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387

OFDM-Based IM/DD Optical

Wireless System

Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad

AbstractIn this paper, we present a hybrid asymmetri- physical layer schemes used in a range of modern radio

cally clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multi-

frequency (RF) mobile wireless communication system

plexing (OFDM) system. This system uses a combination

of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) standards such as WiFi, WiMax, and LTE, due to its ability

and pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone to counter multipath fading and ISI using easy equaliza-

(PAM-DMT) techniques, which can be used in intensity tion techniques.

modulated direct detection (IM/DD) optical wireless

(OW) systems. In this hybrid scheme, ACO-OFDM and OFDM is also being considered as a candidate for indoor

PAM-DMT signals are transmitted together. Clipping noise optical wireless (OW) systems especially in intensity modu-

is estimated at the receiver and canceled to recover the lated direct detection (IM/DD) systems, and has gained sig-

PAM-DMT symbols. This scheme does not require any DC

nificant attention because of the multipath nature of the

bias for transmission, which makes the transmitter less

complex and very power efficient. With this system, we indoor OW channel [36]. Multipath in an indoor environ-

can increase the data rate of the ACO-OFDM system by al- ment causes overlapping of light signals and results in

most twice. In addition, no bandwidth penalty is incurred. signal distortion [7,8]. This severely degrades system per-

Extensive computer simulations show that the bit-error formance. In RF-based OFDM systems, the output signal

rate (BER) performance of ACO-OFDM in the additive

white Gaussian noise environment is not affected by any is bipolar and complex. This signal cannot be easily

kind of interference, but only due to half of the available transmitted in an IM/DD-based OW system since light

transmit power, we see a 3 dB degradation. However, the intensity cannot be negative and we cannot transmit a

BER performance of PAM-DMT shows some degradation complex signal using a single optical transmitter such as

at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) but is identical to the

an LED [9]. Therefore, the output OFDM signal has to

conventional scheme at higher SNR. We also see a slight

improvement in peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of be made real and positive to make it suitable for optical

the output combined signal. Therefore, advantages such transmission. Hermitian symmetric input data to the

as increased data rate, DC-bias elimination, no bandwidth, OFDM block generates a real output signal. However, to

and PAPR penalty make this scheme very attractive for OW make the signal positive, several OFDM schemes have

systems using IM/DD.

been proposed for IM/DD OW systems. Among them, one

Index TermsACO-OFDM; DC bias; OFDM; Optical is called DC-biased OFDM [10], wherein we use a DC bias

wireless; PAM-DMT; PAPR. to make the output signal positive. Other schemes involve

clipping the negative part of the output signal. Pulse am-

plitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) [11] is

one of these clipping-based schemes where we modulate

I. INTRODUCTION

the imaginary part of each subcarrier while the real part

is set to zero. The output bipolar signal is clipped, and clip-

technology and the availability of high-speed signal

processors has enabled the wireless industry to use effi-

ping noise will fall on the real part of the same subcarrier.

Another clipping-based scheme known as asymmetrically

clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) uses only odd subcar-

cient signaling schemes that can combat multipath riers modulated by complex constellation symbols [12,13].

dispersion in an outdoor multipath wireless channel. This will result in clipping noise falling only on even

The addition of multiple copies of the same signal at differ- subcarriers. Therefore, in both clipping-based strategies,

ent times due to multipath causes frequency-selective fad- clipping noise is always orthogonal to the transmitted

ing and inter-symbol interference (ISI), which severely symbols, which will enable easy recovery of the desired

degrades system performance [1,2]. Orthogonal frequency data at the receiver.

division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the popular

In ACO-OFDM, we only use half of the subcarriers,

which is spectrally a very inefficient strategy. To increase

Manuscript received November 18, 2013; revised February 8, 2014; ac- the data rate and improve spectral efficiency, we propose

cepted February 10, 2014; published March 20, 2014 (Doc. ID 201565). using a hybrid scheme that uses a combination of both

The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering,

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802,

ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT. In [14], it was shown that

USA (e-mail: bar5254@psu.edu). we can regenerate clipping noise at the receiver, which

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOCN.6.000387 can be used to cancel the clipping noise falling on even

388 J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW./VOL. 6, NO. 4/APRIL 2014 Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad

subcarriers. This will enable us to use even subcarriers for system performance results. Extensive computer simula-

data transfer, which will improve spectral efficiency. tions were carried out to compute the BER performance of

