Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Abstract
The efficiency and structural performance of steel-concrete decks
Design of Steel-Concrete is highly improved in composite action. This is because the high
tensile resistance of steel complements the compression strength of
Composite Decks concrete in bending.

Composite steel-concrete floor decks are typically constructed by


connecting steel girders with concrete slabs by means of shear
connectors such as Nelson studs. As such, they may be analyzed
and designed as composite T-beams based on principals of
structural mechanics.

The objective of this project is to produce a tool for the rapid


evaluation of applied loads and analysis of member bending
moment and shear capacity based on user-specified loads, member
sizes and material strengths. For this purpose, a spreadsheet and a
complementary Visual Basic software tool have been developed.
The spreadsheet accepts information about the applied loads, the
dimensions of the floor, member sizes and material strengths and
strength factors from the user. Given the above information, the
spreadsheet then calculates cross-sectional properties such as the
location of neutral axis, the section's transformed moment of
inertia and section modulus, as well as its bending moment and
For: Dr. Stiemer shear capacity in a step-by-step procedure according to established
CIVL 510 codes and standards. It also determines the number of shear
University of British Columbia connectors required to ensure composite action is achieved. As
such, the spreadsheet developed for this project can be used as an
By: Nazli Azimikor efficient design tool that is easy to follow and document. The
41055021 complementary Visual Basic software was developed based on the
same procedures used in the spreadsheet and outputs the same
cross-sectional properties. Therefore, it is a great analysis tool that
Date: April 24, 2010 allows the rapid evaluation of cross-sectional properties for cases
in which a number of iterations are required.

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 1 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Table of Contents
Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks ................................... 1
Abstract ....................................................................................... 1
Table of Contents ............................................................................ 2
Table of Figures .............................................................................. 2
1.0 Introduction ............................................................................... 3
2.0 Background ............................................................................... 3
3.0 Statement of the Problem and the Solution Approach .............. 4
4.0 Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet .................................................... 5
4.1 Calculation of Specified and Factored Loads ....................... 6
4.2 Analysis and Design Procedure ............................................ 6
5.0 Visual Basic Analysis Tool..................................................... 12
5.1 Limitations on the Use of the Visual Basic Analysis Tool . 13
5.2 Program Set-Up .................................................................. 13
6.0 Conclusion .............................................................................. 15
7.0 Bibliography ........................................................................... 16
Appendix A: Visual Basic Code ............................................... 17

Table of Figures
Figure 1: Composite T-Beam cross section . Error! Bookmark not
defined.
Figure 2: Stress distribution along member's width and equivalent
width. .............................................................................................. 7
Figure 3: The possible locations of neutral ..................................... 8

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 2 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

1.0 Introduction analysis, complementary visual basic software has also been
Design of composite steel and concrete structures has become an developed that calculates important section properties upon the
essential component of engineering due to the widely popular use click of a button.
of the two materials in construction. Applications of design with
composite sections range from buildings, to bridges, to This report provides a general overview of the theory behind
foundations, and to special structures. composite design and construction. The approach taken to develop
the above design tools is discussed. Thereafter, an overview of the
The high tensile resistance of steel and the compression strength of step-by-step design procedure outlined in the spreadsheet is
concrete complement each other in construction and their provided, followed by a detailed description of the methods used in
combination makes for highly efficient design. Therefore, steel- implementing the complementary visual basic software. The
concrete composite sections can be advantageous in that they allow directions for use and the limitations of each tool are also
for use of shallower steel beams in construction, consequently discussed.
reducing the steel weight. The highly efficient cross section also
means stiffer floors and/or decks for the same depth and therefore It is our assumption that the engineer using the spreadsheet and the
increased span. complementary software presented in this project has an adequate
grasp of the fundamentals that govern how composite structures
To ensure composite action between concrete and steel, shear work. As such, the procedures outlined in the subsequent sections
connectors such as Nelson studs are required. Therefore some of are derived mainly by using codes of practice or by the direct
the disadvantages of composite section design can be the extra cost application of prescribed equations as quick design procedures for
of shear connector and their presence as a tripping hazard during composite members.
construction. Also, during service, the vibration of the floor/deck
may sometimes be an issue due to the shallow depth of the 2.0 Background
sections. Finally, design of composite sections requires more Composite structural members are made by joining a steel
engineering time and effort. component to a concrete component. For the purposes of this
project, the composite steel-concrete section for a deck is analyzed.
Therefore, it is worthwhile to develop tools to help with rapid Such a section consists of a steel member, such as a wide flange
analysis and design of steel-concrete sections and to assess the steel beam, connected to a concrete component, such as a floor
usefulness of their application for projects. The objective of this slab. The connections between the materials are created by the use
project is to develop simple and easy to use tools to allow rapid of shear connectors such as Nelson studs, as is shown in figure 1.
engineering calculation and documentation. As such, a spreadsheet
has been developed that takes user input information with regards
to loads and dimensions of the section and performs step-by-step
analysis to aid with design. For the purposes of very quick

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 3 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

on the assumption of 100 percent shear connection, this may not be


possible due to various factors such as fatigue, installation,
spacing, etc.

