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NCM 107 Directing, Controlling

July 18, 2017

DIRECTING - Individuals desire and responses to events

which prompts extraordinary effort to attain
- Issuance of assignments, orders and
goal and enthusiasm
instructions that permits the worker what is
expected of the to achieve organizational Levels of Motivation
goals and objectives
- Extrinsic Motivation- anticipated rewards or
Responsibilities in Directing avoidance of negative consequences in the
performance of action
- Promotive improve systems - Intrinsic- satisfaction derived from the action
- Preventive anticipate problems & difficulties
- Corrective institute measures to correct
- Transcendental- recognition of the usefulness
of action to some other person
- Regulatory preserve existing assignments
Theories of Motivation
Change Process
Content Theory- motivation factors or needs within a
- Change- purposeful, designed effort to bring
about improvements in a system, with the
assistance of change agent - Maslows Needs Theory
- Alderfers Theor- (Existence, Relatedness,
Theories of change
Growth) ERG
- Reddins theory- suggested seven techniques - Herzbergs Theory- two factor theory
by which change can be accomplished o Dissatisfiers or hygienic- (extrinsic)
o Diagnosis salary, job security, working condition,
o Mutual setting of objectives relationships
o Group emphasis o Satisfiers or non-hygienic- (intrinsic)
o Maximum Information achievement, recognition, reward,
o Discussion of Implementation advancement, work itself
o Use of Economy and Ritual - McClelland Theory- affiliation, achievement
o Resistance Interpretation and power
- Monistic/Scientific Theory- salary as the best
Lewins Theory motivating factor
- Unfreezing Stage- the nurse is motivated by Process Theory
the need to create change
- Moving Stage- the nurse will gather - Arousal Theory- focuses on internal process
information that mediate the effect of work performance
- Refreezing Stage- changes are integrated and - Expectancy Theory- focuses on peoples
stabilized as part of the value system expectation that their efforts will result in
good performance and valued results
Rogers Theory - Equity Theory- focuses on fair treatment
- Awareness Decision Making
- Interest
- Evaluation - A systematic, sequential process of choosing
- Trial among alternatives & putting those choices
- Adoption into action
Motivation Steps in Decision Making
- Forces that make or propels one to act in a - Identify problem
certain way - Prioritize problem
- Gather and analyze situation related to
- Evaluating all alternatives - Behavior- anchored list specific description
- Select an alternative for implementation of good, average and good performance
- Essay evaluation- describe strength and
weaknesses of employee. It evaluates
- The process by which managers attempt to - Critical incident- describe effective and
measure if actual activities conform to effective behavior of employee
planned activities
Objective exams
- A process wherein the performance is
measured and corrective action is taken to - Questions in objective form
ensure the accomplishment of organization - True and false
goal - Multiple choice
- Completion sentences
Steps in Control Process - Single answer
- Simple recall
1. Establish standards and criteria
- Matching
2. Measure performance
3. Compare results with standards Objective-Problem Situation Test
4. Match with standards
a. Yes- Do nothing or improve - Draw inference
b. No- Take corrective action - Interpret data
- Analysis
Performance Appraisal/Evaluation System - Select best
- Give reasons
- Process of evaluating employees performance
against standards Standard test
- To determine job competence
- Enhance staff development and motivate - Intermittent test- 5 or 10 seconds break in
employee fitness endurance
- Discover employees aspirations and recognize - Prognostic-used to predict patients, student
accomplishments development
- Improve communication - Achievement- a test of develop
- Aid managers in counseling and coaching skills/knowledge learned in a grade or level
- Determine training and developmental needs usually through planned instructions
of staff
Problem areas of evaluation
- Inventories of talent
- Legal purposes - Subordinates have not been motivated to
Methods of Evaluation want to change
- People are unable to make change
- Anecdotal records- objective description of - Subordinates become resentful and anxious
behavior when merit system is applied
- Rating scale- includes a series of items
Sequential steps in evaluation
representing the different tasks or activities in
the nurses job description or the absence or - Stating objectives
presence of desired behaviors and the extent - Defining changes in behavior expected as
to which these are possessed educational outcome
- Ranking- the evaluator ranks the employees - Listing briefly and describing situation that
according to how he/she fared with co- give opportunity for the expression of
workers with respect to certain aspect of behavior desired
performance or qualification
- Self-appraisal/self-rating Common errors of evaluation
- Peer review - Halo error- allowing one trait to influence the
- Paired comparison
evaluation of others or rating of all traits on
- Forced-choice
the basis of first impression
- Team evaluation- multiple raters
- Horn error- the evaluator is hypercritical
- Contrast error- managers rate the nurse Criteria
opposite the way they perceive themselves
- Measures the quality of care or standards
- Leniency of error
- Central tendency error- rating of all employees - Standard: nurses are professional in dealing
average (Performance appraisal, interview) with clients
- Criteria: greets them with corresponding
- Racial bias
- System design and operating problems- smiles
focuses on the method (system) and process
(operating) of evaluation
- Overgeneralization
- Recency of events error

Total quality

- Systematic process to improve outcomes

based on customers needs
- Dong the right thing- meeting the needs of
the customer. Building quality performance
into the work process. Employ scientific
approach to assessment and problem solving.

Quality assurance program

- Process of establishing a standard of

excellence of intervention and taking steps to
ensure that each patient receives the
expected level of care
- Fulfillment of social contract between society
and professions

Quality nursing care

- Presence of all elements/characteristics

specified in the standards
- Framework of Quality assurance
o Structure- instrumentalities in the
delivery of care (personnel, supplies
o Process- how the service was
o Outcome- results expected of the

Nursing Audit

- Official examination of: nursing records,

physical facilities, personnel involved in
patient care
- Too to analyze and evaluate nurses bedside
records and physical facilities
- Serves as a means of improving nursing care
by revealing existing deficiencies

Standard of care

- Yardstick for gauging the quality and quantity

of service
- Describes the quality of service