We propose using PAM-DMT to modulate the imaginary the whole system in the additive white Gaussian noise

part of each even subcarrier by symbols drawn from a real (AWGN) channel. We also computed the PAPR performance

one-dimensional (1D) constellation such as M-ary pulse of individual systems and the combined system and com-

amplitude modulation (M-PAM). Both signals have to be pared our results. We finally conclude with Section VI.

generated on two different paths and finally added to-

gether after clipping their negative parts. No DC-bias ad-

dition is required at the transmitter, which will make the II. CLIPPING-BASED OW IM/DD SYSTEMS

transmitter simple. However, since we will be transmitting

a combination of both ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT signal, In this section, we provide a review of two clipping-based

only half of the power will be available to the ACO-OFDM strategies that form an integral part of the proposed hybrid

signal. This will incur 3 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) system. Specifically we will describe the ACO-OFDM and

degradation at the receiver and thus bit-error rate PAM-DMT systems.

(BER) performance deterioration. This combination of

ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT offers advantages such as zero

DC-bias addition, higher data rates, reduced transmitter A. ACO-OFDM

complexity, and no increase in peak-to-average power ratio

(PAPR) of the output signal. These features will definitely A simple block diagram of a baseband ACO-OFDM sys-

make this scheme very attractive for future OW systems. tem is shown in Fig. 1. In this OFDM-based system, data

In [15] a similar technique has been proposed, which are transmitted in the form of blocks of duration T. Each

uses a DC-bias OFDM on the second path of the transmit- block consists of M N4 complex symbols drawn from a

ter and a two-dimensional (2D) constellation mapping. complex 2D constellation such as 4-, 16-, or 64-QAM that

As shown in [16], DC-bias addition is not a very power ef- will modulate only odd subcarriers in the first half of N

ficient strategy. Therefore, in our proposed scheme we try subcarriers. N is the total number of subcarriers available

to reduce transmitter complexity by using a 1D constella- and is equal to the size of the inverse fast Fourier transform

tion and improve power efficiency by eliminating DC bias. (IFFT). The conjugate of these symbols modulates the

This paper is organized as follows. Section II gives an over- odd subcarriers of the second half of N subcarriers to meet

view of both clipping-based systems, namely ACO-OFDM the Hermitian symmetry requirements. Therefore, the

and PAM-DMT, along with a description of system blocks. input data vector to the IFFT block will look like X

It also presents a detailed system diagram of the proposed 0; X 0 ; 0; X 1 ; 0; ; X N21 ; 0; X N21 ; 0; ; X 0 , where X k

hybrid system, hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical ak ibk and ak ; bk are real and imaginary parts of the

(HACO)-OFDM, with a description of each block and a def- complex symbol, respectively. The first (DC) and N2nd

inition of generated signals. Section III provides detailed subcarriers are set to zero to obtain a real output signal.

derivation of the probability density function (PDF) of the The time-domain output signal is generated by taking

HACO-OFDM output signal. In Section V, we present the the IFFT of the input vector:

ACO_OFDM

QAM

symbols

IFFT

S/P (N-point)

Mapping Add

Input Clip

/ Zero Cyclic D/A

Bits P/S negative

Insertion Prefix Converter

part

S/P (CP)

PAM

Conj()

symbols

PAM-DMT

AWGN

w (t )

ACO_OFDM

FFT

+

P/S

Extract (N-point)

symbols Remove

Output Cyclic A/D

S/P

Bits Prefix Converter

Extract (CP)

P/S symbols

PAM-DMT

Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad VOL. 6, NO. 4/APRIL 2014/J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW. 389

1XN1 2 3

2 4 X

k

xn X ej2Nn : (1) N21

k

N k0 k ymNs bk sin 2 N s 5

N k0

N

A cyclic prefix (CP) is added to this discrete time output

2 3

signal. xn is bipolar and antisymmetric. We clip the

24X

N21

k 5

negative part of this signal to generate a unipolar signal b sin 2 s

N k0 k N

given by xn c :

ym ; s 0; 1; 2; ; N 1: (5)

xn if xn 0

xn c : (2)

0 if xn < 0 We can easily clip the negative part of ym without losing

any information. Therefore, after adding a CP to the IFFT

xn c is finally passed through a digital-to-analog (D/A) output, the negative half of the signal is clipped. The clip-

converter to generate a continuous time signal that modu- ping noise is found to be falling on the real part of each sub-

lates the intensity of an optical transmitter such as an LED carrier. Therefore, because of the orthogonality of clipping

