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Basic Training Handbook SUBJECT 6: NAVIGATION Issue 1

SUBJECT 6: NAVIGATION

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Basic Training Handbook SUBJECT 6: NAVIGATION Issue 1

Table of Contents
SUBJECT 6: NAVIGATION ........................................................................................................................... 1

LIST OF FIGURE.......................................................................................................................................... 4

LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................................................... 5

APPENDICES .............................................................................................................................................. 6

1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 7
1.1 PURPOSE AND USE OF NAVIGATION ...........................................................................................................7
1.1.1 Need for Navigation in Aviation ...........................................................................................7
1.1.2 Navigation Methods ................................................................................................................10

2. THE EARTH .................................................................................................................................. 17


2.1 FORM OF THE EARTH .........................................................................................................................17
2.1.1 Shape of the Earth ...............................................................................................................17
2.1.3 Accepted conventions for describing 2D position on a globe ........................................22
2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS, DIRECTION AND DISTANCE ...............................................................................26
2.2.1 General Principles of reference systems ..........................................................................26
2.3 EARTHS MAGNETISM .........................................................................................................................30

3. NAVIGATIONAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE.................................................................................. 36


3.1 FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTRONICS NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE ...........................................................36
3.1.1 How radio waves propagate ..............................................................................................36
3.1.2 Important of terrestrial navigation aid ...........................................................................40
3.2 PERFORMANCE OF NAVIGATION SYSTEM .............................................................................................41
3.2.1 System performance requirements...................................................................................41
3.2.2 Redundancy in navigation System ....................................................................................41
3.3 MEANS OF NAVIGATION ......................................................................................................................45
3.3.1 Different means of navigation ...........................................................................................45

4. NAVIGATION SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................ 47


4.1 TERRESTRIAL NAVIGATION AIDS .........................................................................................................47
4.1.1 Basic Working principles of electronics positioning ......................................................47
4.1.2 Ground-Based Navigation ..................................................................................................52
4.1.3 Navigation Information displayed.........................................................................................55

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4.1.4 Operational used of Ground-Based Navigation systems ......................................................57


4.1.5 Frequency bands used by the ground-based navigation systems ................................64
4.1.6 CALIBRATION ........................................................................................................................66
4.2 ON-BOARD NAVIGATION SYSTEMS ......................................................................................................69
4.2.1 Use of On-Board navigation System ........................................................................................69
4.3 SPACE-BASED NAVIGATION SYSTEM ....................................................................................................71
4.3.1 Working Principles of Satellite Positioning ..............................................................................71
4.3.2 Architecture of a Core satellite positioning Systems. ..............................................................72
4.3.3 Frequency Bands used by the Space-Based Navigation Sustem .............................................76
4.3.4 Benefits of Satellite Bases Navigation .....................................................................................78
4.3.5 Current Limitations of space-based Navigation systems ................................................80
4.3.6 Working Principles of Satellite Augmentation ................................................................80
4.3.7 Implementations of Satellite-Based Navigation Systems ..............................................82

5. PERFORMANCE-BASED NAVIGATION ........................................................................................ 87


5.1 PBN ..................................................................................................................................................87
5.1.1 Principle of Area Navigation ..................................................................................................87
5.2 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS ....................................................................................................................91
5.2.1 Future Navigation Developments ......................................................................................91

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Basic Training Handbook LIST OF FIGURE Issue 1

LIST OF FIGURE

FIGURE 1: ADJUSTMENT OF AN AIRCRAFT'S HEADING TO COMPENSATE FOR WIND FLOW PERPENDICULAR TO THE GROUND
TRACK........................................................................................................................................................8

FIGURE 2: THE AIRCRAFT IN THE PICTURE IS FLYING TOWARDS B TO COMPENSATE FOR THE WIND FROM SW AND REACH POINT
C. .............................................................................................................................................................8
FIGURE 3: ACCURACY OF NAVIGATION SYSTEM ..........................................................................................................9
FIGURE 4: EARTHS ROTTATION .............................................................................................................................22
FIGURE 5: MERIDIANS AND PARALLELSTHE BASIS OF MEASURING TIME, DISTANCE, AND DIRECTION ..........................23

FIGURE 6: (A) LATITUDE IS DETERMINED BY THE ANGLE BETWEEN A POINT ON THE EARTHS SURFACE AND THE EQUATOR.
LATITUDE ANGLES ARE BETWEEN 0 AND 90. (B) CONNECTING ALL THE POINTS ON EARTHS SURFACE THAT ARE AT 30
AND 60 ANGLES FROM THE EQUATOR. ..........................................................................................................24

FIGURE 7: GLOBAL REFERENCE SYSTEM ...................................................................................................................28


FIGURE 8: EARTH'S DECLINATION, INCLINATION AND FIELD'S STRENGHT .......................................................................32
FIGURE 9: THE IMAGE SHOWS AN ARTIST RENDITION OF THE CHARGED PARTICLES INTERACTING WITH EARTHS MAGNETIC
FIELD. THE VOLUME CONTAINING EARTHS FIELD IS CALLED THE MAGNETOSPHERE (BY_NASA) ...............................33

FIGURE 10: SKY-WAVE OR SKIP PROPAGATION ........................................................................................................38


FIGURE 11: SKYWAVES, RADIO WAVES....................................................................................................................39
FIGURE 12: REGIONS IN ALTITUDE .........................................................................................................................39
FIGURE 13: AIRCRAFT NEAR THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH AT R/ AND A RADIO STATION. ..................................................49
FIGURE 14: GROUND-BASED NAVAIDS....................................................................................................................52
FIGURE 15: VOR INDICATOR .............................................................................................................................58
FIGURE 16: PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF DME .......................................................................................................59
FIGURE 17: COVERAGE VOLUME OF THE AZIMUTH STATION........................................................................................62
FIGURE 18: COVERAGE VOLUMES OF THE ELEVATION STATION ....................................................................................63
FIGURE 19: PULSE-LIMITED ALTIMETRY ..................................................................................................................70
FIGURE 20: GALILEO ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW ......................................................................................................75
FIGURE 21: SPECTRA OF GALILEO SIGNALS IN E2-L1-E1 [1]. .....................................................................................77

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1: GROUND RANGE AS A FUNCTION OF ALTITUDE AND SLANT RANGE .................................................................59


TABLE 2: DME/VOR CHANNEL PAIRING ................................................................................................................60
TABLE 3: FREQUENCY ALLOCATION ........................................................................................................................65
TABLE 4: GALILEO SIGNALS MAIN CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................................................76

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APPENDICES

APPENDIX A - SUB-TOPIC 1.1 QUESTIONS .........................................................................................................16


APPENDIX B- SUB-TOPIC 2.1 QUESTIONS ..........................................................................................................25
APPENDIX C- SUB-TOPIC 2.2 QUESTIONS ..........................................................................................................29
APPENDIX D- SUB-TOPIC 2.3 QUESTIONS..........................................................................................................35
APPENDIX E- SUB-TOPIC 3.1 QUESTIONS ..........................................................................................................40
APPENDIX F- SUB-TOPIC 3.2 QUESTIONS ..........................................................................................................44
APPENDIX G- SUB-TOPIC 3.3 QUESTIONS..........................................................................................................46
APPENDIX H- SUB-TOPIC 4.1 QUESTIONS..........................................................................................................68
APPENDIX I- SUB-TOPIC 4.2 QUESTIONS ...........................................................................................................70
APPENDIX J- SUB-TOPIC 4.3 QUESTIONS ...........................................................................................................86
APPENDIX K- SUB-TOPIC 5.1 QUESTIONS ..........................................................................................................90
APPENDIX L- SUB-TOPIC 5.2 QUESTIONS ..........................................................................................................92

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose and Use of Navigation


The basic principles of air navigation are identical to general navigation, which
includes the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of a
craft from one place to another.
Successful air navigation involves piloting an aircraft from place to place without
getting lost, breaking the laws applying to aircraft, or endangering the safety of
those on board or on the ground. Air navigation differs from the navigation of
surface craft in several ways; Aircraft travel at relatively high speeds, leaving less
time to calculate their position on route. Aircraft normally cannot stop in mid-air
to ascertain their position at leisure. Aircraft are safety-limited by the amount of
fuel they can carry; a surface vehicle can usually get lost, run out of fuel, then
simply await rescue. There is no in-flight rescue for most aircraft. Additionally,
collisions with obstructions are usually fatal. Therefore, constant awareness of
position is critical for aircraft pilots.

1.1.1 Need for Navigation in Aviation

Important of Positioning

Finding absolute position, velocity, and attitude over time with respect to a pre-
defined reference.

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Figure 1: Adjustment of an aircraft's heading to compensate for wind flow perpendicular


to the ground track

Figure 2: The aircraft in the picture is flying towards B to compensate for the wind
from SW and reach point C.

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Importance of Guidance

A guidance system is usually part of a Guidance, navigation and control system,


whereas navigation refers to the systems necessary to calculate the current
position and orientation based on sensor data like those from compasses, GPS
receivers, Loran-C, star trackers, inertial measurement units, altimeters, etc. The
output of the navigation system, the navigation solution, is an input for the
guidance system, among others like the environmental conditions (wind, water,
temperature, etc.) and the vehicle's characteristics (i.e. mass, control system
availability, control systems correlation to vector change, etc.). In general, the
guidance system computes the instructions for the control system, which
comprises the object's actuators (e.g., thrusters, reaction wheels, body flaps, etc.),
which are able to manipulate the flight path and orientation of the object without
direct or continuous human control.

Figure 3: Accuracy of Navigation System

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1.1.2 Navigation Methods

The history of aircraft navigation

In 1952, when the SAS made the historic first flight between the United States and
Scandinavia via the Arctic, navigation was a major challenge. The principal method
was astronavigation, in which the sun, moon, and stars were used to determine
position.
To be able to steer the right course at these high latitudes, navigators had to
develop new tools, such as a high-precision polar gyro that made it possible to
chart a route using a grid map that had been specially designed for use in the Arctic.
The navigation capability of todays smartphones, with their built-in Global
Positioning System (GPS), would make 1950s navigators drop their jaws, but their
pioneering work bore fruit in 1960 when the jets started flying the Arctic route.
Fixed radio beacons were rare in the Arctic, but by using ground-based pairs of
radio transmitters that broadcast similar signals at identical intervals, the
navigators could plot the route according to the time difference between the
signals a method that formed the basis of the LORAN system.
Today the standard is GPS, originally developed in the 1960s to satisfy the
navigational needs of the US military. Russia has its own GPS system called
GLONASS, and soon China and the EU will have their own GPS satellites in operation.