3.0 Statement of the Problem and the


Solution Approach
Composite section design can be a time consuming process with
many steps involved in calculating shear transfer between the
materials and full and partial moment resistance for a given
section. Therefore, a well-laid-out spreadsheet or a computer
program would be an asset to any engineer who completes
composite section design on a regular basis. Although limit state
design requires checks for both ultimate limit state and
Figure 1: Composite T-Beam cross section (Bradford, 1999) serviceability limit state, the focus of this project has been on
ultimate limit states.
When a bending member, such as a floor deck, is subjected to a
positive bending moment, the top face of the member undergoes The project presented here provides the following two
compression stress, while the bottom is subjected to tension. complementary tools for rapid analysis and design of composite
Composite sections are a great way to combine concrete and steel sections:
in constructing highly efficient bending members. High resistance
against positive bending moments is achieved in composite 1. An Excel spreadsheet outlining the step by step analysis
sections because the high strength of concrete in compression procedure to aid with design according to codes and standards
complements that of steel in tension, resulting in resistance to the
2. A visual basic software implemented within Microsoft Excel
internal stresses.
that simply outputs important section properties
The complementary relationship between steel and concrete is
most effective when there is an efficient connection at the interface
Both the Excel worksheet and the Visual Basic software accept
of the two materials. This connection allows for transfer of shear
user input for material properties and sectional dimensions. The
forces at the interface between the materials, hence preventing
Excel worksheet also accepts specified loads and calculates
their vertical separation. In the absence of such a connection, the
factored applied bending moment and shear.
forces developed in one component would not be transferred to the
other component and the section would behave as two separate
members. Note that although calculations may be completed based

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 4 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

The main outputs of the spreadsheet and the software herein 1. CISC Sections
presented are the following: 2. Loads
3. User Input
Effective width of concrete slab, b1
4. Analysis
Moment resistance of composite section, Mr, for full and partial
shear transfer Worksheet "CISC Sections" is simply a database of steel sections
Sum of factored resistances of all shear connections, Qr, for 100 that provides section properties for specified steel wide-flange
percent connections members. The user need not utilize this worksheet. Worksheet
Transformed moment of inertia, It
"Loads" accepts user input loads, dimensions and limit states load
factors and determines specified and factored applied bending
Transformed section modulus, St
moments and shear on the member.
In addition to the above outputs, the Excel spreadsheet performs
Worksheet "User Input" accepts material properties, factors, and
checks to ensure conditions during construction are satisfactory
sectional dimensions for the concrete deck, steel beam and shear
and determines the number of shear connectors required.
connectors to be used in analysis and design. The worksheet is set

up as to allow the user to specify whether the steel beam is a wide


In the sections that follow, the functions of each tool and their
flange member or a built-up section from a drop-down menu. If a
methods of development are discussed in more detail.
wide-flange section is used, then the worksheet will use the
information from the "CISC Sections" worksheet to automatically
4.0 Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet display section properties of the specified section based on its
To ease with the ease of analysis and design of steel-concrete designation. Another drop-down menu is incorporated to allow the
composite deck sections, and to provide a tool that allows easy and user to specify whether the section is stiffened or not. For the
accurate documentation, a spreadsheet has been developed for this concrete slab, the user is also able to specify whether the concrete
project that takes performs analysis tasks in a stepwise manner. slab was solid, poured on steel deck parallel to ribs or
Within the spreadsheet, the definition of all parameters and the perpendicular to ribs.
symbols used to represent them are given. At each computational
step, the equations used are clearly displayed, and where Worksheet "Analysis" uses the information in the above three
provisional clauses in codes and standards are used, they are worksheets and outlines the analysis and design procedures for the
referenced. composite section in a stepwise manner. Major outputs of this
worksheet are highlighted for clarity. The following section
The Excel spreadsheet developed for this project consists of four explains in detail each analysis step as laid out in this worksheet.
worksheets labeled as follows:

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 5 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

4.1 Calculation of Specified and Factored Loads that in calculating the live load, the area reduction factor Rf is
The construction of composite sections consists of the following utilized. This factor which is influenced by the tributary area of the
three major stages: composite deck section, is introduced in NBCC 2005 clause
4.1.5.9.(3) to account for the unlikelihood of the event that the
1. Stage 1: Steel beams/girders are installed entire specified live load is applied at the same location on the
2. Stage 2: Decking and/or formwork is laid above the steel beams roof/floor deck.
and wet concrete is poured
3. Stage 3: Concrete has hardened and acts together with steal Section 17.11 of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) S16-01
requires that the stresses in the tension flange of the steel section
During the first stage, the steel member must have enough capacity due to the loads applied before the concrete strength reaches
to withstand its own weight. At the second stage, the steel member 0.75f'c plus the stresses at the same location due to the remaining
and the concrete slab are still in non-composite action since specified loads considered to act on the composite section shall not
concrete has not yet hardened. As such, the steel member must exceed Fy.
hold up its own weight as well as the live loads during construction
due to the placement of decking/formwork and pouring of the Therefore, moments due to specified loads (unfactored) during
concrete slab. Finally, once concrete has hardened at the third phases 1, 2 and 3 of construction as previously discussed are also
stage, steel member and the concrete slab must resist all specified calculated in this section. These unfactored applied moments are
loads in composite action. then used in combination with the transformed section modulus to
determine stresses during each construction phases. It is then
During stages 1 and 2, the steel beam is treated like a temporary ensured that the sum of these stresses does not exceed the yield
structure. Work Safe B.C. requires that all temporary structures strength of steel.
have capacity to resist a minimum of 2 kPa construction live load.
This construction live load may require the selection of deeper 4.2 Analysis and Design Procedure
steel section for construction purposes even though a shallower In this section, each step of analysis and design as outlined in the
member would suffice once composite action is achieved. This spreadsheet are discussed in detail. The equations and CSA
may be a source of inefficiency in design where shallower references employed at each step are also provided.
members are crucial.
Step 1: Check to ensure steel beam/girder has adequate capacity
The factored applied moment and shear are calculated according to under construction loads
the provisions of National Building Code (NBCC) 2005 and using
the live and dead load factors as appropriate. These factored As was mentioned before, before concrete is poured or hardened,
applied moment and shear are used in the analysis section to assess the steel beams installed act as temporary structural members. The
the strength of the section in composite action. It must be noted

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 6 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

moment resistance of the steel section is determined based on its uniformly distributed along the width of the element as shown in
yield strength and its plastic section modulus as follows: Figure 2.