[9]. The clipping noise generated by clipping the negative noise, transmitted symbols remain uncorrupted by the

half of the time-domain signal falls only on even subcar- noise and can be recovered easily at the receiver.

riers. Therefore, the transmitted symbols are not affected

The asymmetric clipping operation is the same as de-

by the clipping noise, which enables easy recovery of data

fined in Eq. (2). This clipped output yn c is passed through

symbols at the receiver.

a D/A converter to generate a continuous time signal that

At the receiver, an optical detector converts the intensity finally modulates the intensity of the optical modulator.

into an electrical signal x~ t. This signal gets corrupted by

At the receiver side, we perform the reverse operations

electronic noise generated by electronic components and

in a similar fashion to that of ACO-OFDM to extract

the ambient noise from the surrounding light sources. This

useful data. The only difference is that at the output of

noise wt is usually modeled as AWGN. The noise cor-

FFT block, we only extract the imaginary part of the first

rupted signal is then passed through an analog-to-digital

N2 subcarriers.

(A/D) converter to generate a discrete time signal x~ n :

The received signal at a specific subcarrier in the

x~ n xn c wn ; (3) absence of any external noise or disturbance is given by

N21 X

N21

ym c ej2N m yNm c ej2NNm

k k

removed and finally we perform FFT operation on the input Yk

m0 m0

discrete time samples. The noise corrupted constellation

symbols are extracted from the FFT output and demapped X

N21

ym c ej2Nm ym c ej2N m

k k

m0

X

N21

k

B. PAM-DMT ym c ym c cos 2 m

m0

N

k

The block diagram of the PAM-DMT system is similar to i ym c ym c sin 2 m

N

that of ACO-OFDM shown in Fig. 1. In this OFDM-based

scheme, N2 symbols drawn from a real mapping scheme X

N21

k

k

such as PAM are used to modulate the imaginary part of jym j cos 2 m iym sin 2 m : (6)

m0

N N

each subcarrier. However, the DC and N2nd subcarriers

are not modulated to fulfill the Hermitian symmetry re- From Eq. (6), we observe that clipping noise falls on the

quirements. Therefore, the data vector forming the input real part of each subcarrier and it actually represents the

to the IFFT block will be Y 0; Y 0 ; Y 1 ; Y 2 ; ; Y N21 ; 0; absolute value of the transmitted time-domain signal. This

Y N21 ; ; Y 1 ; Y 0 , where Y k ibk and bk is the real- valuable information, as shown in [14], can be used to

valued symbol drawn from a constellation such as improve the overall SNR by a few decibels with some

M-PAM. The real part of each subcarrier is set to zero. additional signal processing.

The time-domain real output signal ym is generated by

taking the IFFT of the input vector:

C. Hybrid ACO-OFDM

X

1 N1 k

ym Y ej2Nm m 0; 1; 2; ; N 1

N k0 k

We propose a hybrid asymmetrically clipped scheme that

N21

2 X k is a combination of ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT. A simple

bk sin 2 m : (4) block diagram of the baseband HACO-OFDM system is

N k0 N

shown in Fig. 2. In this scheme, we generate two separate

ym is an antisymmetric signal and has the same blocks of asymmetrically clipped OFDM signal of duration

information in both the positive and negative parts. T and then combine them together to transmit as a single

Mathematically, block. To generate the first block, input data bits are

390 J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW./VOL. 6, NO. 4/APRIL 2014 Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad

mapped using a 2D mapping scheme such as M-QAM to where iACO;m represents noise added to the bipolar

obtain M N4 input symbols that modulate odd subcar- ACO-OFDM signal to get a clipped version and iPAM;m rep-

riers in the OFDM block. The remaining subcarriers are set resents noise added to the bipolar PAM-DMT signal to gen-

to zeros. The input vector to the IFFT block takes the form erate a clipped signal. Notice that the clipping interference

XACO 0; X 0 ; 0; X 1 ; 0; ; X N21 ; 0; X N21 ; 0; ; X 0 . The created on both paths will interfere only with even subcar-

time-domain output signal xACO;m is asymmetrically riers. Odd subcarriers will remain undisturbed. Therefore,

clipped xACO;m c , which will generate clipping noise/ we should expect to have the same performance of the

interference I ACO on even subcarriers. ACO-OFDM block in this hybrid scheme as in the conven-

A second stream of input data bits is mapped using a 1D tional system if the same average transmit power is allo-

constellation such as M-PAM to generate M 1 PAM sym- cated to ACO-OFDM subcarriers. On the other hand, due to

bols that will modulate the imaginary part of each even the addition of clipping interference to the imaginary part

subcarrier. Therefore, the input vector to the IFFT block of each even subcarrier, the performance of PAM-DMT will

will be YPAM 0; 0; Y 0 ; 0; Y 1 ; 0; ; Y N22 ; 0; 0; 0; Y N22 ; deteriorate.

