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Introduction

to aluminium structures
Frantiek Wald
Czech Technical University in Prague
Introduction
Pros and cones Mechanical material properties
History

Stages
Mobile roofing Steel reference material
Material oModulus of elasticity E = 70 000 N/mm2
Production
oShear modulus G = 27 000 N/mm2
Properties
HAZ
Buckling
oPoisson's ratio = 0,3

Welding
oCoefficient of linear thermal expansion
Bolting = 23 10-6 per oC;
Summary oUnit mass = 2 700 kg/m3
oMin elongation from 0,1 % till 14 %
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Master Course o Structural alloys more than 4 %

Sustainable Constructions
o Steel min 15 %, mostly 40 % and more
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Material properties at elevated temp.
History

Stages
Mobile roofing For service temperatures between 80C and 100C reduction of the
strength should be taken in account.
Material
All characteristic aluminium resistance values (fo, fu, fo,haz and fu,haz)
Production
may be reduced according to
Properties XkT = [1 - k100(T - 80) / 20] Xk
HAZ where:
Buckling
Xk is the characteristic value of a strength property of a
Welding material
Bolting
XkT is the characteristic strength value for the material at
Summary temperature T between 80C and 100 C
T is the highest temperature the structure is operating
k100 = 0,1 for strain hardening alloys
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(3xxx-alloys, 5xxx-alloys and EN AW 8011A)
k100 = 0,2 for precipitation hardening material
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
(6xxx-alloys and EN AW-7020)
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Pros and cones
History

Stages + Low weight 2700 kg\m3 mobile str.


Mobile roofing

Material
+ Unlimited choice of cross sections
Production
+ Corrosion resistant
Properties
HAZ + Low transition temperature
Buckling
+ Toughness at low temperatures
Welding
Bolting Low modulus of elasticity
Summary Round 70 000 MPa
Low fire resistance
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Melting point about 530 C
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Criteria for Selecting Aluminium
History

Stages
Mobile roofing
Weight reduction
Material
Production Maintenance aspects
Properties
HAZ Product costs
Buckling
Load criteria
Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 5
Introduction
Pros and cones History as material
History

Stages
Mobile roofing
16th cent. BC mentions in Egypt

Material
1808 - Sir Humpry Davy (England), extra insulation aluminum,
Production
aluminum named
Properties 1821 - Frenchman P. Berthier, near the town of Les Baux,
HAZ hard reddish and clayey material
Buckling containing 52 percent aluminum oxide, named as Bauxit.
1825 - Dane Hans Christian Oersted, metal dust grains
Welding
Bolting 1827 - German chemist Friedrich Wohler's first aluminum nugget
1854 - Henri Sainte-Claire (France) improved Whler method for initial
Summary
procurement, Napoleon III flagship spear tip

1870 - Sainte-Clare Deville melting furnace


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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Introduction
Pros and cones Civil Engineering Industry
History

Stages
Mobile roofing 1930s
Material
roof structures, building systems,
Production stairs, stairtowers, gangways, masts,
Properties silos, cranes, pylons, towers,
HAZ
Buckling
pedestrian bridges
Welding 1940s
Bolting
road bridges, particularly in the USA
Summary
1963
20 road bridges in the USA
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the longest 100 m


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction Stage
Pros and cones
History for Pope John Paul II. in Hradec Krlov in 1997
Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction Stage
Pros and cones
History for Pope John Paul II. in Hradec Krlov in 1997
Stages Installing the altar
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction Stage backdrop
Pros and cones
History for Carmen at the National Theatre Brno
Stages
Mobile roofing Design drawings
Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction Stage backdrop
Pros and cones
History for Carmen at the National Theatre Brno
Stages
Mobile roofing Frame scaffold
Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction Stage backdrop
Pros and cones
History for Carmen at the National Theatre Brno
Stages
Mobile roofing Frame scaffold
Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Movable roof
Pros and cones on the second courtyard in castel
History
Litomyl
Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Cross section of aluminum part
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction Structural diagram
Pros and cones
History of sliding aluminum parts
Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