(1)

If the steel section's moment capacity as determined above is lower


than the factored bending moment due to construction loads as
previously discussed, then the user must specify a larger steel
beam/girder.

Next, section properties in composite action must be determined.


Calculating the section's strength and its properties requires finding
the location of its neutral axis. This is because at the neutral axis,
the section does not experience any strains and therefore, this point
is an important reference point in determining the magnitude and
direction of internal forces and subsequently the section's bending
moment capacity. The sections moment of inertia and section
modulus are also dependent on the location of the neutral axis.

The neutral axis can be located by satisfying equilibrium


conditions. The location of the neutral axis may vary depending on
the value of the compressive strength of concrete in relation to the
tensile strength of steel. Assuming a rigid-plastic approach, the Figure 2. Stress distribution along the element width and
unfactored axial strength of steel can be determined by multiplying equivalent width
the area of steel in tension, As, by its yield strength, Fy. Similarly,
the compressive strength of concrete is equal to the area of the As can be seen from Figure 2, the actual width of concrete
concrete in compression, Ac, multiplied by the compressive subjected to stress approaches infinity. However, for practical
resistance of concrete, fc. purposes, an equivalent width may be defined over which stresses
However, before the area of concrete in compression can be can be assumed to be uniformly distributed. According to CSA
calculated, the effective width of the concrete slab must first be standard S16-01, section 17.4.1, the effective width of the concrete
determined. The concept of effective width is useful in design of slab in compression in a composite steel-concrete T-beam is taken
composite steel-concrete structures since the stress is non- to be the minimum of one quarter of the length of the concrete

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 7 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

member and the span of the member. This effective width is then Step 5: Determine whether the neutral axis is in concrete or in steel
used in the subsequent calculations. section

As mentioned before, the location of the neutral axis can be The location of the neutral axis can be determined through
determined by establishing the location at which equilibrium of comparing the values for Tr and Cr. Figure 3 illustrates the possible
forces is achieved. For this the concept of shear flow is used. locations of the neutral axis in a composite steel-concrete section.

Steps 2 through 4: Determine the shear transfer

Assuming 100 percent shear connection, the compressive


resistance of concrete, Cr, and tensile resistance of steel, Tr, are
calculated based on cross sectional dimensions and material
properties. Tr and Cr are determined using the following two
equations as provided in CSA S16-01 sections 17.9.5 and 17.9.6
respectively:

C f A (2)
T f A (3)

When using equation (2), the effective width of concrete


previously determined is used in calculating the area of concrete.
According to CSA S16-01, section 17.9.5, the shear transfer is
taken as the minimum of the two values of Tr and Cr. This logic
allows for the satisfaction of static equilibrium of the cross section,
which requires that compressive and tensile forces be equal and
assumes that the tensile resistance of concrete is negligible. Figure 3: The possible locations of neutral axis (Bradford, 1999)
Therefore, in step 4, the maximum possible shear flow is taken as
the minimum of Tr and Cr. As shown in Figure 3a, if the compressive strength of the concrete
component is greater than the tensile resistance of the steel section,
Having determined the shear flow, it can be determined whether then the shear transferred between the two materials is as much
the neutral axis lies within the concrete slab or the steel section. resistance as the steel can offer and therefore the neutral axis will
This is done in step 5. be in concrete. This is because either there must be more tensile
force available across the cross section of the concrete slab or less

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 8 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

compression. Since the tensile resistance of concrete is assumed to If the neutral axis was found to be in concrete, the location of the
be zero, the only available direction for the neutral axis to move, neutral axis relative to the top fibre of the section is determined in
from the steel-concrete interface, to establish static equilibrium is Step 7. If the neutral axis was determined to be in steel, the exact
upward into the concrete. form of the equation of equilibrium and the moment resistance of
the section will depend on whether the neutral axis is in the steel
Similarly, as shown in Figure 3b, if the compressive strength of flange or the steel web. Therefore, if the neutral axis was found to
concrete is smaller than the tensile resistance of the steel section, be in steel, Steps 8a through 8c help determine whether it is in steel
then the shear transferred across the interface will be as much flange or steel web. Steps 9a through 9c, determine the exact
resistance as concrete can offer. Therefore, the neutral axis in this location of the neutral axis, the resulting internal compressive and
case will be in the steel section. tensile forces at the cross-section of the composite member and
their corresponding moment arms. Given the above information
Taking the above concepts into account, Step 5 on the spreadsheet the moment resistance of the section for all three possible locations
identifies whether the neutral axis is in concrete or in steel. Once of the neutral axis; in concrete, in steel flange and in steel web can
this is identified, it becomes easier to find the exact location of the be found respectively.
neutral axis.
In step 10, based on the actual location of the neutral axis
Step 6: Factored horizontal shear force determined in steps 5 and/or 8c, the appropriate moment resistance
of the composite cross-section is chosen and displayed.
Before moving on to finding the exact location of the neutral axis
and subsequently the section's moment resistance, having Once the section bending moment resistance is determined, it is
identified whether the neutral axis is in steel or in concrete, the time to check for total stresses. But before stresses can be found,
amount of horizontal shear force can easily be determined for full the section's transformed moment of inertia and elastic section
or partial shear transfer as follows: modulus must be determined. For this, the location of the centroid
of the section in the vertical direction must first be identified.
C if N. A. in steel
Q (4)
T % shear transfer if N. A. in concrete Steps 11 through 13: Determine the location of the composite
section's centroid in the vertical direction
Step 7 through 10: Find the exact location of neutral axis and
corresponding moment resistance The following general equation is used in order to find the
composite section's centroid:
Whether the neutral axis was found to be in concrete or in steel,
solving the equation of equilibrium for Tr = Cr provides the exact A
y (5)
location of the neutral axis in either case. A