0; ; Y 0 ; 0. This is in contrast to the conventional PAM- At the receiver, the transmitted signal is detected by a

DMT scheme, where the imaginary part of all subcarriers photodetector, which converts it into an electrical signal

is modulated. The output time-domain signal yPAM;m ob- rt. Noise due to electrical components and ambient noise

tained after taking the IFFT of input symbols is asymmet- from surroundings, which is modeled here as AWGN, gets

rically clipped yPAM;m c , which will create noise/ added to this signal [17]. This noise corrupted signal is

interference IPAM on the real part of each even subcarrier. passed through an A/D converter, which will give us a dis-

After clipping, it is added to the first block. A CP is added crete time signal given by rm :

to the resulting combined clipped signal zm . After passing

through a D/A converter, this combined signal finally mod- rm zm wm ; (8)

ulates the intensity of an optical transmitter such as an

LED or laser: where wm represents the discrete time version of AWGN.

We assume a perfect timing and frequency-domain equali-

zm xACO;m c yPAM;m c zation at the receiver. After removing the CP, the signal is

fed to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) block, which per-

xACO;m yPAM;m iACO;m iPAM;m ; (7) forms FFT operation to generate the frequency-domain

QAM

symbols

X [i ] Mapping IFFT Clip

S/P / Zero (N-point) P/S negative

Insertion

part

Conj() To optical

Add

Modulator

Cyclic D/A

Prefix Converter

PAM (CP)

symbols

Y [i ] Mapping IFFT Clip

S/P / Zero (N-point) P/S negative

Insertion

part

Constellation Conj()

Mapping

Transmitter

From

ACO- Detect Remove Photodetector

OFDM ACO- FFT Cyclic A/D

symbols S/P

OFDM (N-point) Prefix Converter

symbols (CP)

PAM-DMT

Subtract w (t )

noise AWGN

symbols

Receiver

FFT Asymmetric IFFT

(N-point) clipping (N-point)

Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad VOL. 6, NO. 4/APRIL 2014/J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW. 391

2

symbols Rk Zk W k , where k is the subcarrier index. 1 a 1

f xACO a p exp ua a; (11)

Zk Zeven;k Zodd;k IACO;k IPAM;k represents the sub- 2 a 2 2

2 a 2

carriers values at index k, and W k W even;k W odd;k gives

the frequency-domain representation of noise samples on and

even and odd subcarriers, respectively.

2

It is observed that clipping operation causes the power of 1 b 1

f yPAM b q exp 2

ub b; (12)

the M-QAM symbols in odd subcarriers to be reduced by 2 b 2 2 b

2

half [14,16]. Therefore, to correctly estimate the received

symbols, odd subcarriers are simply multiplied by 2 to scale where 2a and 2b are the variances of the unclipped ACO-

them properly for recovery and detection. In this hybrid OFDM and PAM-DMT signals given by 2a Efx2ACO mg

scheme, our first objective at the receiver is to correctly and 2b Efy2PAM mg. From zm xACO;m c yPAM;m c

estimate ACO-OFDM symbols transmitted on odd subcar- and [20], the PDF of the combined signal can be obtained

riers. This will help us regenerate an estimate of clipping through convolution of two PDFs. Therefore, the PDF of the

noise I ACO;k falling on even subcarriers. Once we have esti- unipolar time-domain intensity modulating signal is

mated clipping noise in the frequency domain, we will sub-

Z

tract it from the received frequency-domain symbols on

f zHACO z f xACO a f yPAM b f x lf y z ldl

even subcarriers, and finally we will extract the imaginary

part to get an estimate of PAM symbols: Z 2

1 l 1

p exp ul l

2 2a 2 2a 2

Zeven;k Zeven;k IACO;k IPAM;k W even;k I ACO;k : (9)

1 z l2 1

q exp uz l z l dl

2 2b 2 2b 2

The estimate of the PAM symbol is obtained by the fol-

lowing operation: Z 2

1 l z l2

exp exp dl

2 a b 0 2 2a 2 2b

Y PAM imagY even;k Z

0.5 l2

imagY even;k IACO;k W even;k IACO;k : (10) p exp z l dl

2 2a 0 2 2a

Z

Finally these estimated symbols will be used to detect 0.5 z l2

q exp l dl

the transmitted bits using a PAM constellation demapper.

