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Calculation Sheet for Temperature drop across the refractory in Channel of Waste heat boiler

Operating Temperature of process fluid, Ti 1204.4


External/ambient Temperature, To 40
Viscosity of process fluid at operating temperature, 0.0000535
Specific heat capacity of process fluid at operating temperature , Cp 0.3192
Thermal conductivity of process fluid at operating temperature , K 0.0856

Ti =
Inner radius of channel=OTL/2 , r 0.727865

Th =

=
1
Mass flowrate of process fluid, Q 6.8344
Wind speed 5
Mass flux, j 16.433
Reynold's number, Re 223576
Prandtl's number, Pr 0.7186
Convective Heat transfer coefficient for heat transfer inside (process fluid), i1 43.042
Radiative Heat transfer coefficient for heat transfer inside (process fluid), i2 1.246
Heat transfer coefficient for heat transfer outside (air), o 26.182
Total resistance at internal surface (convection + radiation), R i 0.023
Total resistance at outer surface, Ro 0.038193762
Temperature at 1st refractory layer surface, Th = Ti-(q*Ri) 1112.8

Inside Channel

1st Refractory

2nd Refractory
Layer

Layer
Description Unit

Material

Thickness, S mm
Thermal conductivity, K @ operating temperature (From BPVC Sec II Part D) kCal/hr.m.oC
Thermal resistance, Rn = S / (K x 1000) m2.hr.oC/kCal
Border layer temperature, Tn = Tn-1 - (q x Rn) C
o

Total Thermal Resistance, R = Ri + R1 + R2 + Ro 0.287


Heat flux , q = (Ti-To)/R 4059

Adjust to design
temperature of metal
Output

1112.7569793402

199.5472145844

195.0174042433
605.4182211425
Input

o
C

1204.4oC

C
o

o
o
C
kg/m.s

40
kCal/kg.oC
kCal/hr.m.oC
T2 =

m To =
T
T

=
=

3
1

kg/s
m/sec
kg/m2.s

kCal/m2.hr.oC
kCal/m2.hr.oC
kCal/m2.hr.oC
m2.hr.oC/kCal
m2.hr.oC/kCal
o
C
2nd Refractory

M
e

h
e
s

ll
t

1st refractory 2nd refractory


Layer

Metal shell
layer layer
Fire Clay- Carbon
60% Fire bricks Heavy duty Steel-SA516
bricks Gr 70
250 100 50
2 1 44.8
0.125 0.1 0.0011
605 200 195

m2.hr.oC/kCal
kCal/hr.m2

to design
ature of metal
Emission and absorption for Gases

Gas Temperature Tg 1477.44 K


Gas pressure Pg 0.111 atm
142.346 inch
Shell OTL D
11.86 ft
Radius(Beam length) L 5.9310833333 ft
Molecular weight of Gas M 28 kg/kgmol
Mass flowrate of gas Mg 24603.84 kg
Total no.of moles 878.71 kgmoles
Weight fraction of water xw 0.0661
Mass flowrate of water vapor Mw 1626.313824 kg
Molecular weight of Water M 18 kg/kgmol
Total no.of moles of water 90.35 kgmoles
Mole fraction of water xi 0.1028222222
Partial pressure of water vapor Pw 0.0114132667 atm
Pw.L 0.0676930357 ft.atm
Weight fraction of carbondioxide xc 0.09
Mass flowrate of carbondioxide Mc 2246.330592 kg
Molecular weight of carbondioxide M 44 kg/kgmol
Total no.of moles of carbondioxide 51.05 kgmoles
Mole fraction of carbondioxide xi 0.0581
Partial pressure of carbondioxide Pc 0.0064491 atm
Pc.L 0.0382501495 ft.atm
Emissivity of water vapor w 0.03 from chart
(Pw + P)/2 0.0612066333
Correction factor Cw 0.2 from chart
Emissivity of water vapor w 0.006
Emissivity of carbon dioxide c 0.04 from chart
Correction factor Cc 0.45 from chart
Emissivity of carbon dioxide c 0.018
PW/(Pw + Pc) 0.639
L*(Pw + Pc) 0.106
Emissivity correction factor 0
Total emissivity of gas g 0.024
Design temperature of metal Ts 616.33 K
Absorptivity of Carbon dioxide c 0.0143
Absorptivity of Water vapor w 0.0018
Absorptivity correction factor 0.0000
Total absorptivity of gas g 0.0161
Radiation heat flux Qnet/A 2140.52 W/m2
Radiation heat transfer coeff. hr 1.45 W/m2.K