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 9 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

In order to determine the area of the concrete slab in compression, I I Ad (7)


first the transformed width of the concrete slab is determined using
the modular ratio. The modular ratio is the ratio of the elastic
When using equation (7), the transformed width of concrete and its
modulus of steel to that of concrete. Depending on whether the
depth in compression must be used. Also, note that di is the
neutral axis was determined to be in concrete or in steel, the
distance between the centroid of each area segment to the centroid
location of centroid is solved using equation (5) with the
of the section.
appropriate depth of concrete. If the neutral axis is in steel, solving
equation (5) is simple since the entire cross section of concrete and
Step 15: Transformed section modulus of the composite section
steel provide compression resistance. However, if the neutral axis
is in concrete, only the portion of the concrete slab in compression
In this step, the transformed section modulus is determined using
provides resistance. This is because for simplicity concrete tensile
the calculated transformed moment of inertia and the centroid of
resistance is assumed to be zero. In this case, the centroid of the
the section as follows:
section in the vertical direction could be solved for using the
following equation: I
S (8)
A
d t h x (6)
A The transformed section modulus is used to calculate the applied
stresses on the composite section in the steps that follow.
where x is the depth of concrete in compression. In the spreadsheet
for this project, x is solved for using the Excel Solver Add-in Step 16: Check of total stresses
feature. Step 13 displays the appropriate centroid of the section as
calculated above based on the previously determined location of As mentioned previously, section 17.11 of CSA S16-01 requires
the neutral axis. This location of the centroid is then used in that the sum of specified stresses during the three phases of
determining the sections transformed moment of inertia and construction be less than the specified yield strength of steel. In
section modulus. this step, the stresses during phases 1 and 2, where composite
action between steel and concrete has not yet been achieved, are
Step 14: Transformed moment of inertia of the composite section determined by dividing the applied moment resistance on the
temporary structure by the elastic section modulus of steel. The
Once the location of the centroid of the composite section has been stress on the composite action, which is achieved once the concrete
determined, the transformed moment of inertia of section can be slab has hardened, is determined by dividing the maximum total
determined from first principals and parallel axis theorem as applied moment by the transformed section modulus. If the sum of
follows: stresses is greater than Fy, then a warning message is displayed for
the user's consideration.

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 10 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Steps 17 through 25: Check shear capacity The load at which the web buckles in shear depends on both and
Since the spreadsheet allows the user to specify wide flange beams the aspect ratio, , which is the ratio of stiffener spacing to web
or built-up sections, before determining the shear capacity of the height. The aspect ratio of the section is calculated in Step 18.
section, its slenderness ratio must be checked. This is to ensure that
the cross section does not buckle before reaching its shear In Steps 19 and 20, the shear buckling coefficient, kv, and the
capacity. To prevent this from happening, clause 14.3.1 of the CSA aspect coefficient, ka, are determined based on the calculated value
S16-01 specifies a maximum slenderness ratio of , for of aspect ratio, respectively given the following equations as
F provided in CSA S16-01 section 13.4.1.1:
webs of beams and girders, where Fy is the specified minimum
yield point of the compression flange steel. 4
.
a
if h 1
k a (9)
In cases where the section is found to be slender, its shear capacity 5.34 if h 1
of can be improved and the onset of buckling delayed through the
addition of stiffeners.
k (10)
Considering the above, the slenderness ratio of the web is
calculated in Step 17 and a warning message is displayed if web
buckling is determined to be an issue. The user may choose to As can be seen from equation (9), for unstiffened beams and
change the design if the web slenderness becomes an issue. girders the shear buckling coefficient is equal to 5.34 since the
stiffener spacing is assumed to approach infinity.
It must be kept in mind, however, that the web of a slender girder
can carry loads even after it has buckled inelastically in shear. The shear buckling coefficient is then used to determine elastic and
Shear buckling is characterized by diagonal tension strands in the inelastic critical plate buckling stress in shear, Fcre and Fcri,
web. The diagonal pattern of shear buckles allows the development respectively, in Step 21 according to the following two equations
of zones of tension called tension fields. The shear strength respectively, as set forth in CSA S16-01 section 13.4.1.1:
arising from the tension-field action in the web develops a band of
tensile forces that occur after the web has buckled under diagonal
290 (11)
compression. Equilibrium is maintained by the transfer of forces to
the vertical stiffeners. As the girder load increases, the angle of
tension field changes to accommodate the greatest carrying (12)
capacity. The longitudinal component of the tension field must be
transmitted to the flange in the adjacent panel.