2 2b 0 2 2b

Remember that the interference generated by clipping

Z

PAM-DMT signal will only fall on the real part of even sub-

0.25 lz ldl: (13)

carriers. Therefore, the final estimated PAM symbols will 0

be free from self-interference.

In the HACO-OFDM scheme, we do not need any DC After some manipulation and using the identity [21]

bias at the transmitter as shown in Fig. 2. Zero DC bias

Z 2

also eliminates the DC canceler block from the receiver. u x p

However, on the receiver side, we need additional process- exp x 2 exp 2

0 4

ing for clipping noise generation and cancellation. This in-

p p p u

creases receiver complexity compared to the conventional Q 2 Q 2 p ;

2

ACO-OFDM scheme. Additional signal processing blocks

required include one IFFT and FFT block, one asymmetric (14)

clipper, and one block to compute the difference between

estimated and received symbols. Eq. (13) can be simplified as

2

expz2 2 2b p z z p

f zHACO z exp 4 Q 2 2

III. PDF OF HACO-OFDM a b b b

z p

z

Q 2 2 p

The PDF of the combined signal can be derived using the b 2

relationship given in Eq. (7). The output time-domain sig- 2 2

0.5 1 z 1 z

nal from each IFFT block is obtained by the addition of a p exp exp uz

2 a 2 2a b 2 2b

large number of subcarriers modulated by uniformly dis-

tributed random symbols drawn from M-QAM or M-PAM 0.25z; (15)

constellations. Therefore as given in [18], the central limit

theorem can be applied, and the real output signal samples where we have used 2a 2b 2 2a 2b and

of ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT follow a Gaussian distribu- z 2b .

tion with zero mean. However, after clipping, the PDF of Figures 3 and 4 show the simulated and theoretical

clipped output signal samples will become a clipped Gaus- PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the

sian distribution [19] given by HACO-OFDM signal, respectively. The graph shows that

392 J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW./VOL. 6, NO. 4/APRIL 2014 Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad

0.7

simulation systems, the PAPR is computed per block. The PAPR of the

theory discrete time output HACO-OFDM signal in decibels is

0.6

defined as

0.5

max0mN1 zm c 2

PAPRHACO dB 10 log10 : (16)

0.4 Efzm c 2 g

(z) Z(t)

f

0.3

terms of the complimentary cumulative distribution func-

0.2 tion (CCDF). The CCDF of the PAPR is the probability that

the PAPR exceeds a certain value z:

0.1

CCDF 1 PPAPRHACO dB z: (17)

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 For a given system, a plot of CCDF of the PAPR on the y

Z axis and threshold on the x axis will be obtained. The graph

corresponding to a system that shows a low CCDF value for

Fig. 3. Comparison of theoretical and simulated PDF of HACO- a given threshold shows better performance.

OFDM.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

simulated and theoretical values are almost overlapping

each other. Figure 3 also shows that the system is transmit- In this section, we present simulation results that show

ting low optical power most of the time, which makes this the performance of the proposed HACO-OFDM scheme

technique a very power efficient scheme. and a comparison with conventional ACO-OFDM and

PAM-DMT schemes. In order to compute the performance

of the proposed system in the AWGN channel, we per-

IV. PAPR OF HACO-OFDM formed extensive computer simulations and found the

BER of individual blocks and the overall system. CCDF

OFDM is a multicarrier signal with inherently high curves to evaluate the PAPR performance of the combined

PAPR due to the addition of a large number of subcarriers. signal were also computed, and a comparison was devel-

A high PAPR signal requires a large dynamic range A/D oped. In computing the PAPR of the output combined sig-

converter and D/A converter and linear power amplifiers nal, we used an oversampling rate of 4 to get accurate

(PAs) at the front end. Linear PAs are difficult to build results. We used an IFFT size of N 512 with M N4.

and are very expensive. In order to reduce the cost of For ACO-OFDM, we generated 128 symbols from M-QAM

the overall system, it is desirable to use low-cost nonlinear constellations such as 4-, 16-, 64-, and 256-QAM, which

PAs with wider linear regions. Therefore, the PAPR of the formed the input to the first IFFT block. Another 127 real

output signal plays a vital role in determining the cost of symbols were generated from M-PAM constellations that

the overall system and is considered as an important sys- formed the input to the IFFT block in the second branch

tem performance metric. The PAPR is the ratio of peak sig- of hybrid systems. The difference between transmitted

nal power to average signal power [18]. For OFDM-based and received bits was calculated and BER curves were

obtained for a given Ebelec N o .

