Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 44

I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Basic Principles of Remote


Sensing

Shashi Kumar
Scientist SD
shashi@iirs.gov.in

1
8/11/2015
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote Sensing is the art, science and


technology of observing an object scene, or
phenomenon by instrument-based techniques.
Remote: because observation is done at a
distance without physical contact with the object of
interest
Sensing: Detection of energy, such as light or
another form of electromagnetic energy

Measurement from a
distance
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Definitions
Remote Sensing is the science of acquiring, processing
and interpreting images that record the interaction
between electromagnetic energy and matter. (Sabins,
1996)

The term Remote Sensing means the sensing of the


Earth's surface from space by making use of the
properties of electromagnetic waves emitted, reflected
by the sensed objects, for the purpose of improving
natural resources management, land use and the
protection of the environment. (UN, 1999)
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote Sensing Process


Energy Source Sensor

A
D

B Application

F G

Processing
Station Analysis
Target C
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote Sensing Process


The process in remote sensing involves an interaction
between incident radiation and the targets of
interest.
The following seven elements are involved in this
process:
Energy Source or Illumination (A) - the first
requirement for remote sensing is to have an energy
source which illuminates or provides electromagnetic
energy to the target of interest.
Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) - as the energy
travels from its source to the target, it will come in
contact with and interact with the atmosphere it passes
through. This interaction may take place a second time as
the energy travels from the target to the sensor.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote Sensing Process


Interaction with the Target (C) - once the energy
makes its way to the target through the atmosphere,
it interacts with the target depending on the
properties of both the target and the radiation.
Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) - after the
energy has been scattered by, or emitted from the
target, we require a sensor (remote - not in contact
with the target) to collect and record the
electromagnetic radiation.
Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E) -
the energy recorded by the sensor has to be
transmitted, often in electronic form, to a receiving
and processing station where the data are processed
into an image (hardcopy and/or digital).
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote Sensing Process

Interpretation and Analysis (F) - the processed


image is interpreted, visually and/or digitally, to
extract information about the target which was
illuminated.
Application (G) - the final element of the remote
sensing process is achieved when we apply the
information we have been able to extract from the
imagery about the target in order to better understand
it, reveal some new information, or assist in solving a
particular problem.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote Sensing
Geospatial data acquisition (GDA):
Collection, processing and analysis of data
for various purposes:
Water management
Land management
Resource management, etc.

Data : representations that can be


manipulated by a computer
Information : interpreted data
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote sensing
platforms

Satellite-based Airplane-based

Ground-based
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote Sensing Sensors


Passive sensors : collect electromagnetic
radiation in the visible and infra-red part of
the spectrum:
AerialPhotographs
Low resolution: Landsat, ASTER, SPOT, IRS
High Resolution: Quickbird, IKONOS

Active sensors : generate their own radiation:


Air-borne RADAR
Space borne RADAR: RISAT-1, RADARSAT
Lidar (laser scanner)
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Four types of resolution

Spatial resolution

Spectral resolution

Radiometric resolution

Temporal resolution
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

IKONOS IMAGE
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

IKONOS IMAGE OF DEHRADUN


I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Advantages of remote sensing


1. Global coverage 2. Synoptic view

3. Repeatability 4. Cost
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

PHYSICS OF REMOTE
SENSING
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Remote Sensing relies on the measurement of


ElectroMagnetic (EM) energy.
The most important source of EM energy is the sun
Some sensors detect energy emitted by the Earth itself or
provide their own energy (Radar)

EM energy can be modelled by (1) waves or (2)


energy bearing particles called photons
The two descriptions are not really contradictory.
The energy is emitted as photons, but its statistical
distribution over time is described by a wave.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Electromagnetic Waves
EM waves are produced by motion of electric charge
components and consists of
Electrical Field (E) which varies in magnitude in a
direction perpendicular to the direction in which the
radiation is traveling, and a
Magnetic Field (M) oriented at right angles to the
electrical field. Both these fields travel at the speed of
light (c). E

C
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Wavelength & frequency


Wavelength is the length of one wave cycle, which can be
measured as the distance between successive wave crests.
Wavelength is usually represented by the Greek letter lambda
().
Frequency
It refers to the number of cycles of a wave passing a fixed
point per unit of time.
Frequency is normally measured in hertz (Hz), equivalent to
one cycle per second, and various multiples of hertz.
Wavelength and frequency are related by the
following formula
Frequency, = c/

where, = wavelength
c = speed of light
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from the shorter
wavelengths (including gamma and x-rays) to the longer
wavelengths (including microwaves and broadcast radio
waves).

There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum


which are useful for remote sensing.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Visible range

The visible wavelengths cover


a range from approximately
0.4 to 0.7 m. The longest
visible wavelength is red and
the shortest is violet.