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 11 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

The above information is used in Step 22 to calculate the value of and 27 the area of shear studs and the concrete pull-out area are
shear stress, Fs, based on equations (a) through (d) of S16-01 calculated based on user input values for stud diameter and height.
clause 13.4.1.1 depending on the range within which the In Step 28, the factored shear resistance per stud in concrete is
slenderness ratio, , falls as follows: determined based on type of slab specified. In Step 29, the factored
shear resistance of each stud is determined based on their cross
h k sectional area and ultimate capacity using the following equation
F 0.66F if 439
w F given in CSA S16-01 clause 17.7.2.1:
F k k h k
F 290 if 439 502 0.5 A f E
h
w F w F q smaller of (14)
A F
k h k
F F k 0.5F 0.866 F if 502 621 Then, the number shear studs required is determined by dividing
F w F
the horizontal shear force determined in step 6 by the stud shear
k h capacity as determined above.
F F k 0.5F 0.866 F if 621
F w

Finally, in Step 24, the shear resistance of the cross section is 5.0 Visual Basic Analysis Tool
determined according to section 13.4.1 of S16-01 using the Although the spreadsheet discussed in section 4 is a very useful
following equation: analysis and design tool, it may not be very practical to use for
very quick checks of cross section properties. When sectional
V A F (13) moment resistance and properties are needed to be accessed very
quickly, it is often more practical to refer to tables or other rapid
where Aw is the area of steel web calculated in Step 23. In Step 25, access information tools. Tables with sectional properties of
the shear resistance of the section is compared with the factored composite decks can be found in the Handbook of Steel
applied shear and a warning message is displayed if the applied Construction. However, it may be useful to have a tool that allows
shear exceeds shear resistance of the section. a more flexible selection of sectional dimensions and/or material
properties. The complementary Visual Basic tool provided for this
Steps 26 through 32: project allows quick calculation of important section properties for
user specified section dimensions and material strengths.
To ensure that composite action is achieved, shear flow must be
transferred from the concrete slab to the steel section. This is why The proceeding sections provide a background on the assumptions
shear connectors, such as Nelson Studs are used to connect the based on which the complementary Visual Basic analysis tool was
concrete deck to the steel beams or girders. Therefore, in Steps 26 developed. Detailed descriptions of the methods used to create the

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 12 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

analysis tool are also given. Following similar procedures as in the dimensions and material properties of both steel and concrete
previous section this software calculates the shear transfer across components of the composite deck.
the interface of a user-specified composite steel-concrete deck
section, determines the moment resistance of the section for 100, The software operator, Visual Basic Application (VBA)
70, and 40 percent shear transfer, and calculates the cross section's subroutine, implemented as part of the spreadsheet, is called
transformed moment of inertia and elastic section modulus. CompositeSection() and its main function consists of the following
three components:

5.1 Limitations on the Use of the Visual Basic 1. Extract the user-input data and assign them to appropriate
Analysis Tool variables defined publicly in the subroutine
As is the case with any engineering software, the person using the 2. Call upon various functions to calculate all necessary values
composite section program for analysis must fully understand the to determine shear transfer, moment resistance for full and
fundamentals and methodologies used in the calculations. The partial shear transfer, transformed moment of inertia and
results obtained from engineering software should never be taken transformed section modulus
to be flawless; the user must have at least an idea of what results 3. Output the results at the user interface
are to be expected, and sample verifying calculations should
always be completed. The remainder of the VBA module created for this tool contains
several functions that will appropriately be called upon by the
The composite design program provided as part of this assignment operator subroutine CompositeSection().
is limited in that it assumes linear elastic-perfectly plastic
behaviour of both the steel and concrete. It also calculates the The first of such functions in the VBA module is called
transformed moment of inertia and section modulus based on 100 AreaSteel(). This function simply calculates the total area of the
percent shear connection. Moreover, the area of steel is calculated steel section according to the dimensions specified by the user. The
based on the assumption that the steel section can be divided into value of the area of steel returned by this function is used in the
perfectly rectangular segments. When using the program for main subroutine, other functions and is also output at the user
analysis, the user must keep these limitations of the program in interface.
mind.
Function EffecitveWidth() takes the values for the length and span
of the concrete member, as provided by the user, and through the
procedure described in section 4.2 determines the effective width
5.2 Program Set-Up
of concrete in compression.
The user interface for the complementary visual basic tool is a
spreadsheet designed to receive the user input for section