1.2

1

PAM-DMT

0.8

To compare the performance of ACO-OFDM and PAM-

Prob[Z < z]

simulation

theory

DMT blocks in hybrid schemes with their conventional

0.6 counterparts, we compute the BER in terms of the electri-

cal bit energy to noise power ratio Ebelec N o .

0.4 Figure 5 shows the BER performance of the ACO-OFDM

branch for various types of M-QAM constellation such as 4-,

0.2 16-, 64-, and 256-QAM. In this case, an equal proportion of

power was allocated to both PAM-DMT and ACO-OFDM.

From the figure, we notice that the performance of the

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 ACO-OFDM block is degraded by almost 3 dB compared

Z to the conventional systems. This is due to the fact that,

in our proposed hybrid system, only half of the power is al-

Fig. 4. Comparison of theoretical and simulated CDF of located to ACO-OFDM symbols that modulate odd subcar-

HACO-OFDM. riers compared to the conventional scheme. The remaining

Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad VOL. 6, NO. 4/APRIL 2014/J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW. 393

0

10 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-PAM. From the figure, we observe that

ACO 4QAM

ACO 16QAM BER performance degrades by a few decibels at lower

ACO 64QAM

ACO 256QAM

Ebelec N o , but it becomes identical to the conventional

10

1

HACO 4QAM PAM-DMT scheme at higher Ebelec N o. The performance

HACO 16QAM

HACO 64QAM

deterioration at lower Ebelec N o is due to the estimation

HACO 256QAM noise incurred during ACO-OFDM symbol detection.

However, at higher Ebelec N o, the estimation noise is sig-

BER

2

10

nificantly reduced and thus we get an identical perfor-

mance. We also observe that transmit power is halved

for PAM-DMT symbols in this scheme, but we do not see

10

3

a 3 dB performance penalty. This is due to the difference

in the number of subcarriers modulated by PAM symbols.

In conventional PAM-DMT, the imaginary part of all sub-

4 carriers except the DC and N2nd is modulated, but in our

10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 case, only the imaginary part of even subcarriers is modu-

Eb(elec)/No (dB) lated. This reduces the data rate by two times. Therefore,

we have twice the power to transmit all even subcarriers as

compared to the conventional scheme. On the other hand,

Fig. 5. BER performance of ACO-OFDM and HACO-OFDM for

4-, 16-, 64-, and 256-QAM systems. the overall system power is divided equally in the HACO

system between ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT, which will re-

duce the transmit power for even subcarriers back to the

half of power is used by PAM-DMT symbols. Therefore, we

original value. Thus, we do not see any BER performance

expect a 3 dB BER performance loss due to reduction in the

deterioration for PAM-DMT due to reduced total average

available average transmitted power. However, we also no-

transmit power.

tice that no performance degradation is caused by any kind

of clipping noise due to clipping of the signal in either the However, if we only modulate half of the available sub-

first data branch or the second. This proves that carriers in the conventional PAM-DMT system and com-

ACO-OFDM symbols modulating odd subcarriers remain pare its BER performance with the PAM-DMT block in

undisturbed by any kind of clipping noise. Therefore, in the HACO-OFDM system, we will definitely see a 3 dB per-

reality, the performance of the ACO-OFDM branch in formance degradation using the same data rate. This can

the hybrid system is identical to the conventional scheme, be seen in Fig. 7, where we have plotted the BER of the

but due to half of the average transmitted power allocated conventional PAM-DMT system with only half the subcar-

to ACO-OFDM, we see 3 dB degradation. Hence, we can riers modulated and the BER of the PAM-DMT block in the

easily transmit symbols from a 2D constellation on odd HACO-OFDM system. We clearly see a 3 dB difference in

subcarriers without suffering from any kind of clipping performance.

noise interference. Figure 8 shows CCDF curves for the PAPR of ACO-

Figure 6 shows the BER performance of the PAM-DMT OFDM, PAM-DMT, and the HACO-OFDM scheme. From

block, which uses even subcarriers for data transmission. the figure, it is clear that addition of signals from two indi-

Performance curves were obtained with the AWGN chan- vidual schemes does not cause a PAPR penalty. In fact, the

nel and for various types of M-PAM constellations such as CCDF curves show that the PAPR performance of the