In todays modern aircraft, all systems are integrated under the Flight Management
System. Navigation including GPS, inertial navigation, and traditional radio
beacons such as VOR is incorporated in the autopilot system and controlled by
another integrated part of the navigation system.
The pilots type data into their Flight Management Computer (FMC), and during
flight the system calculates positioning with the data it receives from satellites, GPS,
inertial navigation, and radio beacons.
An important part is the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC), which
improves navigation, communication, monitoring, and traffic flow by using satellite
data links, with full coverage over oceans. This system enables the aircraft and air
traffic control to communicate via text messages through the FMC, a method the

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pilots consider seamless and smooth.


The CPDLC is a massive help on transatlantic flights, says SAS captain Per Elenborg.
In the past, all communication, including positional reporting and other messages,
was carried by HF radio on frequencies shared with many other -aircraft, which
could sometimes make simple messages unnecessarily complex to send.
The high precision of GPS navigation means that aircraft can fly in closer proximity
to one another, thereby increasing airspace capacity.
A lot has happened since 1952 when a Douglas DC-6B set off across North America
and the Atlantic toward Copenhagen. With a crew of 13 and a journey time of 28
hours, the flight between Los Angeles and Copenhagen was the embodiment of a
major project.
Navigation was handled by two navigators who shared the burden of monitoring
the course based on observations of celestial bodies. One of them wrote the
forward speed of the flight on the chart and monitored the gyro. The second
navigator checked the aircrafts grid course every 20 minutes using a sextant and
took observations of three stars every 30 minutes to determine position.

Visual navigation Description

Visual navigation is a technique often employed in light aircraft, which operate at


relatively low speeds and heights, when weather is good and visual contact can be
maintained with the ground for most of the flight.
Poor visual navigation is often cited as a cause of airspace infringement.
Pre-flight Preparation
As with other modes of navigation, pre-flight preparation is extremely important.
After aeronautical information, including NOTAMs, has been checked and a
meteorological briefing obtained, the route must be selected and marked on the
map, avoiding controlled airspace, danger areas, etc.; or if it is intended to enter
controlled airspace for part of the flight, the point of entry and departure must be
plotted and defined by reference to a radio beacon or airway reporting point.

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The route should be selected by reference to a topographical map, so that best use
is made of ground features to facilitate navigation; for example, the route might
follow a line feature (e.g. a coastline, railway or river) and turn at easily identified
positions (e.g. a railway intersection, lake, or prominent town).
Ideally, a topographical map marked with airspace restrictions should be used.

Flying the Route


Fold the map so that it is easy to use in the cockpit, and so that it unfolds naturally
to follow the route. Hold the map so that the direction of flight is at the top - not
North; by doing this, 'left' on the map will correspond to 'left' on the ground and
map reading will be much easier.
Always be aware of the minimum safe altitude and the location of airspace
reservations - above and below as well as on either side of track.
Always be aware of the minimum safe altitude and the location of airspace
reservations - above and below as well as on either side of track.
Navigating from Map to Ground or from Ground to Map
The easiest way to navigate visually is by selecting ground features which are
marked on the map and looking for them on the ground. If the weather is fine, this
is not difficult provided that unique, prominent ground features have been chosen.
However, if there is cloud below or the visibility is poor it may be difficult to find
the selected features.
The easiest way to navigate visually is by selecting ground features which are
marked on the map and looking for them on the ground. If the weather is fine, this
is not difficult provided that unique, prominent ground features have been chosen.
However, if there is cloud below or the visibility is poor it may be difficult to find
the selected features.
Also modern navigation systems based on GPS can be used as a supplementary
mean of navigation. However, such systems must be certified so they are very
expensive for the normal VFR flying. An extensive list of GPS-based navigation tools
is available here: VFR navigation tools table.

Celestial navigation

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Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient science of


position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without
having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
Celestial navigation uses "sights," or angular measurements taken between a
celestial body (the sun, the moon, a planet or a star) and the visible horizon. The
sun is most commonly used, but navigators can also use the moon, a planet, Polaris,
or one of 57 other navigational stars whose coordinates are tabulated in
the nautical almanac and air almanacs.
Celestial navigation is the use of angular measurements (sights) between celestial
bodies and the visible horizon to locate one's position on the globe, on land as well
as at sea. At a given time, any celestial body is located directly over one point on
the Earth's surface. The latitude and longitude of that point is known as the
celestial bodys geographic position (GP), the location of which can be determined
from tables in the Nautical or Air Almanac for that year.

Radio navigation

Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to


determine a position of an object on the Earth. Like radiolocation, it is a type
of radiodetermination.
The basic principles are measurements from/to electric beacons, especially
directions, e.g. by bearing, radio phases or interferometry,
distances, e.g. ranging by measurement of travel times,
partly also velocity, e.g. by means of radio Doppler shift.
Bearing-measurement systems
These systems used some form of directional radio antenna to determine the
location of a broadcast station on the ground. Conventional navigation techniques
are then used to take a radio fix. These were introduced prior to World War I, and
remain in use today.
Radio direction finding
The first system of radio navigation was the Radio Direction Finder, or RDF. By
tuning in a radio station and then using a directional antenna, one could
determine the direction to the broadcasting antenna. A second measurement
using another station was then taken. Using triangulation, the two directions can be

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plotted on a map where their intersection reveals the location of the navigator.
Commercial AM radio stations can be used for this task due to their long range and
high power, but strings of low-power radio beacons were also set up specifically for
this task, especially near airports and harbours.
Early RDF systems normally used a loop antenna, a small loop of metal wire that is
mounted so it can be rotated around a vertical axis.[3] At most angles the loop has
a fairly flat reception pattern, but when it is aligned perpendicular to the station
the signal received on one side of the loop cancels the signal in the other,
producing a sharp drop in reception known as the "null". By rotating the loop and
looking for the angle of the null, the relative bearing of the station can be
determined. Loop antennas can be seen on most pre-1950s aircraft and ships.

Reverse RDF
The main problem with RDF is that it required a special antenna on the vehicle,
which may not be easy to mount on smaller vehicles or single-crew aircraft. A
smaller problem is that the accuracy of the system is based to a degree on the size
of the antenna, but larger antennas would likewise make the installation more
difficult.
ADF and NDB
A great advance in the RDF technique was introduced in the form of phase
comparisons of a signal as measured on two or more small antennas, or a single
highly directional solenoid. These receivers were dramatically smaller, more
accurate, and simpler to operate. Combined with the introduction of
the transistor and integrated circuit, RDF systems were so reduced in size and
complexity that they once again became quite common during the 1960s, and
were known by the new name, automatic direction finder, or ADF.
This also led to a revival in the operation of simple radio beacons for use with these
RDF systems, now referred to as non-directional beacons (NDB). As the LF/MF
signals used by NDBs can follow the curvature of earth, NDB has a much greater
range than VOR which travels only in line of sight. NDB can be categorized as long
range or short range depending on their power. The frequency band allotted to
non-directional beacons is 1901750 kHz, but the same system can be used with
any common AM-band commercial station.

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Low frequency radio range


The low-frequency radio range (LFR, also other names) was the main navigation
system used by aircraft for instrument flying in the 1930s and 1940s in the U.S.
and other countries, until the advent of the VOR in the late 1940s. It was used for
both en route navigation as well as instrument approaches.
Glide path and the localizer of ILS
The remaining widely used beam systems are glide path and the localizer of
the instrument landing system (ILS). ILS uses a localizer to provide horizontal
position, distance to the runway, and airport information, and glide path to
provide vertical positioning. ILS can provide enough accuracy and redundancy to
allow automated landings.
Transponder systems
Positions can be determined with any two measures of angle or distance. The
introduction of radar in the 1930s provided a way to directly determine the
distance to an object even at long distances. Navigation systems based on these
concepts soon appeared, and remained in widespread use until recently. Today
they are used primarily for aviation, although GPS has largely supplanted this role.

Radar and transponders

Early radar systems, like the UK's Chain Home, consisted of large transmitters and
separate receivers. The transmitter periodically sends out a short pulse of a powerful
radio signal, which is sent into space through broadcast antennas. When the signal
reflects off a target, some of that signal is reflected back in the direction of the station,
where it is received. The received signal is a tiny fraction of the broadcast power, and
has to be powerfully amplified in order to be used.

The same signals are also sent over local electrical wiring to the operator's station,
which is equipped with an oscilloscope. Electronics attached to the oscilloscope
provides a signal that increases in voltage over a short period of time, a few
microseconds. When sent to the X input of the oscilloscope, this causes a horizontal
line to be displayed on the scope. This "sweep" is triggered by a signal tapped off the
broadcaster, so the sweep begins when the pulse is sent. Amplified signals from the
receiver are then sent to the Y input, where any received reflection causes the beam
to move upward on the display. This causes a series of "blips" to appear along the

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horizontal axis, indicating reflected signals. By measuring the distance from the start of
the sweep to the blip, which corresponds to the time between broadcast and reception,
the distance to the object can be determined.

Transponders are a combination of receiver and transmitter whose operation is


automated upon reception of a particular signal, normally a pulse on a particular
frequency,

APPENDIX A - SUB-TOPIC 1.1 Questions

1) Process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of a craft from one
place to another.

a) Harmonization c) Transportation
b) Air Navigation d) Communication

2) Once in flight, the pilot must take pains to stick to plan, otherwise getting lost is
all too easy. This is especially true if flying in the dark or over featureless terrain.
This means that the pilot must stick to the calculated headings, heights and
speeds as accurately as possible, unless flying under visual flight rules.

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a) Positioning c) Flying the Route


b) Low Frequency Radio Range d) Guidance

3) The first system of radio navigation

a) Radio Direction Finder c) Low Frequency Radio


b) VHF Radio d) RADAR

4) uses a localizer to provide horizontal position, distance to the


runway, and airport information, and glide path to provide vertical positioning. ILS
can provide enough accuracy and redundancy to allow automated landings.

a) Instrument Landing System (ILS) c) Beacon


b) Glide Path d) Transponder

2. THE EARTH

2.1 Form of the Earth

Since the Earth is flattened at the poles and bulges at the equator, geodesy
represents the shape of the earth with an oblate spheroid. The oblate spheroid, or
oblate ellipsoid, is an ellipsoid of revolution obtained by rotating an ellipse about
its shorter axis.

2.1.1 Shape of the Earth

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The Size and Shape of the Earth

The Earth has a complex shape. As a first approximation it can be taken as a sphere
with a radius of 6371 km. The next approximation allows us to represent it as a bi-
axial ellipsoid of rotation (the terrestrial ellipsoid) with an equatorial radius of
6378.16 km and a polar radius of 6356.78 km, fromwhich it is obvious that the
polar compression (flattening) of our planet is 1 : 298.25.
A third approximation leads to a complex figure, the geoid, which can be taken as
a quite real but smoothed out figure of the Earth. Over the oceans the geoid
coincides theoretically with the surface of the water, but over the continents it is
a surface that is perpendicular everywhere to the plumb line.The geoid deviates
from the terrestrial ellipsoid by a maximum of minus 160 m and plus 120 m,
altering in height extremely smoothly. The shape of the geoid reflects the
distribution of masses of various density in the body of the Earth and therefore has
not only a geodetic but also a geophysical significance. No unambiguous
connection, however, has been established between the geoid and the relief of the
surface; it may be that it reflects the distribution of mass at very great depth, in
the lower mantle.