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 13 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Function AreaConc() determines the total area of the concrete extends from the centroid of the area of concrete in compression to
based on the provided thickness of concrete slab and the previously the centroid of the steel section.
calculated effective width.
Function NAinSteel() takes two parameters; the first parameter is
Function Shear() compares the values calculated for tensile the percentage of shear transfer and the second parameter is the
resistance of steel and compressive resistance of concrete and total area of the steel cross section. This function is designed to
determines the necessary shear transfer based on the procedure calculate moment resistance for full or partial shear transfer.
described in step 4 of section 4.2. This function returns the value
for Qr, and is later called upon by other functions as well as the First, function NAinSteel() determines the area of steel in
main subroutine in determining horizontal shear and the location of compression, Asc, in a similar fashion as described in section 4.2
neutral axis. The value of Qr then is also output at the user step 8.
interface.
Once the area of steel in compression is determined, the function
If function Shear() determines that shear flow, Qr, is equal to Tr NAinSteel() compares this value to the area of one steel flange.
(i.e. the case in which Tr<Cr) then, the main subroutine, This will determine whether the neutral axis is in the steel flange or
CompositeSection(), calls upon function NAinConcrete() to return the steel web. This function will then call upon one of two
the value of the composite sections moment resistance. This functions NAinSteelWeb() or NAinSteelFlange() accordingly.
function calculates moment resistance by assuming 100 percent
shear transfer and that the neutral axis is in the concrete. Function NAinSteelFlange() takes the area of steel in compression,
Asc, and the percentage of shear transfer as its parameters. It then
Alternatively, if the shear flow determined by function Shear() is determines the distance to the neutral axis from the top of the
equal to Cr (i.e. the case in which Tr>Cr) then, the main subroutine, flange based on the area of steel in compression and the user input
CompositeSection(), calls upon function NAinSteel() to return the for flange width.
value of the sections moment resistance, assuming, this time. that
the neutral axis is the steel. At this point, Function NAinSteelFlange() calculates the moment
arm for each compressive or tensile resistance with respect to the
Function NAinConcrete() determines the location of the neutral bottom of the section. This function will then calculate the
axis in concrete through the following simplified equation: compressive resistance in concrete as the full shear transferred, Qr,
multiplied by the function parameter, percentage shear transferred.
a = Tr / (Cr / thickness of concrete) Once this is calculated, the moment due to each force can be
NAinConcrete then simply calculates the moment resistance of the determined. The value returned by this function is the sum of all
section as the couple force Cr and Tr separated by a lever arm that moments calculated.

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 14 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Function NAinSteelWeb() follows the exact same procedure used sectional properties of a steel-concrete composite T-beam section
in function NAinSteelFlange(). However, to locate the neutral axis, for purposes of design and analysis. Among information output for
only the web portion of the area of steel in compression is used. the user are the effective width of the concrete slab, the bending
The location to the neutral axis is then determined as its distance moment and shear capacity of the composite section along with its
from the bottom of the top flange. From here, the moment arms transformed moment of inertia and elastic section modulus.
and moments are calculated as before and the sum of the moments These tools provide quick and accurate solutions to calculations
is returned as the final moment resistance. that would normally be tedious to complete by hand. However, as
is true with all engineering software, the user must be familiar with
Function MomentInertia() takes into consideration the location of the fundamental concepts underlying design of composite sections
neutral axis (for the transformed section) and the value returned by and utilize the output of the spreadsheet and the software
the function ybar() and determines the moment of inertia based on judiciously.
methodologies outlined in section 4.2 step 14.

Function ybar() calculates the location of the centroid of the


section in the y-axis direction for the transformed section. This
value is dependent on whether the neutral axis is in the concrete, or
in the steel. If the neutral axis was determined to be in the
concrete, the area of concrete not in compression has no effect on
calculating the centroid or transformed moment of intertia.

Similarly, function SectionModulus() takes the values returned by


functions MomentInertia() and function ybar() and returns the
value of section modulus.

Attached in Appendix A is the excel printout of the Visual Basic


Code used in creating the composite section analysis tool.

6.0 Conclusion

The spreadsheet and the complementary program developed for


this project enable designers to quickly determine important cross-

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 15 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

7.0 Bibliography
Bradford, Mark A., Deric J. Oehlers. "Elementary Behaviour of
Composite Steel and Concrete Structural Members." Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1999. 1-15.
Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. "Handbook of Steel
Construction." Toronto, Ontario: Quadratone Graphics Ltd., 2006.

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 16 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Appendix A: Visual Basic Code 'Extract necessary data for concrete from the Input worksheet:
Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate
Option Explicit
Range("C4").Select
fi_c = ActiveCell.Value 'assign strength
'decalre public steel properties to be shared among various functions
reduction factor of concrete
Public fi_s As Double
Range("C5").Select
Public fy As Double 'yield strength of steel
alpha = ActiveCell.Value
Public tf As Double 'thickness of flange
Range("C6").Select
Public bf As Double 'flange width
fc = ActiveCell.Value 'assign compressive
Public d As Double 'overall depth of steel
strength of concrete (MPa)
Public tw As Double 'thickness of web
Range("E4").Select
Public Asteel As Double 'Area of Steel
t = ActiveCell.Value 'assign thickness of
concrete
'declare public concrete properties to be shared among various functions
Range("E3").Select
Public fc As Double 'compressive strength of
h = ActiveCell.Value 'assign thickness of
concrete
concrete
Public fi_c As Double
Public alpha As Double 'usually equals 0.85
Public t As Double 'thickness of the
concrete section
Public S As Double
'Extract necessary data for steel from the Input worksheet:
Public L As Double
Range("E7").Select
Public beff As Double
tw = ActiveCell.Value
Public Aconc As Double 'Area of Concrete
Range("E8").Select
bf = ActiveCell.Value
Public Cr As Double 'compression resistance
Range("E9").Select
Public Tr As Double 'tensile resistance
tf = ActiveCell.Value
Public Qr As Double 'shear flow
Range("C7").Select
Public A As Double 'distance from the top of the
fi_s = ActiveCell.Value 'assign strength reduction factor
compression zone to the neutral axis
for steel
Public h As Double 'deck thickness
Range("C8").Select
Public Es As Double 'Modulus of elasticity of steel
fy = ActiveCell.Value 'assign Yield strength of steel
Range("E10").Select
Sub CompositeSection()
d = ActiveCell.Value 'assign Total depth of steel
section
Dim Asteel As Double 'Asteel=total area of steel
Range("C9").Select
section