0

0 10

10

1

1 10

10

BER

2

BER

2 10

10

4PAMDMT

8PAMDMT 4PAMDMT HACO

8PAMDMT HACO

16PAMDMT 3

3 10 16PAMDMT HACO

10 32PAMDMT

32PAMDMT HACO

4PAMDMT HACO 4PAMDMT M=(N/4)

8PAMDMT HACO 8PAMDMT M=(N/4)

16PAMDMT HACO 16PAMDMT M=(N/4)

32PAMDMT HACO 4

32PAMDMT M=(N/4)

4

10 10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Eb(elec)/No (dB) Eb(elec)/No (dB)

Fig. 6. BER performance of conventional PAM-DMT and HACO- Fig. 7. BER performance of conventional PAM-DMT with half

PAM-DMT for 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-PAM systems. subcarriers and PAM-DMT block in HACO-OFDM.

394 J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW./VOL. 6, NO. 4/APRIL 2014 Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad

0

10 40

ACO 4QAM, PAMDMT 4PAM

ACO 16QAM, PAMDMT 4PAM

35 ACO 64QAM, PAMDMT 4PAM

ACO 256QAM, PAMDMT 4PAM

1

10

30

Pr[PAPR > PAPR ]

o

25

2

10

o

20

b

3 ACOOFDM 4QAM

10 4PAMDMT

15

4HACO

ACOOFDM 16QAM

16PAMDMT 10

4 16HACO

10

6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 5

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

PAPRo (dB)

Proportion of Optical power on ACOOFDM subcarriers

Fig. 8. CCDF curves of PAPR for ACO-OFDM, PAM-DMT, Fig. 10. Comparison of hEbopt N o iBER for HACO-OFDM for vari-

and HACO-OFDM schemes for (4-QAM, 4-PAM) and (16-QAM, ous proportions of optical power and for different M-QAM constel-

16-PAM). lations used by ACO-OFDM.

hybrid scheme is slightly better than that of either of the B. Comparison With ADO-OFDM

two subsystems. This reduction in PAPR can be attributed

to the fact that the total average power of the HACO sys- In order to make a fair comparison between the perfor-

tem slightly increases due to the addition of ACO-OFDM mance of our hybrid scheme and that of ADO-OFDM [15],

and PAM-DMT signals. This can be seen in Fig. 9, where we will compute the BER performance in terms of normal-

we see the probability of the HACO signal having value ized optical bit energy to noise power Ebopt N o, where the

equal to zero is 0.25 compared to 0.5 of its constituent sub- total average optical power is set to unity, i.e., Efzm g 1.

systems. Also, we observe there is a slight increase in the The BER performance of the HACO system will vary

probability of the HACO signal for lower values, which depending upon the proportion of total optical power allo-

indicates an increase in the average optical power of the cated to ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT blocks. Therefore, we

transmitted signal. This increase in the average power will first determine the optimum power allocation based on

results in some PAPR improvement seen in Fig. 8. the lowest required hEbopt N o iBER , which is defined as

Therefore, these results show that our hybrid scheme the value of normalized Ebopt N o required to achieve

can increase the data rate of the conventional ACO-OFDM BER 103 .

system by two times without any loss of PAPR perfor- Both ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT branches in HACO

mance. The only penalty to be paid is additional processing systems can use variable data rates; therefore, we will

required at the receiver.

30

ADOOFDM

HACOOFDM

25

HACO simulation

ACOOFDM simulation

(dB)

0.6

20

o BER

0.5

<E /N >

15

b

0.4

fZ(t)(z)

0.3

10

0.2

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0.1

Bit rate/Normalized bandwidth

Z bandwidth for HACO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM for various

proportions of optical power and for different constellations. The

Fig. 9. PDF comparison of HACO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM minimum value of hEbopt N o iBER is shown for each constellation

systems. combination.

Bilal Ranjha and Mohsen Kavehrad VOL. 6, NO. 4/APRIL 2014/J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW. 395

TABLE I

LIST OF PARAMETERS TO GENERATE FIG. 10

Rb BWNorm Parameters

2 ACO 4-QAM, DCO 4-QAM bias 5.5, ACO power 0.2 (ADO-OFDM);

ACO 4-QAM, PAM 4-PAM, ACO power 0.4 (HACO-OFDM)

3 ACO 16-QAM, DCO 4-QAM bias 5.1, ACO power 0.4 (ADO-OFDM);

ACO 16-QAM, PAM 4-PAM, ACO power 0.6 (HACO-OFDM)