The Earth's Rotation

The Earth's rotation round its axis presents geotectonic interest because changes
in the rate of rotation can give rise to stresses in the crust. The tides caused in the
Earth's solid, liquid, and gaseous envelopes by the attraction of the Moon and Sun
are known to slow our planet's rotation down.

Comparison of the Earth's shape with that which a fluid body of its size would
adopt if the force of gravity in its field were the same and it was rotating at the
Earth's present rate, indicates that the terrestrial ellipsoid is close to the
equilibrium figure of a rotating fluid body. This signifies (1) that the globe as a
whole has a creep sufficient for it to be deformed by the effect of centrifugal force
in the course of geological time, from which itfollows (2) that the Earth's figure

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must change as its rate of rotation diminishes (its flattening must be lessened since
the centrifugal force is diminishing). If the Earth had the properties of an ideal fluid,
alteration of its figure would go hand in hand with the change in the value of the
centrifugal force and stresses would not arise in its body, but since the material
from which it is composed is viscous, the restructuring of its figure must to some
extent lag behind the change in the rate of rotation, and that must lead to the rise
of stresses. In fact, precise comparison of the theoretical figure of a rotating fluid
body with the observed terrestrial ellipsoid leads to the conclusion that today's
figure of the Earth corresponds to the Earth's rate of rotation 10 million years ago,
i.e., at the beginning of the Pliocene, rather than to today's rate. There should
therefore be a stress of between 1 and 1000 kg/cm2 , which is much lower than
the strength of rocks, and is also lower than their creep.

A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an


ellipse about ... For that reason, in cartography the Earth is often approximated by
an oblate spheroid instead of a sphere.

Earth orientation parameters. Earth orientation parameters (EOP) are a


collection of parameters that describe irregularities in the rotation of the Earth.
The Earth'srotation is not even. Any motion in/on the Earth causes a slowdown or
speedup of the rotation, or a change of rotation axis.

Earth orientation parameters (EOP) are a collection of parameters that describe


irregularities in the rotation of the Earth.

The Earth's rotation is not even. Any motion in/on the Earth causes a slowdown or
speedup of the rotation, or a change of rotation axis. Most of them can be ignored,
but movements of very large mass, like sea current or tide can produce discernible
changes and cause error to very precise astronomical observations

A single parameter can be used to describe one phenomenon. The collection of


earth orientation parameters is fitted to describe the rotation irregularities all
together. Technically, they provide the rotation transforming the International
Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) to the International Celestial Reference
System (ICRS), or vice versa, as a function of time.

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2.1.2 Earths properties and their effects

North Magnetic Pole


The North Magnetic Pole is the point on the surface of Earth's Northern
Hemisphere at which the planet's magnetic field points vertically downwards (in
other words, if a magnetic compass needle is allowed to rotate about a horizontal
axis, it will point straight down). There is only one location where this occurs, near
(but distinct from) the Geographic North Pole and the Geomagnetic North Pole.

The North Magnetic Pole moves over time due to magnetic changes in the Earth's
core. In 2001, it was determined by the Geological Survey of Canada to lie
near Ellesmere Island in northern Canada at 81.3N 110.8W. It was situated
at 83.1N 117.8W in 2005. In 2009, while still situated within the Canadian Arctic
territorial claim at 84.9N 131.0W, it was moving toward Russia at between 55
and 60 kilometres (34 and 37 mi) per year. As of 2016, the pole is projected to
have moved beyond the Canadian Arctic territorial claim to 86.4N 166.3W.[2]

Its southern hemisphere counterpart is the South Magnetic Pole. Since the Earth's
magnetic field is not exactly symmetrical, the North and South Magnetic Poles are
not antipodal, meaning that a straight line drawn from one to the other does not
pass through the geometric centre of the Earth.
The Earth's North and South Magnetic Poles are also known as Magnetic Dip
Poles, with reference to the vertical "dip" of the magnetic field lines at those
points.
The Earth rotates from the west towards east. As viewed from North Star or
polestar Polaris, the Earth turns counter-clockwise. The North Pole, also known as
the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern
Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

Polar Axis
The polar axis is an imaginary line that extends through the north and south
geographic poles. Earth rotates on its axis as it revolves around the Sun . Earth's
axis is tilted approximately 23.5 degrees to the plane of the ecliptic (the plane of

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planetary orbits about the Sun or the apparent path of the Sun across in imaginary
celestial sphere). The tilt of the polar axis is principally responsible for variations in
solar illumination (insolation ) that result in the cyclic progressions of the seasons .
Earth rotates about the polar axis at approximately 15 angular degrees per hour
and makes a complete rotation in 23.9 hours. The length of day has changed
throughout Earth's history and as rotation slows, the time to complete one
rotation about the polar axis will continue to increase. Rate of rotation is a function
of planet's mass and orbital position. As Earth rotates on its polar axis, it makes a
slightly elliptical orbital revolution about the Sun in 365.26 days. The rates of
rotation and revolution are functions of a planet's mass and orbital position.
Rotation about the polar axis results in a diurnal cycle of night and day, and causes
the apparent motion of the Sun across the imaginary celestial sphere. The celestial
sphere is an imaginary projection of the Sun, stars, planets, and all astronomical
bodies upon an imaginary sphere surrounding Earth. The celestial sphere is a useful
conceptual and tracking remnant of the geocentric theory of the ancient Greek
astronomer Ptolemy .

Earth's Rotation and the Apparent Daily Motion of the Sky


The earth rotates about an imaginary line that passes through the North and
South Poles of the planet. This line is called the axis of rotation. Earth rotates
about this axis once each day (approximately 24 hours). Although you most likely
already knew that fact, there is a slight complication most people are not aware
of.
The Earth rotates from the west towards east. As viewed from North Star or
polestar Polaris, the Earth turns counter-clockwise. The North Pole, also known as
the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern
Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
More specifically, our rotation period (the time elapsed for one rotation) with
respect to the stars is called a sidereal day. A sidereal day is 24 sidereal hours,
or 23 hours and 56 minutes on a normal clock. Our clock time is based on the
earth's rotation with respect to the sun from solar noon to solar noon. This is a
solar day, and it is divided into 24 hours. Because Earth travels about 1 / 365 of

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the way around the sun during one day, there is a small difference between solar
time and sidereal time.

Figure 4: Earths Rottation

The earth takes about 1/365 of a day or about 4 minutes more to get into
position with respect to the sun after it reaches the same position with respect to
the stars. We use sun-based time because it is more important to most of us
whether the Sun is up than whether a given star is up. Those who care which star
is up (like astronomers) may also use sidereal time.

2.1.3 Accepted conventions for describing 2D position on a globe

The number of latitude degrees will be larger the further away from the equator
the place is located, all the way up to 90 degrees latitude at the
poles.Latitude locations are given as __ degrees North or __ degrees South.
Vertical mapping lines on Earthare lines of longitude, known as "meridians"

Latitude and Longitude (Meridians and Parallels)

The Equator is an imaginary circle equidistant from the poles of the Earth. Circles
parallel to the Equator (lines running east and west) are parallels of latitude. They
are used to measure degrees of latitude north or south of the Equator. The angular
distance from the Equator to the pole is one-fourth of a circle or 90. The 48
conterminous states of the United States are located between 25 and 49 N.
latitude. The arrows in figure 8-2 labeled LATITUDE point to lines of latitude.

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Meridians of longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole and are
at right angles to the Equator. The Prime Meridian which passes through
Greenwich, England, is used as the zero line from which measurements are made
in degrees east and west to 180. The 48 conterminous states of the United
States are between 67 and 125 W. Longitude. The arrows in figure 8-2
labeled LONGITUDE point to lines of longitude.
Any specific geographical point can thus be located by reference to its longitude
and latitude. Washington, DC for example, is approximately 39 N. latitude,
77 W. longitude. Chicago is approximately 42 N. latitude, 88 W.
longitude.

Figure 5: Meridians and parallelsthe basis of measuring time, distance, and


direction

Latitude is measured in degrees ()from 0 to 90north or south of the equator.


Degrees of latitude are measured from an imaginary point at the center of the earth. If

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the earth was cut in half, this imaginary point would be intersected by a line drawn from
the North Pole to the South Pole and by a line drawn from the equator on one side of
the earth to the equator on the other (Fig. 1.10 A). A radius is a line drawn from the edge
of a circle to its center. The angle between the radius lines drawn from the equator and
from the north pole (or south pole) forms a right angle, which is 90.

Figure 6: (A) Latitude is determined by the angle between a point on the earths surface
and the equator. Latitude angles are between 0 and 90. (B) Connecting all the points
on earths surface that are at 30 and 60 angles from the equator.

The equator is at 0, and both of the earths poles are at 90 from the equator. Latitude is
determined by the angle between a point on the earths surface and the equator. To
calculate the angle, draw a line from the point to the center of the earth and a line from
the equator to the center of the earth (Fig. 6 A).

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APPENDIX B- SUB-TOPIC 2.1 Questions

1) Is the point on the surface of Earth's Northern Hemisphere at which the planet's
magnetic field points vertically downwards (in other words, if a magnetic compass
needle is allowed to rotate about a horizontal axis, it will point straight down).

a) North magnetic Pole c) Dip


b) Magnetic latitudes d) Variation lines

2) which chart is a widely used cylindrical map projection

a) Mercator projection chart c) Gnomic


b) Polyconic d) Isogonic Lines

3) what is a line of position?

a) Line of position is either a bearing line or a radar range, or irregular line


b) Agonic Line
c) Zero variation Line
d) None of the above

4) An imaginary line that extends through the north and south geographic poles.
a) Estimated position c) Polar Axis
b) Dead reckoning d) Fix

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2.2 Coordinate systems, direction and distance


Coordinate Systems
Earth-Centered-Inertial (ECI)
o Mean equator and equinox of epoch J2000
Mean equator and equinox of date (non-inertial)
Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed (ECEF)
o Rotates at earth-rate, w=360.9856123 deg/day
Local (NED)
o Detailed calculations require treatment of Earth as an ellipsoid
Local-vertical local-horizontal (LVLH)
o Used extensively in orbit GN&C analysis
Body Frame
o Rigidly attached to spacecraft
o Rotated with angular velocity wb

Two types of coordinate systems are currently in general use in geography:


the geographical coordinate system and the rectangular (also called Cartesian)
coordinate system.