Violet: 0.4 - 0.446 m


Blue: 0.446 - 0.500 m
Green: 0.500 - 0.578 m
Yellow: 0.578 - 0.592 m
Orange: 0.592 - 0.620 m
Red: 0.620 - 0.7 m
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Applications of Visible Bands

Visible Blue Band (.45-.52 microns)


Visible Green Band (.52-.60 microns)
Visible Red Band (.63-.69 microns)
Panchromatic Bands (.50-.90 microns)
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Visible Blue Band (0.45-0.52 Micrometers)

Greatest water penetration


Greatest atmospheric scattering
Greatest absorption
Used for : water depth
water characteristics
detection of subsurface features
soil and vegetation discrimination
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Visible Green Band (0.52-0.60 Micrometers)

Vegetation discrimination
Urban Infrastructure
Less affected by atmospheric scattering
Chlorophyll Concentration
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Visible Red Band (0.63-0.69 Micrometers)

Chlorophyll absorption band of healthy green


vegetation.
Vegetation type
Plant condition
Least affected by atmospheric scattering
Less water penetration but good near surface
information ie. Water quality, sediment, and
chlorophyll.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Panchromatic Bands
(0.50-0.90 Micrometers)

Wide range of sensitivity


Visible to Near IR
Higher spatial resolution
Can be combined with other multi-spectral
bands.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Infrared range
Infrared region covers the
wavelength range from
approximately 0.7 m to 100
m
The infrared region can be
divided into two categories
based on their radiation
properties - the reflected IR,
and the emitted or thermal IR.
The reflected IR covers
wavelengths from approximately
0.7 m to 3.0 m.
The thermal IR covers
wavelengths from approximately
3.0 m to 100 m.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Thermal IR Remote Sensing


Thermal infrared radiation refers to
electromagnetic waves with a wavelength of
between 3 and 20 micrometers.

Most remote sensing applications make use of


the 3 to 5 and 8 to 14 micrometer range (due
to absorption bands).

The main difference between thermal infrared


and near infrared is that thermal infrared is
emitted energy, whereas the near infrared is
reflected energy, similar to visible light.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Microwave Remote Sensing


The portion of the spectrum
of more recent interest to
remote sensing is the
microwave region from about
1 mm to 1 m.

Longer wavelength
microwave radiation can
penetrate though cloud, fog,
haze etc as the longer
wavelengths are not
susceptible to atmospheric
scattering which affects
shorter optical wavelengths

Active Microwave has Night


Vision Capability
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

L-Band ALOS PALSAR


L-Band ALOS PALSAR
data for Dehradun
data for Dudhwa National
Park
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Pink and White- Even


(Double) bounce
scattering due to urban
features

Green :- Volume
scattering from forest
due to multiple reflection

Blue:- Dark blue


Surface scattering

RISAT-1, Hybrid-
Pol Data of
Dehradun
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Plancks law
It describes the amount of electromagnetic energy with a
certain wavelength radiated by a black body in thermal
equilibrium (i.e. the spectral radiance of a black body).

M = c1 -5 [exp (C2/ T) 1] -1
Where, c1 (3.74x10-16Wm2) and c2(1.44x10-2moK)are
constant, is the wavelength and T is the absolute
temperature.
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Stefans Boltzmans Law

The total energy M within all the wavelength can be


found out by integrating the Plancks equation from
=0 to =
Total Energy radiated by blackbody is

M=T4
Where
M = total radiant exitance from the surface of a
material (W m-2 ) = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2 (oK)4 (Stefan
Boltzman Constant) T = Absolute Temperature (K) of a
radiating body
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Weins Displacement Law


The spectral distribution of energy varies also with
temperature
The dominant wavelength at which a blackbody
radiation curve reached a maximum is related to
temperature by Weins Law:

where,

Hotter the object the shorter the wavelengths of


the maximum intensity emitted
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Specular Vs Diffused Reflections

Specular or mirror-like reflection occurs when


the surface is smooth
Diffuse reflection occurs when the surface is rough
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Criterion of Roughness
Rayleigh criterion considers a surface to be smooth if
h < / 8 sin
where, h = height of surface irregularities
= wavelength
= incident angle
and defines the rough surface if
h > / 8 sin
Peake and Oliver's modified Rayleigh criterion defines
the smooth, rough as well as intermediate surfaces
h < / 25 sin - smooth
h > / 4.4 sin - rough
/ 4.4 sin < h > / 25 Sin -intermediate surfaces
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Peake and Oliver's modified Rayleigh


criterion
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Spectral Reflectance
Spectral reflectance, (()), is the ratio of reflected energy
to incident energy as a function of wavelength.
The reflectance characteristics of the earths surface
features are expressed by spectral reflectance, which is
given by:
() = ( R() / I() ) x 100

Where, () = Spectral reflectance at a particular wavelength.


R() = Energy of wavelength reflected from object
I()= Energy of wavelength incident upon the object
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Spectral Reflectance Curve


I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Atmospheric Scattering
This occurs when the particles of gaseous molecules
present in the atmosphere cause the EM waves to be
redirected from the original path

Raleigh scattering : size atmospheric particles < than


the wavelengths of incoming radiation
Mie scattering : size atmospheric particles ~ than the
wavelengths of incoming radiation
Non-selective scattering : size atmospheric particles >
than the wavelengths of incoming radiation
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Atmospheric Windows
Gases absorb electromagnetic energy in very specific
regions of the spectrum
Those areas of the spectrum which are not severely
influenced by atmospheric absorption and thus, are useful
to remote sensors, are called atmospheric windows
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Atmospheric Windows
Name Wavelength Range
UltravioletVisible 0.30 0.75 m
Near-IR 0.77 0.90 m
Short-wave-IR 1.00 1.12, 1.19 1.34, 1.55
1.75,2.05 2.40 m

Thermal IR 3.50 4.16, 4.50 5.00, 8.00


9.20,10.20 12.40, 17.0 22. 00
m

Microwave
2.06 2.22, 7.50 11. 50 and
> 20.00 mm
I N D I A N I N S T I T U T E O F R E M O T E S E N S I N G, D E H R A D U N

Contact Details of the Faculty:

Email- shashi@iirs.gov.in
Tel- 0135-252-4119