr * c)

Else

btr * t)

End If

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

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