The annual assembly on the ground and lifting up to 9 m


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

The annual assembly on the ground and lift up to 9 m


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones
Protection
History
against
Stages
Mobile roofing
rain
Material
and
Production
sun
Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Sustainable Constructions 18
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Albeny, UK
Introduction
Pros and cones
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions 19
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Eaves moment connection
Introduction
Pros and cones
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Sustainable Constructions 20
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Eaves moment connection
Introduction
Pros and cones
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions 21
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Principal groups of aluminium alloys
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 22
Introduction
Pros and cones Processing aluminium alloys
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 23
Introduction
Pros and cones Heat treatable alloys
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course Example of phase diagram for Mg2Si in aluminium
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 24
Introduction Classification examples
Pros and cones
History of commonly used alloys
Stages
Mobile roofing
EN573 ISO
Material
Production
1050A Al 99,5
Properties 1070A Al 99,7
HAZ
Buckling 2017A AlCu4MgSi
Welding 3103 AlMn1
Bolting
5052 AlMg2,5
Summary

5454 AlMg2,7Mn

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5083 AlMg4,5Mn
Master Course

6060 AlMgSi
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
25
and Catastrophic Events
6063 AlMg0,5Si
Introduction
Pros and cones Temper designation
History

Stages
Mobile roofing F as-fabricated
Material O annealed
Production
H strain hardened
Properties
HAZ W solution heat treated
Buckling

Welding
T thermally treated to produce stable tempers
Bolting other than F, O, and H
Summary

EN 515 (1993)
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Master Course URL: http://aluminium.matter.org.uk/aluselect/
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 26
Introduction
Pros and cones Extrusions for structural applications
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
The direct extrusion press arrangement
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 27
Introduction
Pros and cones Direct extrusion of hollow sections
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 28
Introduction
Pros and cones Optimising extruded section design
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 29
Introduction
Pros and cones Wall thickness
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions 30
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
0,2% proof strength fo
Pros and cones
History
and ultimate tensile strength fu
EN 1999-1-1 Table 3.2
Stages
Mobile roofing
f 4)
Thick- fo 1) fu 1) A 5) 2) o,haz fu,haz4) HAZ-factor4)
Alloy Product , BC np
Material EN-AW
Temper ness t
6)
form mm 1) 3) 7)
Production N/mm2 % N/mm2 ro,haz ru,haz
EP,ET,ER/B,DT T4 t<25 110 180 50 95 150 0,86 0,83 B 8
6061
Properties EP,ET,ER/B,DT T6 t 20 240 260 8 115 175 0,48 0,67 A 55
HAZ
Buckling Characteristic values of
0,2% proof strength fo
Welding and ultimate tensile strength fu (unwelded and for HAZ),
Bolting min elongation A,
reduction factors o,haz and u,haz in HAZ,
Summary
buckling class and exponent np
for wrought aluminium alloys - Extruded profiles, extruded tube,
extruded rod/bar and drawn tube
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EP - Extruded profiles EP/O - Extruded open profiles
EP/H - Extruded hollow profiles ET - Extruded tube
Sustainable Constructions ER/B - Extruded rod and bar DT - Drawn tube
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 31
Introduction
Pros and cones Material properties up to 80C
History

Stages
Mobile roofing
Characteristic values of
Material
the 0,2% proof strength fo
Production

the ultimate tensile strength fu


Properties
HAZ
Buckling
are applicable for structures subject to service
temperatures up to 80C
Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 32
Introduction Heat affected zone HAZ
Pros and cones
History softening adjacent to welds bhaz
Stages
Mobile roofing The extent of heat-affected zones softening
Material
adjacent to welds bhaz
Production
bhaz bhaz
Properties
HAZ bhaz bhaz
Buckling
bhaz bhaz
Welding bhaz bhaz
Bolting

Summary bhaz
bhaz bhaz
bhaz

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bhaz
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 33
Introduction Extent of heat-affected zones
Pros and cones
History softening adjacent to welds bhaz
Stages
Mobile roofing For a MIG weld laid on unheated material,
Material
and with interpass cooling to 60oC or less when
Production multi-pass welds are laid, values of are as
Properties
follows:
HAZ
Buckling 0 < t 6 mm = 20 mm
Welding 6 < t 12 mm = 30 mm
Bolting
12 < t 25 mm = 35 mm
Summary
t > 25 mm = 40 mm

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 34
Introduction
Pros and cones Severity of softening haz
History