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 17 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Es = ActiveCell.Value 'assign Total depth of steel Qr = shear()


section 'Output the shear transfer on cell F17 in kN
Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate
'Call function AreaSteel to calculate total area of Steel ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 6) = Qr / 1000
Asteel = AreaSteel()
Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate
ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 1) = Asteel 'Output the calculated area of steel 'Calculate the Moment resistance Mr for 100% shear transfer
on the worksheet Dim Mrc100 As Double
'If the shear flow calculated earlier was equal to Tr then N.A. is in
'Calculate the maximum tension developed in steel if all steel was in concrete
tension If Qr = Tr Then
Tr = fi_s * fy * Asteel
'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate Mrc100 = NAinConcrete()
'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 6) = Tr 'Output the calculated Tr on the Else
worksheet; checked 'Otherwise the N.A. is in steel and Mrc should be calculated accordingly
Mrc100 = NAinSteel(1, Asteel)
Range("E5").Select End If
L = ActiveCell.Value 'Concrete Length
Range("E6").Select 'Output the Mrc for 100% shear transfer
S = ActiveCell.Value 'Concrete span Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate
ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 3) = Mrc100 'checked
'calculate effective width of concrete according to S16-01
beff = EffectiveWidth() Dim Mrc70 As Double
'output the effective depth calculated in cell B2 'Calculate the Moment resistance Mr for 70% shear transfer
Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate Mrc70 = NAinSteel(0.7, Asteel)
ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 2) = beff 'Output the Mrc for 100% shear transfer
Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate
'calculate the maximum compression developed in concrete if all ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 4) = Mrc70 'checked
concrete was in compression
Cr = fi_c * alpha * fc * AreaConc() Dim Mrc40 As Double
'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate 'Calculate the Moment resistance Mr for 70% shear transfer
'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 7) = Cr 'Output the calculated Tr on the Mrc40 = NAinSteel(0.4, Asteel)
worksheet; checked 'Output the Mrc for 100% shear transfer
Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate
'Call upon function Shear to compare value of Cr and Tr and return a ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 5) = Mrc40
value for shear transfer, Qr

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 18 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

'Output the transformed moment of inertia and section modulus 'a=(fi_s*fy*Asteel)/(0.85*fi_c*fc*beff)


ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 7) = MomentInertia() / 1000000 'also (0.85*fi_c*fc*beff)=Cr/tc
ActiveSheet.Cells(17, 8) = SectionModulus() / 1000
A = Tr / (Cr / t)
End Sub
Dim e As Double 'lever arm for the couple moment
Public Function AreaSteel() 'calculate e
'calculate area of steel e = t + h + (d / 2) - (A / 2)
AreaSteel = (2 * tf * bf) + (tw) * (d - (2 * tf)) 'Moment resistance = Tr * e (kN.m)
End Function NAinConcrete = Tr * e / 10 ^ 6

Public Function EffectiveWidth() As Double End Function


'calculate effective width of concrete according to S16-01
If (L / 4) < S Then Function NAinSteel(PercentageShear As Double, Area As Double) As
EffectiveWidth = L / 4 Double
Else
EffectiveWidth = S Dim Asc As Double
End If Dim Af As Double
End Function
If Qr = Tr Then
Public Function AreaConc() As Double 'if Qr=Tr then for the incomplete shear transfer the Area of steel in
'calculate area of concrete compression simplifies to
AreaConc = beff * t
End Function Asc = 0.5 * (1 - PercentageShear) * Area 'Area of steel in
compression for Qr=Tr
Public Function shear() As Double 'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate
'Qr=min of (Tr & Cr) 'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 9) = 1 - PercentageShear 'checked
If Cr < Tr Then 'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate
shear = Cr 'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 8) = Asc 'checked
Else
shear = Tr Else 'if Qr=Cr then the N.A. was in the steel to begin with and it
End If remains in the steel
End Function 'simplified calculations for
Asc = (Tr - Cr * PercentageShear) / (2 * fi_s * fy) 'Area of steel in
Function NAinConcrete() As Double compression for Qr = Cr
'calculate a

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 19 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

End If Aw = tw * (d - (2 * tf))
Cw = d / 2
'calculate area of one of the steel flanges Af2 = Af1 - Area
Af = bf * tf Cf2 = d - (tf / 2) - (x / 2)
'Sheets("Composite Sections").Activate Cf3 = d - (x / 2)
'ActiveSheet.Cells(11, 10) = Af 'checked V = Qr * Percentage 'shear transferred in concrete is the
'compare the area of steel in compression Asc percentage of total Q
'if the area of steel in compression is less than the area of one flange, then CC = t / 2 + d + h
N.A. is in the flange
Dim Mr1 As Double
If Asc <= Af Then
Dim Mr2 As Double
NAinSteel = NAinSteelFlange(Asc, PercentageShear)
Dim Mr3 As Double
Else
Dim Mr4 As Double
'otherwise the N.A. is in the steel web
Dim Mr5 As Double
NAinSteel = NAinSteelWeb(Asc, PercentageShear)
'Calculate each individual moment
End If
Mr1 = (fi_s * fy * Af1 * Cf1) / 10 ^ 6
End Function
Mr2 = (fi_s * fy * Aw * Cw) / 10 ^ 6
Mr3 = (fi_s * fy * Af2 * Cf2) / 10 ^ 6
Function NAinSteelFlange(Area As Double, Percentage As Double) As
Mr4 = (fi_s * fy * Area * Cf3) / 10 ^ 6
Double
Mr5 = (V * CC) / 10 ^ 6
'Declare variables to calculate individual areas and their centroids
'take the sum of moments acting on the cross section about the bottom of
Dim x As Double 'distance from the top of top flange to
the steel
NA
NAinSteelFlange = Abs(Mr1 + Mr2 + Mr3 - Mr4 - Mr5)
Dim Af1 As Double 'Area of each flange (bottom flange)
Dim Cf1 As Double 'Centroid of bottom flange
End Function
Dim Aw As Double 'Area of web
Dim Cw As Double 'centroid of web
Function NAinSteelWeb(Area As Double, Percentage As Double) As
Dim Af2 As Double 'Area of the part of top flange in tension
Double
Dim Cf2 As Double 'Centroid of tension part of top flange
'Declare variables to calculate individual areas and their centroids
Dim Cf3 As Double 'Centroid of part of top flange in
Dim x As Double 'distance from the top of top flange to
compression
NA
Dim V As Double 'Total shear force transferred
Dim Af1 As Double 'Area of each flange (bottom flange)
Dim CC As Double 'Centroid of concrete in compression
Dim Cf1 As Double 'Centroid of bottom flange
Dim Aw1 As Double 'Area of web in compression
x = Area / bf
Dim Cw1 As Double 'centroid of web in compression
Af1 = tf * bf
Dim Aw2 As Double 'Area of web in tension
Cf1 = tf / 2