4 ACO 64-QAM, DCO 4-QAM bias 4.3, ACO power 0.6 (ADO-OFDM);

ACO 64-QAM, PAM 4-PAM, ACO power 0.8 (HACO-OFDM)

5 ACO 256-QAM, DCO 4-QAM bias 3.9, ACO power 0.7 (ADO-OFDM);

ACO 64-QAM, PAM 16-PAM, ACO power 0.4 (HACO-OFDM)

6 ACO 256-QAM, DCO 16-QAM bias 6.46, ACO power 0.5 (ADO-OFDM);

ACO 256-QAM, PAM 16-PAM, ACO power 0.6 (HACO-OFDM)

develop a performance comparison in terms of average HACO-OFDM are given in Table I, where we have denoted

bit rate to normalized bandwidth. The average bit rate the average bit rate/normalized bandwidth by Rb BWNorm.

for HACO-OFDM systems is given by log2 M ACO From Figs. 10 and 11, we see that HACO-OFDM per-

log2 M PAM 2, where M ACO and M PAM are the constellation forms much better than ADO-OFDM for a range of average

sizes of the M-QAM and M-PAM mapping schemes. We will bit rate/normalized bandwidth values. HACO-OFDM also

generate a graph that shows variations of hEbopt N o iBER does not require any DC bias at the transmitter as required

with average bit rate/normalized bandwidth. Following by ADO-OFDM. This makes the HACO-OFDM transmitter

[15], we define system bandwidth as the position of the first simpler than ADO-OFDM and more power efficient.

spectral null. In our analysis, we will also use normalized

bandwidth, which is defined as system bandwidth normal-

ized relative to the bandwidth of onoff keying (OOK) of the VI. CONCLUSION

same data rate. Both ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT systems

are OFDM-based systems that have their first spectral

nulls at normalized frequency of 1 2N, where N is In this paper, we have presented a hybrid ACO-OFDM

the size of the IFFT/FFT used. For the ACO-OFDM system scheme that uses a combination of both ACO-OFDM and

using 16-QAM and PAM-DMT using 16-PAM, the average PAM-DMT techniques. Our system increases the data rate

bit rate per normalized bandwidth is given by log2 M ACO of the conventional ACO-OFDM system by two times

log2 M PAM 21 2N. without any penalty in the BER performance of the conven-

tional scheme. The 3 dB penalty observed for the ACO-

Figure 10 shows the variation of hEbopt N o iBER when OFDM block was only due to half of the available transmit

the optical power allocated to the ACO-OFDM block is var- power compared with the conventional system. No other

ied from 0.1 to 0.9. In this case we have chosen a fixed factor deteriorates ACO-OFDM performance. Our system

4-PAM constellation mapping for PAM-DMT while using does not require any DC bias at the transmitter, which

4-, 16-, 64-, and 256-QAM constellations for ACO-OFDM. makes it power efficient and relatively simple. Zero DC

The graph shows that when ACO-OFDM uses 4-QAM with bias at the transmitter also eliminates the use of a DC can-

the 4-PAM constellation used by PAM-DMT, minimum val- celer at the receiver. On the other hand, noise cancellation

ues of hEbopt N o iBER can be achieved when the proportion at the receiver does require extra processing, which makes

of optical power allocated to ACO-OFDM is 0.4. the receiver more complex. Our computer simulations also

Figure 11 shows hEbopt N o iBER versus the average bit show that the PAPR of the hybrid signal is slightly less

rate/normalized bandwidth for ADO-OFDM and HACO- than individual constituent systems of the hybrid scheme.

OFDM systems. The plots are obtained for the lowest val- This makes our scheme ever more power efficient com-

ues of hEbopt N o iBER for a given set of mapping schemes pared to other techniques. No additional bandwidth is re-

and distribution of optical power on both subsystems of quired as the unused subcarriers are used for PAM-DMT

HACO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM. In each case, the average modulation, which were previously left unused. Therefore,

optical power was set to unity with varying proportion of our proposed system provides a very power efficient hybrid

optical power on ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT. From the OFDM modulation technique that does not require any DC

plots we see that for an average bit rate/normalized band- bias, and it can be used in IM/DD OW systems.

width of 2, 3, 4, and 6, HACO-OFDM performs much better

than ADO-OFDM. However, for an average bit rate/nor- REFERENCES

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NSERC Ph.D.-thesis award in 1995, with his graduate students,

system, in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf.

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[16] J. Armstrong and A. Lowery, Power efficient optical OFDM, been on the advisory committee for several international conferen-

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