Stages
Mobile roofing Reduction factor in the heat affected zone for
Material
the characteristic value of the 0,2 % proof
Production strengths f o,haz
o,haz =
Properties fo
HAZ
Buckling
Reduction factor for the ultimate strength
Welding
fu,haz
Bolting u,haz =
fu t
Summary

t haz
bhaz
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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
bhaz bhaz
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 35
Introduction
Pros and cones
Reduction factor in the heat affected zone
History EN 1999-1-1 Table 3.2

Stages
Mobile roofing
Thick- fo fu A fo,haz fu,haz HAZ-factor
Alloy Product np
Material EN-AW
Temper ness t BC
form mm
Production N/mm2 % N/mm2 ro,haz ru,haz
EP,ET,ER/B,DT T4 t<25 110 180 50 95 150 0,86 0,83 B 8
6061
Properties EP,ET,ER/B,DT T6 t 20 240 260 8 115 175 0,48 0,67 A 55
HAZ
Buckling
Characteristic values of
Welding 0,2% proof strength fo and ultimate tensile strength fu (unwelded and
Bolting for HAZ), min elongation A,
reduction factors o,haz and u,haz in HAZ,
Summary buckling class and exponent np
for wrought aluminium alloys
Extruded profiles, extruded tube, extruded rod/bar and drawn tube
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EP - Extruded profiles EP/O - Extruded open profiles
EP/H - Extruded hollow profiles ET - Extruded tube
Sustainable Constructions ER/B - Extruded rod and bar DT - Drawn tube
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 36
Introduction The design buckling resistance
Pros and cones
History of a compression member
Stages
Mobile roofing Nb,Rd = Aeff fo / M1
Material
Production
where:
is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode
Properties
HAZ is a factor to allow for the weakening effects of welding
Buckling
Aeff is the effective area allowing for local buckling for class
Welding 4 cross-section
Bolting
Aeff = A for class 1, 2 or 3 cross-section
Summary

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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 37
Introduction
Pros and cones Buckling curves
History

Stages
Mobile roofing
Two buckling curves
Material 1
Production
Formulas as for steel =
2 2
2 +
Properties = 0,5 (1 + ( 0 ) + )
HAZ
Buckling where: Aeff f o
=
Welding N cr
Bolting

Summary is an imperfection factor


0 is the limit of the horizontal plateau
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Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant
buckling mode based on the gross cross-
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
sectional properties
and Catastrophic Events 38
Introduction Imperfection factor
Pros and cones
History and limit of the horizontal plateau
Stages
Mobile roofing
Material buckling class
0
Material
Production Class A 0,20 0,10
Properties Class B 0,32 0,00
HAZ
Buckling

Welding Class A usually


Bolting T6 solution heat treated and then artificially aged
Summary
Class B usually
T5 cooled from an elevated temperature shaping
process and then artificially aged
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T4 solution heat treated and naturally aged to a
Master Course
substantially table condition
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction Reduction factor
Pros and cones
History for flexural buckling
Stages
Mobile roofing
Reduction factor
Material for flexural buckling
Production 1

0,9 Buckling class A material


Properties 0,8 1
HAZ 0,7 2
Buckling Buckling class B material
0,6
0,5
Welding
Bolting 0,4
0,3
Summary 0,2
0,1
0
0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0

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Relative slenderness
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Introduction
Pros and cones
Material buckling class
EN 1999-1-1 Table 3.2
History

Stages
Mobile roofing
Thick- f o) fu A) fo,haz fu,haz HAZ-factor
Alloy Product
Material EN-AW
Temper ness t BC np
form mm
Production N/mm2 % N/mm2 ro,haz ru,haz
EP,ET,ER/B,DT T4 t<25 110 180 50 95 150 0,86 0,83 B 8
6061
Properties EP,ET,ER/B,DT T6 t 20 240 260 8 115 175 0,48 0,67 A 55
HAZ
Buckling Characteristic values of
0,2% proof strength fo
Welding and ultimate tensile strength fu (unwelded and for HAZ),
Bolting min elongation A,
reduction factors o,haz and u,haz in HAZ,
Summary
buckling class
and exponent np
for wrought aluminium alloys - Extruded profiles, extruded tube,
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extruded rod/bar and drawn tube
Master Course
EP - Extruded profiles EP/O - Extruded open profiles
EP/H - Extruded hollow profiles ET - Extruded tube
Sustainable Constructions ER/B - Extruded rod and bar DT - Drawn tube
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 41
Introduction
Pros and cones Comparison to steel
History