2.2.1 General Principles of reference systems

Geoid
The geoid is defined as the surface of the earth's gravity field, which is approximately the
same as mean sea level. It is perpendicular to the direction of gravity pull. Since the mass
of the earth is not uniform at all points, and the direction of gravity changes, the shape of
the geoid is irregular.

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The reference ellipsoid


Before we can determine our position, we need to know with respect to what we want to
know our position. One option is to approximate the Earth as a sphere with radius Re=
6378km. Theres just one downside. The gravity isnt always perpendicular to the surface
for such a sphere. Instead, the apparent gravity field g satisfies.
g = G ( R) ,
where G is the Newtonian gravity field, is Earths rotation vector and R your position
with respect to Earths center of mass. To solve this problem, we define the so-called
World Geodetic System Ellipsoid. This ellipsoid represents the Earth surface. It is defined
such that the average mean-square deviation between the direction of the apparent
gravity and the normal to the ellipsoid is minimized over Earths surface.This ellipsoid has
several important parameters. First of all, there are the equatorial radius RE and the polar

radius RN . Second, there is the eccentricity We need these parameters


todefine the meridian radius of curvature RM and the prime radius of curvature RP. They
are given by

The definition of the geodetic latitude T will follow in the upcoming paragraph.

WGS 84 Latitude and Longitude


The World Geodetic System - 1984 (WGS 84) coordinate system is a Conventional
Terrestrial System (CTS), realized by modifying the Navy Navigation Satellite System
(NNSS), or TRANSIT, Doppler Reference Frame (NSWC 9Z-2) in origin and scale, and
rotating it to bring its reference meridian into coincidence with the Bureau International
de l Heure(BIH)-defined zero meridian.
Origin and axes of the WGS 84 coordinate system are defined as following:
Origin = Earth s centre of mass
Z-Axis = The direction of the Conventional Terrestrial Pole (CTP) for polar motion, as
defined by BIH on the basis of the coordinates adopted for the BIH stations.
X-Axis = Intersection of the WGS 84 reference meridian plane and the plane of the CTP s
equator, the reference meridian being the zero meridian defined by the BIH on the basis
of the coordinates adopted for the BIH stations.

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Y-Axis = Completes a right-handed, Earth Centred, Earth Fixed (ECEF) orthogonal


coordinate system, measured in the plane of the CTP equator, 90 East of the x-axis.

2.2.2 Global Reference System

Figure 7: Global Reference system


Theoretical aspects of global reference systems are critically discussed in relation to their
practical implementation through reference frames. These include the problem of the
mathematical modeling of a spatiotemporal reference system for the deforming Earth,
the relation of geodetic discrete-network reference systems to geophysical ones for the
Earth mass continuum, the contribution of the various geodetic space techniques, the
estimation issues related to the combination of the various data types, and issues
relating to the compatibility of earth rotation representation. Finally issues related to
future development of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame are discussed,
concerning the addition of non-linear quasi-periodic terms in coordinate variation and
their proper geophysical interpretation

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On a plane, by fixing the Cartesian coordinates of 2 points (4 information), one has fixed
also: the origin point (2 information) the reference direction (1 piece of information) the
reference unit (1 piece of information)
In general, given a reference system one can use different coordinate systems to express
points coordinates.
In practice, a reference system (RS) is realized by choosing a specific coordinate system
(CS) and by fixing a set of pointss coordinates in that specific CS
There are two kind of system in use:
celestial reference systems, (accessible by means of coordinates of reference
extragalactic radio sources)
terrestrial reference systems, (accessible by means of coordinates of reference
points on the Earths surface)
The Earth is not a rigid body the position of objects and points on
The Earths surface are not fix coordinates need to be updated and the reference
systems refer to a specific date.

APPENDIX C- SUB-TOPIC 2.2 Questions

1. Defined as the surface of the earth's gravity field, which is approximately the same
as mean sea level.
a) Fix c) Geoid
b) The reference ellipsoid d) Agonic Line

2. On an isomagnetic chart, the line of zero variation is the

a) Variation line c) Polyconic


b) Agonic Line d) Isogonic Line

3. Reference systems, (accessible by means of coordinates of reference extragalactic


radio sources)
a) Terrestrial c) Celestial
b) A & B d) None of the Above

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2.3 Earths Magnetism

Basic Principles
Purpose: This section provides the key components to understand the geophysical
magnetic experiment. As briefly summarized in the Introduction section, the magnetic
survey requires a magnetic source. Rocks inside the earth become magnetized and they
produce an anomalous magnetic field data. A receiver records the sum of all magnetic
fields.

Earths magnetic field (Source)

All magnetic fields arise from currents. This is also true for the magnetic field of the earth.
The outer core of the earth is molten and in a state of convection and a geomagnetic
dynamo creates magnetic fields. Close to the surface of the core the magnetic fields are
very complicated but as we move outward the magnetic field resembles that of a large bar
magnetic which is often referred to as a magnetic dipole.

The IGRF

Earths field at any location is approximately that provided by a global reference model
called the IGRF or International Geomagnetic Reference Field. The IGRF is a mathematical
model that describes the field and its secular changes, that is, how it changes with time.
The IGRF is a product of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy
(IAGA), and the original version was defined in 1968. It is updated every five years,
and later versions may re-define the field atearlier times. This is important to remember
if you are comparing old maps to new ones.

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Earths field has a strength of approximately 70,000 nanoTeslas (nT) at the magnetic poles
and approximately 25,000 nT at the magnetic equator. Field orientation and strength varies
around the world, as presented in Table 2 based upon the IGRF from 2003 (NOAA).

Earths declination. Earths inclination.

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Earths field strentgh

Figure 8: Earth's Declination, Inclination and Field's Strenght

Magnetic fields from External Sources

When we record a magnetic observation we measure the field that exists at that location.
Most of that field comes from inside the earth and it can be from the geomagnetic dynamo
or from crustal rocks that have become magnetized. In addition there are also magnetic
fields that come from outside the earth. The solar wind interacts with Earths magnetic
field and creates a magnetosphere that is tear-dropped shape as shown in the figure
below

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Figure 9: The image shows an artist rendition of the charged particles interacting with
Earths magnetic field. The volume containing Earths field is called the magnetosphere
(by_NASA)

Magnetization

When the source field is applied to earth materials it causes the to become
magnetized. Magnetization is the dipole moment per unit volume. This is a vector
quantity because a dipole has a strength and a direction. For many cases of interest the
relationship between magnetization MMand the source HH (earths magnetic field) is
given by

M=H.
where is the magnetic susceptibility. Thus the magnetization has the same direction as
the earths field. Because Earths field is different at different locations on the earth, then
the same object gets magnetized differently depending upon where it is situated. As a
consequence, magnetic data from a steel drum buried at the north pole will be very
different from that from a drum buried at the equator.

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True north

True north (geodetic north) is the direction along the earth's surface towards the
geographic North Pole.
True geodetic north differs from magnetic north (the direction a compass points toward
the magnetic north pole), and from grid north (the direction northwards along the grid
lines of a map projection). Geodetic true north also differs very slightly from astronomical
true north (typically by a few arcseconds) because the local gravity may not point at the
exact rotational axis of the earth.
The direction of astronomical true north is marked in the skies by the north celestial pole.
This is within about 1 degree of the position of Polaris, so that the star appears to trace a
tiny circle in the sky each day. Due to the axial precession of the Earth, true north rotates
in an arc with respect to the stars that takes approximately 25,000 years to complete.
Around the year 2100 to 2102, Polaris will make its closest approach to the celestial north
pole (extrapolated from recent Earth precession).

Magnetic North vs True North

Once you've set your bearing, you're on the right track to finding your way. But there's still
another wrinkle. Magnetic north isn't the same as true north -- it's close, but no cigar.
Magnetic north is always moving, and we call this margin of error declination. Declination
is an angle that measures the difference between true north and magnetic north. The
angle varies depending on where you are on the planet. This is why it's important to
always use a current map when you're in unfamiliar territory, especially when you're
trekking long distances. With short distances, the declination may only be 100 feet (30
meters) or so. But when you're trekking long distances, the margin of error could be
several miles (or kilometers). Your map will tell you the declination. When you make your
navigation calculations, you add or subtract that angle from the compass bearing numbers.
Some compasses only require you to make that adjustment once for your entire trip --
check your compass instructions for more about setting the declination.
Again, learning to read a compass and topographical map requires preparation and skill.
Read the instructions that came with your compass, check your library, outdoor gear store
or search for a tutorial online. Try doing a practice run at home before you go out in
unfamiliar backcountry.

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APPENDIX D- SUB-TOPIC 2.3 Questions

1. Lines on a chart which connect points of equal magnetic variation are called
a) Magnetic latitudes c) Isogonic lines
b) Dip d) None of the Above

2. Is the direction along the earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole.

a) Bilateral Agreement/System c) Magnetic North


b) True North d) Grid North

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3. A mathematical model that describes the field and its secular changes, that is, how
it changes with time.

a) IAGA c) Earths Magnetic Field


b) IGRF d) CAA

3. Navigational System Performance


3.1 Factors affecting electronics navigation performance
3.1.1 How radio waves propagate

Ground wave propagation

"When the radio waves from the transmitting antenna propagate along the surface of the
earth so as to reach the receiving antenna, the wave propagation is called Ground Wave
or surface wave propagation"

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Ground Wave propagation is a method of radio frequency propagation that uses the area
between the surface of the earth and the ionosphere for transmission. The ground wave
can propagate a considerable distance over the earth's surface particularly in the low
frequency and medium frequency portion of the radio spectrum. Ground wave radio
propagation is used to provide relatively local radio communications coverage.
Ground wave radio signal propagation is ideal for relatively short distance propagation on
these frequencies during the daytime. Sky-wave ionospheric propagation is not possible
during the day because of the attenuation of the signals on these frequencies caused by
the D region in the ionosphere. In view of this, lower frequency radio communications
stations need to rely on the ground-wave propagation to achieve their coverage.
Typically, what is referred to as a ground wave radio signal is made up of a number of
constituent waves. If the antennas are in the line of sight then there will be a direct wave
as well as a reflected signal. As the names suggest the direct signal is one that travels
directly between the two antennas and is not affected by the locality. There will also be a
reflected signal as the transmission will be reflected by a number of objects including the
earth's surface and any hills, or large buildings that may be present. In addition to this
there is a surface wave. This tends to follow the curvature of the Earth and enables
coverage beyond the horizon. It is the sum of all these components that is known as the
ground wave. Beyond the horizon the direct and reflected waves are blocked by the
curvature of the Earth, and the signal is purely made up of the diffracted surface wave. It
is for this reason that surface wave is commonly called ground wave propagation.