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 20 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Dim Cw2 As Double 'centroid of web in tension End Function


Dim Af2 As Double 'Area of the part of top flange in tension
Dim Cf2 As Double 'Centroid of tension part of top flange Public Function MomentInertia() As Double
Dim Cf3 As Double 'Centroid of part of top flange in
compression Dim n As Double
Dim V As Double 'Total shear force transferred Dim btr As Double
Dim CC As Double 'Centroid of concrete in compression Dim dweb As Double
Dim y As Double
Af1 = tf * bf Dim c As Double
Cf1 = tf / 2 Dim ybar As Double
Af2 = tf * bf
Cf2 = d - (tf / 2) n = Es / 4500 / Sqr(fc)
x = (Area - Af1) / tw btr = beff / n
Aw2 = tw * x dweb = d - 2 * tf
Cw2 = d - tf - (x / 2)
Aw1 = tw * (d - (2 * tf) - x) y = (t * btr * (d + h + t / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel() + btr * t)
Cw1 = tf + 0.5 * (d - (2 * tf) - x)
V = Qr * Percentage 'shear transferred in concrete is the If y > d Then
percentage of total Q
CC = t / 2 + d + h c = -AreaSteel() / btr / 3 + Sqr(AreaSteel() ^ 2 + 6 * btr * AreaSteel()
* (d / 2 + h + t)) / btr / 3
Dim Mr1 As Double ybar = (c * btr * (d + h + t - c / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel()
Dim Mr2 As Double + btr * c)
Dim Mr3 As Double MomentInertia = 2 * bf * tf ^ 3 / 12 _
Dim Mr4 As Double + bf * tf * (ybar - tf / 2) ^ 2 _
Dim Mr5 As Double + tw * dweb ^ 3 / 12 _
'Calculate each individual moment + tw * dweb * (d / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 _
Mr1 = (fi_s * fy * Af1 * Cf1) / 10 ^ 6 + bf * tf * (d - tf / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 _
Mr2 = (fi_s * fy * Aw1 * Cw1) / 10 ^ 6 + btr * c ^ 3 / 12 _
Mr3 = (fi_s * fy * Af2 * Cf2) / 10 ^ 6 + btr * c * (d + t + h - c / 2 - ybar) ^ 2
Mr4 = (fi_s * fy * Aw2 * Cw2) / 10 ^ 6
Mr5 = (V * CC) / 10 ^ 6 Else
'take the sum of moments acting on the cross section about the bottom of ybar = (t * btr * (d + h + t / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel() +
the steel btr * t)
MomentInertia = 2 * bf * tf ^ 3 / 12 _
NAinSteelWeb = Abs(Mr1 + Mr2 - Mr3 - Mr4 - Mr5) + bf * tf * (ybar - tf / 2) ^ 2 _

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 21 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

+ tw * dweb ^ 3 / 12 + tw * dweb * (d / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 _ End Function


+ bf * tf * (d - tf / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 _ Public Function SectionModulus()
+ btr * t ^ 3 / 12 _
+ btr * t * (d + h + t / 2 - ybar) ^ 2 Dim c As Double

End If c = d + h + t - ybar()

End Function If ybar() > c Then


SectionModulus = MomentInertia() / ybar()
Public Function ybar() As Double Else
SectionModulus = MomentInertia() / c
Dim n As Double End If
Dim btr As Double
Dim dweb As Double End Function
Dim y As Double
Dim c As Double

n = Es / 4500 / Sqr(fc)
btr = beff / n

y = (t * btr * (d + h + t / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel() + btr * t)

If y > d Then

c = -AreaSteel() / btr / 3 + Sqr(AreaSteel() ^ 2 + 6 * btr * AreaSteel()


* (d / 2 + h + t)) / btr / 3
ybar = (c * btr * (d + h + t - c / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel()
+ btr * c)

Else

ybar = (t * btr * (d + h + t / 2) + AreaSteel() * d / 2) / (AreaSteel() +


btr * t)

End If

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 22 OF 23


CIVL 510 Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Decks Nazli Azimikor

Nazli Azimikor_Composite Deck Design Report.docx 4/28/2010 PAGE 23 OF 23