Stages
Mobile roofing
Al
Material Al
Production
Steel a
Properties Steel b
HAZ
Buckling
Steel c
Steel d
Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Introduction
Pros and cones Cross section 60 x 3 40 x 2
History

Stages
Mobile roofing BC B EN- AW 6060 temper T5

Material
BC A EN- AW 6060 temper T6
Production

Properties Steel S235 Buckling curve a


y
HAZ 23
8
Buckling R8
8
5 5
Welding
h=
Bolting
144 z
114

Summary

b = 32 5
57
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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions 43
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction Buckling resistance
Pros and cones
History of member with longitudinal welds
Stages
Mobile roofing Nb,Rd = Aeff fo / M1
Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting bhaz

Summary

bhaz
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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 44
Introduction Buckling resistance
Pros and cones
History of member with localized welds
Stages
Mobile roofing
Member subject to HAZ softening, should
Material generally be based on the ultimate strength
Production of the HAZ softened material
Properties Nb,Rd = Aeff fo / M1
HAZ
Buckling
In case of transversally welded member = x
Welding
Bolting The reduction factors
Summary
u,haz f u / M2
0 = x = xLT = but 1,00
f o / M1
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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Introduction
Pros and cones Members containing localized welds
History

Stages
HAZ softening occurs close to the ends of the bay
Mobile roofing
N N
Material u,haz f u / M2
Production 0 = but 0 1,00 xs xs
f o / M1
Properties
0 lc lc
HAZ x =
xs
Buckling + (1 ) sin
lc N
Welding
Bolting

Summary where N
is depending on buckling direction
xs is the distance from the localized weld to a support or point
of contra flexure for the deflection curve for elastic buckling of axial
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lc is the buckling length
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 46
Introduction Characteristic strength values
Pros and cones
History of weld metal fw
Stages
Mobile roofing Characte- Filler
Alloy
ristic metal
strength
Material 3103 5052 5083 5454 6060 6005A 6061 6082 7020
Production
fw [N/mm2] 5356 - 170 240 220 160 180 190 210 260
Properties
HAZ
4043A 95 - - - 150 160 170 190 210
Buckling

Welding o Combinations of parent metal and filler metal


Bolting
o Approximatelly fw (2 fu + ff)/3
Summary
fu strength of basic material
ff strength of filler metal
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Master Course o Strength of the weld metal is usually lower than the
strength of the parent metal except for the strength in the
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
HAZ
and Catastrophic Events 47
Introduction
Pros and cones Full Penetration Butt Welds
History

Stages
Mobile roofing
F,
Material
Production
t
b
Properties
HAZ
Buckling F,

Welding
F,
Bolting
t
Summary b
F,

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 48
Introduction
Pros and cones
Design resistance in HAZ
History Tensile force perpendicular to the failure plane
Stages
Mobile roofing
- HAZ butt welds:
haz,Ed fu,haz /Mw
Material
Production
at the toe of the weld (full cross section)

Properties
- HAZ fillet welds:
HAZ
Buckling haz,Ed fu,haz /Mw
at the fusion boundary
Welding
Bolting and at the toe of the weld (full cross section)
Summary
where:
haz,Ed design normal stress perpendicular to the weld axis;
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t thickness connected member
Master Course
fu,haz characteristic strength HAZ
Sustainable Constructions Mw material factor for welded joints
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 49
Introduction
Pros and cones
Design resistance in HAZ
History Shear force in failure plane
Stages
Mobile roofing
- HAZ butt welds:
Material haz,Ed fv,haz /Mw
Production at the toe of the weld (full cross section)
Properties
HAZ - HAZ fillet welds:
Buckling
haz,Ed fv,haz /Mw
Welding at the toe of the weld (full cross section)
Bolting

Summary where:
haz,Ed shear stress parallel to the weld axis
fv,haz characteristic shear strength HAZ
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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 50
Introduction
Pros and cones
Design resistance in HAZ
History Combined shear and tension
Stages
Mobile roofing
- HAZ butt welds:
Material 2 2
Production
haz,Ed + 3 haz,Ed fu,haz /Mw