SPACE (DIRECT) WAVE PROPAGATION AND SKY WAVE PROPAGATION

Space Waves, also known as direct waves, are radio waves that travel directly from the
transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. In order for this to occur, the two antennas
must be able to see each other; that is there must be a line of sight path between them.
The diagram on the next page shows a typical line of sight. The maximum line of sight
distance between two antennas depends on the height of each antenna. If the heights are
measured in feet, the maximum line of sight, in miles, is given by:

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Because a typical transmission path is filled with buildings, hills and other obstacles, it is
possible for radio waves to be reflected by these obstacles, resulting in radio waves that
arrive at the receive antenna from several different directions. Because the length of each
path is different, the waves will not arrive in phase. They may reinforce each other or
cancel each other, depending on the phase differences. This situation is known as
multipath propagation. It can cause major distortion to certain types of signals. Ghost
images seen on broadcast TV signals are the result of multipath one picture arrives
slightly later than the other and is shifted in position on the screen. The satellite is used as
a relay station, from which approximately of the earths surface is visible. The satellite
receives signals from the ground at one frequency, known as the uplink frequency,
translates this frequency to a different frequency, known as the downlink frequency, and
retransmits the signal. Because two frequencies are used, the reception and transmission
can happen simultaneously. A satellite operating in this way is known as a transponder.
The satellite has a tremendous line of sight from its vantage point in space and many
ground stations can communicate through a single satellite.

Figure 10: Sky-Wave or Skip Propagation

Sky Waves Radio waves in the LF and MF ranges may also propagate as ground waves, but
suffer significant losses, or are attenuated, particularly at higher frequencies. But as the
ground wave mode fades out, a new mode develops: the sky wave. Sky waves are
reflections from the ionosphere. While the wave is in the ionosphere, it is strongly bent,
or refracted, ultimately back to the ground. From a long distance away this appears as a
reflection. Long ranges are possible in this mode also, up to hundreds of miles. Sky waves
in this frequency band are usually only possible at night, when the concentration of ions is
not too great since the ionosphere also tends to attenuate the signal. However, at night,
there are just enough ions to reflect the wave but not reduce its power too much.

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Figure 11: Skywaves, Radio waves


The HF band operates almost exclusively with sky waves. The higher frequencies have less
attenuation and less refraction in the ionosphere as compared to MF. At the high end, the
waves completely penetrate the ionosphere and become space waves. At the low end,
they are always reflected. The HF band operates with both these effects almost all of the
time. The characteristics of the sky wave propagation depend on the conditions in the
ionosphere which in turn are dependent on the activity of the sun. The ionosphere has
several well-defined regions in altitude.

Figure 12: Regions in Altitude

D-region: about 75-95 km. Relatively weak ionization. Responsible for strong absorption of

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MF during daylight E-region: 95-150 km. An important player in ionospheric scatter of VHF.
Fregion: 150-400 km. Has separate F1 and F2 layers during the day

Line of Sight In the VHF band and up, the propagation tends to straighten out into line-of-
sight(LOS) waves. However the frequency is still low enough for some significant effects.

3.1.2 Important of terrestrial navigation aid

Multipath propagation and range estimation error


Multipath is very troublesome for mobile communications. When the transmitter and/or
receiver are in motion, the path lengths are continuously changing and the signal
fluctuates wildly in amplitude. For this reason, NBFM is used almost exclusively for mobile
communications. Amplitude variations caused by multipath that make AM unreadable are
eliminated by the limiter stage in an NBFM receiver. An interesting example of direct
communications is satellite communications. If a satellite is placed in an orbit 22,000 miles
above the equator, it appears to stand still in the sky, as viewed from the ground. A high
gain antenna can be pointed at the satellite to transmit signals to it.
The range or pseudorange estimation error of a terrestrial aeronautical navigation system
mainly depends on the propagation characteristics of the radio channel.
Range estimation suffers if the signal received via the direct line-of-sight (LoS) propagation
path overlaps with a multipath component (MPC) received via a reflection off the ground
or a surrounding building. The resulting error for a specific system can be analyzed using
a multipath error envelope.

APPENDIX E- SUB-TOPIC 3.1 Questions

1. Are radio waves that travel directly from the transmitting antenna to the receiving
antenna. In order for this to occur, the two antennas must be able to see each
other; that is there must be a line of sight path between them

a) Space Wave c) Direct Wave


b) A & C d) Sky-Wave

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2. It is a reflections from the ionosphere.

a) Propagation c) Sky-Wave
b) Space Wave d) Direct Wave

3. Suffers if the signal received via the direct line-of-sight (LoS) propagation path
overlaps with a multipath component (MPC) received via a reflection off the
ground or a surrounding building.

a) Range Estimation c) Multipath


b) A & C d) None of the Above

3.2 Performance of Navigation System


3.2.1 System performance requirements
Accuracy - The information that they give must be close to the actual value.
Integrity - If the system cannot give sufficiently accurate information, it must
notify the user of this in time.
Availability - It may not occur that the system is unexpectedly unavailable.
Continuity of service - If the system stops working after, for example, 2 years,
its not really useful.

3.2.2 Redundancy in navigation System

Early Detection of Failure


NASA designed the four general purpose computer redundant set to gracefully degrade
from either four to three or from three to two members. Engineers tailored specific
redundancy management algorithms for dealing with failures in other redundant

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subsystems based on knowledge of each subsystems predominant failure modes and the
overall effect on vehicle performance.
NASA paid considerable attention to means of detecting subtle latent failure modes that
might create the potential for a simultaneous scenario. Engineers scrutinized sensors such
as gyros and accelerometers in particular for null failures. During orbital operation, the
vehicle typically spent the majority of time in a quiescent flight control profile such that
those sensors were operating very near their null points. Prior to re-entry, the vehicle
executed some designed maneuvers to purposefully exercise those devices in a manner
to ensure the absence of permanent null failures. The respective design teams for the
various subsystems were always challenged to strike a balance between early detection
of failures vs. nuisance false alarms, which could cause the unnecessary loss of good
devices.
Decreasing Probability of Pseudo-simultaneous Failures There was one caveat regarding
the capability to be two-fault tolerant the system was incapable of coping with
simultaneous failures since such failures obviously defeat the majority-voting scheme. A
nuance associated with the practical meaning of simultaneous warranted significant
attention from the designers. It was quite possible for internal circuitry in complex
electronics units to fail in a manner that wasnt immediately apparent because the
circuitry wasnt used in all operations. This failure could remain dormant for seconds,
minutes, or even longer before normal activities created conditions requiring use of the
failed devices; however, should another unrelated failure occur that created the need for
use of the previously failed circuitry, the practical effect was equivalent to two
simultaneous failures.
To decrease the probability of such pseudo-simultaneous failures, the general purpose
computers and multiplexer/demultiplexers were designed to constantly execute cyclic
background self-test operations and cease operations if internal problems were detected.

Ferreting Out Potential Single-point Failures

Engineering teams conducted design audits using a technique known as failure modes
effects analysis to identify types of failures with the potential to propagate beyond the
bounds of the fault-containment region in which they originated. These studies led to the
conclusion that the digital data processing subsystem was susceptible to two types of
hardware failures with the potential to create a catastrophic condition, termed a

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nonuniversal input/output error. As the name implies, under such conditions a majority
of general purpose computers may not have received the same data and the redundant
set may have diverged into a two-on-two configuration or simply collapsed into four
disparate members.
Engineers designed and tested the topology, components, and data encoding of the data
bus network to ensure that robust signal levels and data integrity existed throughout the
network. Extensive laboratory testing confirmed, however, that the two types of failures
would likely create conditions resulting in eventual loss of all four computers.
The first type of failure and the easiest to mitigate was some type of physical failure
causing either an open or a short circuit in a data bus. Such a condition would create an
impedance mismatch along the bus and produce classic transmission line effects; e.g.,
signal reflections and standing waves with the end result being unpredictable signal levels
at the receivers of any given general purpose computer. The probability of such a failure
was deemed to be extremely remote given the robust mechanical and electrical design as
well as detailed testing of the hardware, before and after installation on the Orbiter.
The second type of problem was not so easily discounted. That problem could occur if one
of the bus terminal units failed, thus generating unrequested output transmissions. Such
transmissions, while originating from only one node in the network, would nevertheless
propagate to each general purpose computer and disrupt the normal data bus signal levels
and timing as seen by each general purpose computer. It should be mentioned that no
amount of analysis or testing could eliminate the possibility of a latent, generic software
error that could conceivably cause all Engineering Innovations 249 four computers to fail.
Thus, the program deemed that a backup computer, with software designed and
developed by an independent organization, was warranted as a safeguard against that
possibility. This backup computer was an identical general purpose computer designed to
listen to the flight data being collected by the primary system and make independent
calculations that were available for crew monitoring.
Only the on-board crew had the switches, which transferred control of all data buses to
that computer, thereby preventing any rogue primary computers from interfering
with the backup computer. Its presence notwithstanding, the backup computer was never
considered a factor in the fail-operational/fail-safe analyses of the primary avionics system,
andat the time of this publicationhad never been used in that capacity during a
mission.

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Shuttle avionics never encountered any type (hardware or software) of single-point failure
in nearly 3 decades of operation, and on only one occasion did it reach the fail-safe
condition. That situation occurred on STS-9 (1983) and demonstrated the resiliency
afforded by reconfiguration.

While on-orbit, two general purpose computers failed within several minutes of each
other in what was later determined to be a highly improbable, coincidental occurrence of
a latent generic hardware fault. By definition, the avionics was in a fail-safe condition and
preparations were begun in preparation for re-entry into Earths atmosphere. Upon
cycling power, one of the general purpose computers remained failed while the other
resumed normal operation. Still, with that machine being suspect, NASA made the
decision to continue preparation for the earliest possible return. As part of the preparation,
sensors such as the critical inertial measurement unit, which were originally assigned to
the failed computer, were reassigned to a healthy one. Thus, re-entry occurred with a
three-computer configuration and a full set of inertial measurement units, which
represented a much more robust and safe configuration.

The loss of two general purpose computers over such a short period was later attributed
to spacelight effects on microscopic debris inside certain electronic components. Since all
general purpose computers in the inventory contained such components, NASA delayed
subsequent flights until sufficient numbers of those computers could be purged of the
suspect components.

