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THE SCIENCE

& CULTURE
OF THE FILIPINO
RESILIENT HOUSE
Mary Ann Espina
Dean, College of Architecture
University of the Philippines
March 23, 2016
INTRODUCTION
The Philippines
RICH IN NATURAL RESOURCES
The Philippines
RICH IN NATURAL DISASTERS

Rain-Induced High-Velocity
Flooding Winds

Earthquakes Landslides
The Philippines
RICH IN NATURAL DISASTERS

Rain-Induced High-Velocity
Flooding Winds

Earthquakes Landslides
RANKED 4th

MOST
DISASTER
PRONE
COUNTRY
IN THE
WORLD
8 OF THE
WORLDS
TOP 10
MOST
AT-RISK
CITIES
Traditional Filipino Wisdom
THE ORIGINAL DISASTER-RESILIENT HOUSES
Traditional Filipino Wisdom
THE ORIGINAL DISASTER-RESILIENT HOUSES

1. ELEVATED HABITABLE SPACES


Protect against floods

2. REGULAR GEOMETRIC
CONFIGURATIONS help resist
lateral forces from earthquakes
and wind

3. VOLUMINOUS THATCHED ROOFS


aid in wind deflection, efficient
water run-off and passive cooling
Traditional Filipino Wisdom
THE ORIGINAL DISASTER-RESILIENT HOUSES

4. EASILY SOURCED MATERIALS such


as bamboo, wood and nipa allow
for ease of construction and
maintenance

5. TRADITIONAL WOOD JOINERY


keeps the structure strong

6. COMMUNITY CLUSTERING and


surrounding natural features
shield against disasters
The Current Vernacular
TRADITIONAL WISDOM LOST IN OUR COLLECTIVE MEMORY

1. HOUSES ROOTED TO THE


GROUND increase susceptibility to
floods

2. BOLDER MODERN FORMS


increase susceptibility to lateral
loads

3. FLAT / LOW SLOPED ROOFS not


adapted to the Philippine climate
Current Solutions
ARE THEY SUITABLE FOR THE FILIPINO CONTEXT?

FOREIGN DESIGN SOLUTIONS may be


disaster-resilient HOWEVER

They do not take into account


Filipino CULTURE and CLIMATE
during the rest of the year

Prefabricated models lack


COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
Holistic Integration
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH

CULTURE TRADITIONAL FILIPINO


ARCHITECTURE

MODERN
CONTEXT TECHNOLOGY

COMMUNITY
INVOLVEMENT
Holistic Integration
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH

CULTURE CURRENT SOLUTIONS

MODERN
CONTEXT TECHNOLOGY

COMMUNITY
INVOLVEMENT
Holistic Integration
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH

1. CULTURE - livability
CULTURE 2. CONTEXT geography
and climate
3. MODERN TECHNOLOGY
new building materials,
MODERN methodologies
CONTEXT TECHNOLOGY 4. COMMUNITY
INVOLVEMENT
personalization that
COMMUNITY leads to the creation of a
INVOLVEMENT home, not just a house
Building for the Filipino
THE CASE OF ROBELITO AND SARAH
How then, do we design
architecture for the
common Filipino ?

Not everybody has access


to professionals like
architects and engineers.

Such is the story of


Robelito and Sarah,
victims of Typhoon
Haiyan who took effort to
rebuild their house.
Building for the Filipino
WHAT ARE THE BUILDING CAPABILITIES OF THE EVERYMAN?
Building for the Filipino
WHAT ARE THE BUILDING CAPABILITIES OF THE EVERYMAN?
MODERNIZING THE
TRADITIONAL BAHAY KUBO
Self-Build House
DESIGN PROGRAM

Permanent housing
Simple construction
Easily replicated
Conforms to NBCP standards
Household of five (5)
Provision of basic necessities:
Kitchen
Dining area
Toilet and bath
Areas for privacy
Space for expansion
Minimum floor area of 26sqm
Self-Build House
ASSUMED HAZARDS

Hydrometeorological
Flood
Typhoon Winds
Seismological
Ground shaking
Collateral
Ground Rupture
Tsunamis
Storm Surge
Landslides
Self-Build House
SELF-BUILD HOUSE CONCEPT

KAPIT to hold on
BAHAY house KAPITBAHAY - neighbor
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE DESIGN PROCESS

Regular shape that is


resilient against wind and
seismic forces
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE DESIGN PROCESS

Elevating on stilts prevents


flood from entering the
structure
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE DESIGN PROCESS

Ideal roof slope with minimal


overhangs for wind loads and
run off
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE DESIGN PROCESS

Slanted walls gives more


interior space and enables
minimal overhangs
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE DESIGN PROCESS

Modular frame allows for easy


and convenient horizontal
expansion
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE FINAL MODEL
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
INSPIRATION

Inspired by the University of


San Carlos model for
transitional / temporary
shelters the ISIGURO DAAN

However, this is only


transitional shelter that
measures 11sqm in area.
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
TEMPORARY vs. PERMANENT

ISIGURO DAAN
(INSPIRATION)
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE

Increase in floor area from


11sqm to 28.8 sqm

Definition of specific rooms


and areas

Inclusion of toilet and kitchen

Increased comfort, livability


and disaster resiliency
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE

STORAGE / WOODWORKING AREA


KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE

COMMERCIAL AREA
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE

RECREATIONAL AREA
KAPIT-BAHAY 1.0
SELF-BUILD WOODEN HOUSE