Properties at toe of the weld (full cross section)


HAZ
Buckling

Welding - HAZ fillet welds:


Bolting
2
haz, 2
Ed + 3 haz,Ed
fu,haz /Mw
Summary

at the toe of the weld (full cross section)

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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 51
Introduction
Pros and cones Bolting
History

Stages
Mobile roofing
Design of bolted joints
Material for dry and severe corrosive environments
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 52
Introduction 0,2 % proof strength fo and ultimate strength fu
Pros and cones
History for bolts and solid rivets
Stages
Mobile roofing
Alloy
Material Type of Numerical Temper fo fu
Material Diameter
Production fastener designation: or grade N/mm2 N/mm2
EN AW-.
Properties
HAZ A2, A4 50 39 210 500
Buckling Stainless
Bolts A2, A4 70 39 450 700
Steel
Welding
A2, A4 80 39 600 800
Bolting

Summary

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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Introduction
Pros and cones Summary
History

Stages a) Principle processing steps


Mobile roofing
b) Grain structure,
Material c) Constituent and dispersoid particles
Production
d) Texture
Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Summary
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Summary
History

Stages
Mobile roofing

Material
Production

Properties
HAZ
Buckling

Welding
Bolting

Summary

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Summary
History

Stages
Mobile roofing Temper influences the HAZ
Material
Production Alloy Product
Thick- fo fu A fo,haz, fu,haz HAZ-factor
Temper ness t BC np
EN-AW form mm N/mm2 % N/mm2 o,haz u,haz
Properties O / H111, F, 12
ET, EP,ER/B t 200 110 270 110 270 1 1 B 5
HAZ H112
5083 H12/22/32 t 10 200 280 6 0,68 0,96 B 14
Buckling DT 135 270
H14/24/34 t5 235 300 4 0,57 0,90 A 18

Welding
Bolting

Summary

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Summary
History

Stages
Mobile roofing Buckling influenced by Modulus of elasticity
Material
Production

1,0
Properties
HAZ
Buckling
0,8

S 235
Welding 0,6
Bolting
ffyy ==235 MPa;2; ==0,21
235N/mm 0,21; curve A)
(kivka b

0,4 EN AW-6082
Summary T6, tepeln upraven;
Temper T6, BC A; f0 = 250 MPa,
fo = 250 N/mm 2; = 0,20
0,2 = 0,20; 0 = 0

European Erasmus Mundus


0,0
Master Course
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Thank you
for your attention

Frantiek WALD
wald@fsv.cvut.cz
Introduction
Pros and cones Notes to users of the lecture
History

Stages
Mobile roofing Text books
Hodlung T., Tindall P., Design guide to Eurocode 9: Design to aluminium structures, EN
Material 1999-1-1 and -1-4, ICE Publishing, London, 2012, ISBN 978-0-72277-5737-1.
Production Valtinat G., Aluminium im Konstruktiven Ingenierbau, BauingenieringPraxis,
Ernst&Sohn, 2003. ISBN 3-433-01784-0.
Properties Bulson P.S.: Aluminium structural analysis: recent European advances, Elsevier,
HAZ London, 1992, ISBN 1-85166-660-5.
Buckling Mazzolani F. M.: Aluminium alloy structures (second edition), E & FN SPON, London,
1995.
Welding Mazzolani F. M.: Stability problems of aluminium alloys members, the ECCS methodology,
Bolting Structural Stability and design, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1995.
Kosteas D.: European Recommendation for fatigue design of Aluminium Structures,
Proceeding of the 5th International conference on aluminium weldments, INACO,
Summary
Munich, 1992.
Bulson P. S.: The new British design code for aluminium BS 8118, Proceeding of the 5th
International conference on aluminium weldments, INACO, Munich, 1992.
European recommendation for aluminium alloy structures, ECCS publication, No. 26,
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course Brusel, 1978.

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
Pros and cones Sources
History

Stages
Mobile roofing EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures:
General structural rules, CEN, Brussels, 2008.
Material
Production Bulson P.S.: Aluminium structural analysis:
Properties recent European advances, Elsevier, London,
HAZ 1992, ISBN 1-85166-660-5.
Buckling
Educational programme TALAT
Welding
Bolting www.eaa.net/eaa/education/TALAT
Summary

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events