APPENDIX F- SUB-TOPIC 3.2 Questions

1. During the vehicle typically spent the majority of time in a


quiescent flight control profile such that those sensors were operating very near
their null points. Prior to re-entry, the vehicle executed some designed maneuvers
to purposefully exercise those devices in a manner to ensure the absence of
permanent null failures.

a) Early Detection of Failure c) A&B


b) Orbital Operation d) None of the Above

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2. Engineers tailored specific management algorithms for dealing


with failures in other redundant subsystems based on knowledge of each
subsystems predominant failure modes and the overall effect on vehicle
performance.

a) Availability c) Redundancy
b) Accuracy d) continuity of Service

3. These studies led to the conclusion that the digital data processing subsystem was
susceptible to two types of hardware failures with the potential to create a
catastrophic condition, termed a nonuniversal input/output error.

a) Fault-Containment c) Accuracy
c) A & D d) Ferreting out Potential Single-Point Failures

3.3 Means of Navigation


3.3.1 Different means of navigation

Categories
Sole means: navigation system is a system that, for a given phase of the flight,
satisfies all four requirements. However, in real life, no single sole means
navigation system exists. Currently, we always need combinations of primary
means systems.
Supplemental means: used in conjunction with a sole means navigation system.
An example is the GPS system: it is not integer enough. When the GPS system
gives a wrong signal, it often needs 10 to 15 minutes before it can notify the user
of this.
Primary means: For a given phase of flight needs to meet first two requirements.
Dont need full availability and continuity of service requirements Safety

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achieved by limiting flights to specific time periods or through procedural


restrictions and operational requirements.

APPENDIX G- SUB-TOPIC 3.3 Questions

1. Used in conjunction with a sole means navigation system. An example is the GPS
system: it is not integer enough. When the GPS system gives a wrong signal, it
often needs 10 to 15 minutes before it can notify the user of this.

a) Sole Means c) Primary Means


b) Suplemental Means d) None of the Above

2. Navigation system is a system that, for a given phase of the flight, satisfies all four
requirements. However, in real life, no single sole means navigation system
exists. Currently, we always need combinations of primary means systems.

a) Primary Means c) Sole Means


b) Suplemental Means d) Flight Service

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4. Navigation Systems
4.1 Terrestrial navigation Aids
4.1.1 Basic Working principles of electronics positioning

Positioning/Radio fixes

There are five basic airborne radio measurements

1. Bearing. The angle of arrival, relative to the airframe, of a radio signal from an
external transmitter. Bearing is measured by the difference in phase or time of
arrival at multiple antennas on the airframe. At each bearing , the distorsion
caused by the airframe maybe calibrated as a function of frequency. If necessary,
calibration could also include roll and pitch.

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2. Phase. The airborne receiver measures the phase difference between continuous-
wave signals emitted by two stations using a single airborne antenna. This is the
method of operation of VOR azimuth and hyperbolic Omega.
3. Time Difference. The airborne receiver measures the difference in time of arrival
between pulses sent from two stations. A 104 clock ( one part in 104) is adequate
to measure the short time interval if both pulses are sent simultaneously. Because
Loran pulses can be transmitted 0.1 sec apart, a clock error less than 106 is
needed to measure the time difference . In-time differencing and phase measuring
systems (hyperbolic Loran), at least two pairs of stations are required to obtained
a fix.
4. Two-way Range. The airborne receiver measures the time delay between the
transmission of a pulse and its return from an external transponder at a known
location. Round trip propagation times are typically less than a millisecond, during
which the clock must be stable. A 1% range error requires a clock-stability of 3% (3
x 103), is two microseconds at 100-km range. The calculation of range requires
knowledge of propagation speed and transponder delay. DME is a two-way ranging
system .

5. One-way Range. The airborne receiver measures the time of arrival with respect
to its own clock. If the airborne clock is synchronized with the transmitters clock
upon departure from the airfield and ran freely ther-after, 1% range error at a
distance of 100 km from a fixed station would require a clock error of one
microsecond, which is 5 x 1011 of a five hour mission. When 25,000-km distance
to GPS satellites are to be measured with a one-meter error, ashort term clock
stability of one part in 3 x 108 would be needed to measure and 104 seconds
absolute time error would be needed to calculate the satellite' position ( GPS
satellites are moving at 300 ft/sec relative to earth ). Together these would inquire
an error of one part in 1012 for a clock synchronized with the transmitters contain
atomic clock at the start of a ten-hour mission and allowed to run freely thereafter.
Only an atomic clock had this accuracy in 1996. Therefore practical one-way
ranging systems use a technique called pseudoranging. The transmitters contain
atomic clocks with long-term stabilities of about 106 to 109. The airborne
computer solves for the aircraft' clock offset (and sometimes, drift rate) by making
redundant range measurement.

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Line-of-sight Distance Measurements

Figure shows an aircraft shows an aircraft near the surface of the earth at R/ and a radio
station that may be near the surface or in space, at Rs. The slant range, /Rs-Rs/, from
the aircraft to station could be measured by one-way or two-way ranging. If v is the unit
local vertical vector at the aircraft, the elevation angle of the line of sight to the radio
station is

Figure 13: Aircraft near the surface of the earth at R/ and a radio station.

Types of navigation systems

Dead reckoning systems: Derive the state vector from continuous series of
measurements relative to initial position.
o Classic DR: air data magnetic heading and wind velocities

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o Inertial navigation systems: accelerations and angular rates are measured and
integrated
o Example: airspeed and a compass
o Update position with position fix
Positioning systems: Measures state vector without regard to the path travelled
by the vehicle in the past
o Celestial navigation: based on stars
o Mapping navigation systems: based on observed visual images of Earths
surface
o Radio navigation systems: basis of radio signals transmitted by ground beacons,
satellites or other aircraft
Principles of Position Determination

Theta-Theta Fixing
One angle measurement to a known landmark establishes a line-of-position (LOP)
Two angles (theta-theta) required to determine 2D position (2 eqs, 2 unknowns)
Good/bad geometries
Rho-Rho Fixing
LOP of a range measurement to a known landmark is a circle
Two range measurements (rho-rho) required to determine 2D position (2 eqs, 2
unknowns)
Good/bad geometries
For 3D positions, the Surface-of-position (SOP) of a range measurement to a
known landmark is a sphere
Rho-Theta Fixing
2D position determined by intersection of a circle and a line
Good/bad geometries
Pseudorange Fixing
Encountered in radio navigation techniques (including GPS)
Range measurements have a common error or bias due to receiver clock error (i.e.
receiver clock is not synchronized with transmitter clock)
Requires one additional measurement compared to rho-rho fixing to determine
clock error.
M1= r1+ r (r = c * t, clock error)

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Three pseudorange measurements are required to determine 2D position and


range/clock bias (3 eqs, 3 unknowns). Four measurements required to determine
3D position
The hyperbolic approach provides a computational alternative
Eliminates range bias directly by differencing the range measurements
M1-M2= r1r2
Results in a system of 2 eqs and 2 unknowns (for the 2D problem).
LOP associated with each measurement is a hyperbola

Celestial Navigation

Human navigators use sextants to measure the elevation angle of celestial bodies above
the visible horizon. The peak elevation angle occurs at local noon or midnight:
elev angle (degrees) = 90 latitude + declination
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient science of position
fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on
estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
Celestial navigation uses "sights," or angular measurements taken between a celestial
body (the sun, the moon, a planet or a star) and the visible horizon.

Angular measurement

Accurate angle measurement evolved over the years. One simple method is to hold the
hand above the horizon with one's arm stretched out. The width of the little finger is an
angle just over 1.5 degrees elevation at extended arms length and can be used to estimate
the elevation of the sun from the horizon plane and therefore estimate the time until
sunset. The need for more accurate measurements led to the development of a number
of increasingly accurate instruments, including the kamal, astrolabe, octant and sextant.
The sextant and octant are most accurate because they measure angles from the horizon,
eliminating errors caused by the placement of an instrument's pointers, and because their
dual mirror system cancels relative motions of the instrument, showing a steady view of
the object and horizon.

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Navigators measure distance on the globe in degrees, arcminutes and arcseconds.


A nautical mile is defined as 1852 meters, but is also (not accidentally) one minute of angle
along a meridian on the Earth. Sextants can be read accurately to within 0.2 arcminutes.
So the observer's position can be determined within (theoretically) 0.2 miles, about 400
yards (370 m). Most ocean navigators, shooting from a moving platform, can achieve a
practical accuracy of 1.5 miles (2.8 km), enough to navigate safely when out of sight of
land.

4.1.2 Ground-Based Navigation

The mission of the Ground-Based Navaids is to ensure National Airspace System (NAS)
Ground-Based Navigation solutions are implemented in the most efficient and effective
manner to satisfy customer needs. In addition, the Group provides a liaison to the
Navigation Services Leadership Team and serves as the program integrator with regional
and HQ organizations.

Figure 14: Ground-based Navaids


Objective
To procure ground based navigation systems and equipment in order to meet new
requirements and support existing systems.

Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

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Based on the measured time interval


between pulse transmitted by the airborne
DME interrogator and the reception sent back
by the ground-based DME transponder.
DME channel consist of two carrier wave
frequencies always 63 MHZ apart

In the DME system the interrogating equipment,


known as the Interrogator, is installed in the aircraft and the target, located on the
ground, is referred to as the Transponder or Ground Beacon

Ground-Based Navigation - Instrument Landing System (ILS) Description

The ILS has been the mainstay of landing navigation aids for well over 50 years. The
modernized versions used by the FAA provide aircraft with precision vertical and
horizontal navigation guidance information during approach and landing. Associated
Marker Beacons and/or Low Power Distance Measuring Equipment (LPDME) identify
distance to the runway. The attractiveness of ILS lies in the economy of its avionics costs
and its wide international acceptance. Technology advances over the years have yielded
great improvement in accuracy, dependability, and maintainability.
The GBNG supports all ground-based ILS systems in the National Airspace System (NAS)
and will continue procuring and deploying new/replacement ILS for the foreseeable future.
It is expected that ILS will eventually be replaced with some variant of a GPS system in the
future (see WAAS and GBAS). Presently the FAA has a contract with Thales Air Traffic
Management (TATM) corporation to procure the existing NAS-deployable Mark 20A ILS
system on a requirements contract. A new TATM FAA ILS 420 system has been developed
and is currently undergoing Operational Test. The FAA ILS 420 will be procured after
rendering of the In-Service Decision in 2013.

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The Localizer generates and radiates signals to provide final


approach azimuth navigation information to landing aircraft.
The antenna sends a VHF carrier signal with 90-Hz and 150-
Hz sideband signals that the aircraft instruments determine
as left and right of the centerline. The aircraft interprets the
signal and displays them on the cockpit indicator guiding the
pilot until the runway is in sight.
In a similar manner as the Localizer signal (just turned 90
degrees on axis), the Glide Slope sends a UHF carrier signal
with the same two 90-Hz and 150-Hz sideband frequencies
that aircraft instruments determine as above or below the
desired glide path. This is approximately 3 degrees to the
horizon which gives the aircraft a descent rate of approximately 500 feet per minute.

An ILS precision approach and landing requires several


components. For properly ILS-equipped aircraft certified for the
category of service utilized, the ground-based ILS systems are
the electronic processing and antenna components. The
runway requires proper lights and markings along with an
approach lighting system. Other components may be required
such as Runway Visual Range (RVR) and Marker Beacons or LPDME. Note that the more
precise the approach is (lower weather minimums/visibility) the more ancillary
components may be required.

Ground-Based Navigation - Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range (VOR)


Description

The Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range (VOR) is a ground-based electronic


system that provides azimuth information for high and low altitude routes and airport
approaches.

Objectives

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To maintain a highly reliable, safe, and efficient ground-based navigation system


through relocation or conversion to Doppler configuration of VOR facilities.
VOR relocations underway.
Doppler conversions ongoing
VOR (VHF Omni-Range) is the basic Electronic navigation that in use today . This VHF
Omni-Range navigation method relies on the ground based transmitters which emitted
signals to VOR receiver. The VOR system operates in the VHF frequency band , from
108.0 to 117.95 MHz. The reception of VHF signals is a line of sight situation . You must
be on the minimum altitude of 1000 feet (AGL) above ground level in order to pick up an
Omni signals service range.

4.1.3 Navigation Information displayed

In order to navigate using the ADF, the pilot also needs to know the airplane's heading.
Normally, in a light airplane, you'll get the heading from the directional gyro:

Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)


The RMI eliminates the mental math needed for a pilot to calculate the bearing to the NDB
station. This is done by superimposing the needle over an actual compass card. The RMI
ADF needle will always point at the bearing to the station because the compass card will
turn as the airplane turns.

There are two needles; in this case the buttons on the lower left and lower right control
what is displayed by the respective needle. Notice that the button on the left says "ADF"
next to it and that the button is below an arrow with a dashed line. That means the needle
with the dashed line is displaying ADF information. This needle is pointed at a bearing to
the station of 300. Assuming that the compass is accurate, the needle will always point at
the bearing to the station.

VORs allow for more accurate navigation and provide an easier display to interpret. VORs
are assigned the frequency range of 108.0-117.95 MHz (however, some of these
frequencies are reserved for localizers). The signals transmitted by a VOR allow the

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receiver to determine its bearing from the station. Note that when navigating by reference
to NDBs, the pilot references bearings to the station; VORs use bearings from the station.
Bearings from a VOR station are referred to as "radials". Deviation from a VOR radial is
displayed on a course deviation indicator (CDI). More advanced aircraft use a horizontal
situation indicator (HSI).

The needle oriented vertically on the indicators displays deviation from the course selected.
Full scale deflection in either direction is reached when the aircraft is offset by 10 degrees
from the selected course. The VOR receivers in the example above are tuned to two
different VOR stations. Notice that the upper one has a course of 308 selected; because
the needle is centered that means you're on a course of 308 to or from the station. To
determine if it's to or from, you need to look at the ambiguity indicator which is marked
with the "A" on both CDIs. The upper CDI's ambiguity indicator is pointing up (which
indicates a course toward the station); that means a 308 course will take you directly to
the station (in this case, the needle would also center with a course of 128 selected; with
128 selected the ambiguity indicator would reverse because this would be the course
directly from the station). The lower CDI is set to a course of 033, and its ambiguity
indicator is pointing down (or from the station). That means that a course of 033 will take
you directly away from the station (in this case, the needle would also center with a course
of 213 selected, with 213 selected the ambiguity indicator would reverse because that
would be the course directly to the station). Like we discussed above, VOR courses are
referred to as "radials". The radial is always a course from the station; the upper CDI is
displaying a course to the station, so the radial in that case is the value shown at the
bottom of the instrument (128); the lower CDI is displaying a course from the station, so
the radial in that case is the value shown at the top of the instrument (033). If the pilot
were to fly a course of 308, he would be tracking the 128 radial inbound to the station
displayed on the upper CDI. If the pilot were to turn to a course of 033, he would be
tracking the 033 radial away from the station displayed on the lower CDI.

Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)


Similar to the RMI, the HSI provides a combined display of heading and course guidance.
The CDI needle within the HSI rotates with the compass card and the relationship of the
aircraft's heading and the desired course becomes more obvious.

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4.1.4 Operational used of Ground-Based Navigation systems

VOR OPERATION
OPERATION

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Figure 15: VOR INDICATOR

Rotating Course Card is calibrated from 0 to 360 degrees, which indicates the VOR
bearing chosen as the reference to fly by pilot.
Omni Bearing Selector or OBS knob , used to manually rotate the course card to
where the point to fly to.
TO-FROM indicator . The triangle arrow will point UP when flying to the VOR
station. The arrow will point DOWN when flying away from the VOR station. A red
flag replaces these TO-FROM arrows when the VOR is beyond reception range or
the station is out.
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI). This needle moves left or right indicating the
direction to turn the aircraft to return to course.
DOT : The horizontal dots at center are represent the aircraft away from the course .
Each dot represent 2 degrees deviate from desired course.

DME OPERATION

The DME will measure the distance in a straight line to the ground beacon (the slant range),
not the distance from a point on the ground vertically below the aircraft (ground range).

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The difference is generally insignificant, except that when directly over a beacon when the
distance shown will be height above the beacon.

Figure 16: Principle of Operation of DME

Table 1: Ground Range as a Function of Altitude and Slant Range

DME operates in the ultra high frequency (UHF) band and the 252 available channels are

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contained between 960 and 1215 MHz. It utilises a double pulse in both the interrogator
and the transponder. All pulses are the same duration, that is, 3.5 micro-seconds.
Discrimination between channels is accomplished by both frequency separation and pulse
spacing.
Channels are numbered from 1 to 126 and each channel number is further divided into
two channels designated X and Y.

Each numbered pair of channels is separated from the adjoining pair by 1 MHz. The X
channels are separated from the Y channels by varying the pulse separation time. The
pulse separation spacing is the same for all X channels, being 12 micro-seconds for both
the interrogator and the transponder. In the case of Y channels the pulse spacing is 36
micro-seconds for the interrogator and 30 micro-seconds for the transponder. No Y
channel DMEs are used in Australia.

Table 2: DME/VOR Channel Pairing

The rate of interrogation (referred to as pulse repetition frequency, or prf) is nominally 30


pulse pairs per second. However, during the search period this rate increases to
approximately 150 pulse pairs per second. This design permits 100 aircraft to interrogate
a ground beacon at one time. Identification of the ground beacon is in the form of Morse
Code characters.

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Operation of ILS

Numerous aircraft instrument landing systems have been heretofore devised. Two basic
types are in relatively extensive use. One of these types is commonly known as ILS
(Instrument Landing System) in which a localizer transmitter and a glide-slope transmitter
are positioned in the landing area to develop a landing path extending into space for
aircraft sensors to detect and to provide information as to the actual deviation of the
aircraft from this prescribed path. No velocity or distance control is usually provided with
these systems and the information is not satisfactory for blind landings.

The Designated Area Instrument Landing System (DIALS) is a portable type Instrument
Landing System specifically designed for a designated area operation of aircraft or
surface craft, as the case may be. This system has been made portable by installing the
heavier type equipment in the moving vehicles and the light weight equipment on the
ground, or in any other desired location for a position reference. Basic RAILS airborne
equipment consists of a tracking radar, computer, display equipment, and master
control box; the ground equipment consists of a transponder beacon. The airborne
system requires inputs from the following conventional sensors which are not
considered basic equipment: Barometric altitude, airspeed, attitude, heading, and
absolute altitude. Absolute altitude is used for terrain avoidance and peace of mind
information and is highly desirable information though not an absolute necessity.
Complementary operation of the airborne system and the reference beacon furnishes
the pilot of the vehicle the capability of selecting a particular reference beacon, which
has been purposely located to accommodate the specific mission requirements, and to
navigate and/or land in accordance to the selected Hight path parameters: track, altitude
or glide-slope, speed and touchdown spot.

As a result of the unique information display made possible according to the present
invention, the pilot of the vehicle is presented with both a horizontal or plan dynamic
view and a vertical sectional dynamic view of his aircraft with respect to a designated
area beacon and the selected Hight path.

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Microwave landing system ( MLS )

Operational Function

The system may be divided into five functions: Approach azimuth, Back azimuth,
Approach elevation, Range and Data communications.

Approach azimuth guidance


The azimuth station transmits MLS angle and data on one of 200 channels within the
frequency range of 5031 to 5090.7 MHz and is normally located about 1,000 feet (300 m)
beyond the stop end of the runway, but there is considerable flexibility in selecting sites. For
example, for heliport operations the azimuth transmitter can be collocated with the elevation
transmitter.

The azimuth coverage extends: Laterally, at least 40 degrees on either side of the runway
centerline in a standard configuration. In elevation, up to an angle of 15 degrees and to at
least 20,000 feet (6 km), and in range, to at least 20 nautical miles (37 km).

Figure 17: Coverage Volume of the Azimuth station

Elevation guidance

The elevation station transmits signals on the same frequency as the azimuth station. A
single frequency is time-shared between angle and data functions and is normally

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located about 400 feet from the side of the runway between runway threshold and the
touchdown zone.
Elevation coverage is provided in the same airspace as the azimuth guidance signals: In
elevation, to at least +15 degrees; Laterally, to fill the Azimuth lateral coverage and in
range, to at least 20 nautical miles (37 km)

Figure 18: Coverage Volumes of the Elevation station

Range guidance

The MLS Precision Distance Measuring Equipment (DME/P) functions in the same way as
the navigation DME, but there are some technical differences. The beacon transponder
operates in the frequency band 962 to 1105 MHz and responds to an aircraft interrogator.
The MLS
DME/P accuracy is improved to be consistent with the accuracy provided by the MLS
azimuth and elevation stations.
A DME/P channel is paired with the azimuth and elevation channel. A complete listing of
the 200 paired channels of the DME/P with the angle functions is contained in FAA
Standard 022 (MLS Interoperability and Performance Requirements).
The DME/N or DME/P is an integral part of the MLS and is installed at all MLS facilities
unless a waiver is obtained. This occurs infrequently and only at outlying, low density
airports where marker beacons or compass locators are already in place.

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Data communications

The data transmission can include both the basic and auxiliary data words. All MLS facilities
transmit basic data. Where needed, auxiliary data can be transmitted. MLS data are
transmitted throughout the azimuth (and back azimuth when provided) coverage sectors.
Representative data include: Station identification, Exact locations of azimuth, elevation
and DME/P stations (for MLS receiver processing functions), Ground equipment
performance level; and DME/P channel and status.
MLS identification is a four-letter designation starting with the letter M. It is transmitted
in International Morse Code at least six times per minute by the approach azimuth (and
back azimuth) ground equipment.
Auxiliary data content: Representative data include: 3-D locations of MLS equipment,
Waypoint coordinates, Runway conditions and Weather (e.g., RVR, ceiling, altimeter
setting, wind, wake vortex, wind shear).

4.1.5 Frequency bands used by the ground-based navigation


systems

Frequency Band
Radio frequencies lie within a relatively narrow range of the Electronmagnetic spectrum
between approximately 10 KHZ and 300 GHZ. This range is divided into bands, more or
less in accordance with propagation characteristics of the frequencies. These bands are:

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Table 3: Frequency Allocation

Frequency Allocation:
Frequency Allocation is establish to provide a clear channeling between the various
functions performed by aeronautical navaids and communications facilities. Although a
general allocation is recognized on a world-wide basis, variations may occur witin certain
ranges. The listing below is intended to provide that allocation most generally used by civil
operators.
Navigation Aids:
190 535 kHz Nondirectional Radio Beacon (low power) and Radio Range
(low power)
190 1750 kHz Non-directional Beacon (standard)
Non-directional Beacon Marker Beacon
(Standard)
108.0 117.975 MHz VOR Test Facility (VOT)
108.0 - 111.975 MHz ILS localizer (on odd tenths plus twentieth of MHz)
108.0 111.975 MHz VOR (even tenths or even tenths plus a twentieth of MHz)
111.975 117.975 MHz VOR ( even and odd tenths of MHz)
328.6 335.4 MHz ILS glide slope
960.0 1215.0 MHz DME and TACAN
1563.42 1587.42 MHz GPS
AIRBORNE STATIONS
410 KHz International DF (outside continental USA)

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475 KHz Working frequency exclusively for aircraft on sea


flights desiringan intermediate frequency
500 KHz International frequency for aircraft and ships over the
seas. Transmission on this frequency (except for urgent or
safety messages and signals) must cease twice each hour,
for three minute periods beginning at 15 and 45 past each
hour.
3281 KHz Lighter-than aircraft

VHF OMNI-DIRECTIONAL RANGE (VOR)


VOR s operate within the 108.0 to 117.0 MHz frequency band and have a power output
necessary to provide coverage within their assigned operational service volume. They are
subject to line-of-sight restrictions, and the range varies proportionally to the altitude of
the receiving equipment.

Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB)


A low or medium frequency radio beacon transmits nondirectional signals whereby the
pilot of an aircraft properly equipped can determine bearings and home on the station.
These facilities normally operate in a frequency band of 190 to 535 kilohertz (KHz),
according to ICAO Annex 10 the frequency range for NDBs is between 190 and 1750 KHz,
and transmit a continuous carrier with either 400 or 1020 hertz (Hz) modulation.

4.1.6 CALIBRATION

Pre-flight calibration The pre-launch calibration of an instrument is performed in the


laboratory, by using accurately known radiation sources under controlled conditions.
Simulating all possible instrument states and stress factors before launch is very important
because it is the only way to accurately characterize and model the instrument before it is
exposed to the harsh orbital environment. Housekeeping systems and instruments need
to be built robust enough to withstand physical stress incurred during launch,
commissioning, and exploitation phases. Housekeeping data, in combination with post-
launch calibration information, will then allow operators to infer the calibration status of
the instrument in orbit, and to resolve on-orbit anomalies.

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Flight Calibration is carried out to determine accuracy and reliability of various


navigational aids used in the ground-based navigation, such as Instrument Landing System
(ILS) and VOR/DME. This service is offered at regional level on contractual basis.

Calibration of test equipment .

All test equipment used for calibration, test or maintenance of an aeronautical navigation
aid should be listed and subject to regular calibration checks. Each item of test equipment
should have a documented calibration procedure and calibration records. Test equipment
should be calibrated at the manufacturers recommended intervals, unless otherwise
indicated by objective evidence or operational conditions.

The conditions of use of individual items of test equipment should be fully considered and
the manufacturers recommended interval should be queried if the utilization profile may
be outside of the specified environmental conditions.

Regular calibration of the flight inspection receivers and position-fixing system is to be


performed in order to ensure a back tracing of data to international or national standards.
The calibration may be performed either on board the flight inspection aircraft or in a
laboratory. In both cases, a test transmitter is connected to the radio frequency (RF) input
of the receiver in order to input simulated signals. The receiver output is compared with
the nominal signals; deviations are recorded either in a test protocol or in the memory of
a computer. Calibration data are applied either on-line by the computer or during off-line
data evaluation.

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APPENDIX H- SUB-TOPIC 4.1 Questions

1. Operate within the 108.0 to 117.0 MHz frequency band and have a power output
necessary to provide coverage within their assigned operational service volume.
They are subject to line-of-sight restrictions, and the range varies proportionally
to the altitude of the receiving equipment.

a) Non-Directional Radio beacon (NDB) c) VHF Omni-Directional Range (VOR)


b) ILS Localizer d) All of the Above

2. Frequency Allocation of Nondirectional Radio Beacon (low power) and Radio Range
(low power)

a) 190 535 Khz c) 328.6 335.4 MHz


b) 190 1750 kHz d) 108.0 117.975 MHz

3. Is carried out to determine accuracy and reliability of various navigational aids used
in the ground-based navigation, such as Instrument Landing System (ILS) and
VOR/DME. This service is offered at regional level on contractual basis.

a) Pre-flight Calibration c) Pre-launch Calibration


b) Flight Calibration d) All of the above

4. The elevation station transmits signals on the same frequency as the azimuth
station. A single frequency is time-shared between angle and data functions and
is normally located about 400 feet from the side of the runway between runway
threshold and the touchdown zone.

a) Elevation Guidance c) Range Guidance


b) Compass Locator d) None of the Above

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4.2 On-Board Navigation Systems


4.2.1 Use of On-Board navigation System

A barometric Altimeter, relying on atmospheric pressure readings, provides an indirect


measure of height above a nominal sea level, typically to an accuracy of much less than
0.01 percent. Most airborne inertial systems requiring a three-dimensional navigation
capacity operate with barometric aiding in order to bound the growth of vertical-channel
errors.

A Radar Altimeter, provide a direct measure of height above ground, which is equally
important for many applications. Such measurements may be used in conjunctioin with a
stored map of the terraine over which an aircraft is flying to provide position updates for
an inertial navigation system. The subject of terrain referenced navigation is addressed
separately in the following section.

A radar altimeter, electronic altimeter, reflection altimeter, radio altimeter


(RADALT), low range radio altimeter (LRRA) or simply RA, used on aircraft,
measures altitude above the terrain presently beneath an aircraft or spacecraft by timing
how long it takes a beam of radio waves to reflect from the ground and return to the plane.
This type of altimeter provides the distance between the antenna and the ground directly
below it, in contrast to a barometric altimeter which provides the distance above a defined
datum, usually mean sea level.

Consider a radar pulse emanating from a radar beacon traveling downwards and
interacting with a flat ocean surface. The following figure shows an illustration of the
vertical cross-section and top-down view of the radar pulse (adapted from ) .

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Figure 19: Pulse-Limited Altimetry

The radar altimeter measures the return power of the radar pulse that's reflected off the
land/ocean surface. The temporal evolution of the reflected radar pulse is interpreted in
order to estimate the distance between the radar altimeter and the reflecting surface;
surface irregularities can also be estimated.

APPENDIX I- SUB-TOPIC 4.2 Questions

1. Provide a direct measure of height above ground, which is equally important for
many applications. Such measurements may be used in conjunctioin with a stored
map of the terraine over which an aircraft is flying to provide position updates for
an inertial navigation system.

a) Radar Altimeter c) Radio Altimeter


c) Reflection Altimeter d) All of the Above

2. Provides an indirect measure of height above a nominal sea level, typically to an


accuracy of much less than 0.01 percent. Most airborne inertial systems requiring
a three-dimensional navigation capacity operate with barometric aiding in order to
bound the growth of vertical-channel errors.

a) Radio Altimeter c) Reflection Altimeter


c) Barometric Altimeter d) Radar Altimeter

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4.3 Space-Based Navigation System


4.3.1 Working Principles of Satellite Positioning

Galileo is Europes Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS), providing improved


positioning and timing information with significant positive implications for many
European services and users. For example:

Galileo allows users to know their exact position with greater precision than what
is offered by other available systems.
The products that people use every day, from the navigation device in your car to
a mobile phone, benefit from the increased accuracy that Galileo provides.
Critical, emergency response-services benefit from Galileo.
Galileos services will make Europes roads and railways safer and more efficient.
It boosts European innovation, contributing to the creation of many new products
and services, creating jobs and allowing Europe to own a greater share of the EUR
175 billion global GNSS market

Furthermore, Galileo provides Europe and European citizens with independence and
sovereignty, an array of environmental benefits and several new services specific to the
Galileo programme (Open Service, Commercial Service, Search and Rescue).

Until now, GNSS users have had to depend on non-civilian American GPS or Russian
GLONASS signals. With Galileo, users now have a new, reliable alternative that, unlike
these other programmes, remains under civilian control.

While European independence is a principle objective of the programme, Galileo also gives
Europe a seat at the rapidly expanding GNSS global table. The programme is designed to
be compatible with all existing and planned GNSS and interoperable with GPS and
GLONASS. In this sense, Galileo is positioned to enhance the coverage currently available
providing a more seamless and accurate experience for multi-constellation users around
the world.

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Satellite positioning has become an essential service that we often take for granted. Just
think what would happen if GNSS signals were suddenly switched off. Truck and taxi drivers,
ship and aircraft crews and millions of people around the world would suddenly be lost.

Furthermore, financial and communication activities, public utilities, security and


humanitarian operations and emergency services would all come to a standstill. In other
words, as the use of satellite-based navigation systems continues to expand, the
implications of a potential signal failure become even greater.

With the addition of Galileo to the global GNSS constellation, we not only minimise these
risks, but also ensure better performance and accuracy.

4.3.2 Architecture of a Core satellite positioning Systems.

Architecture of Global Positioning System (GPS)

GPS or Global positioning system is a satellite based navigation system that provides the
exact location and time of an object at any place in the globe in all weather conditions.
This is one of the best example of technological advancement in the field of science and
technology. The basic concept of GPS technology involves the transmission of signals by
the satellites that includes three things: the time at which the message was transmitted
by the receiver, the orbital information and the general system health and rough orbits of
all GPS satellites.

To run all the system of GPS technology properly, highly advance architecture of GPS has
been developed that includes three major segments called the space segment (SS), control
segment (CS) and a user segment (US).

If we look upon the architectural framework of Global positioning system, the space
segment consist of 24 operational satellites and 3 more satellites along with the payload
adapters to the boosters required to launch them into orbit. These satellites are placed in
the medium earth orbit. The central segment consists of a master control station, an
alternate master control station, and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and

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monitor stations. The last segment, user segment constitutes thousands of military users
and million of commercial and civilian users. The military users uses the GPS Precise
Positioning Service while the others uses the Standard Positioning Service of GPS.

Galileo Architecture Overview

The provision of the Galileo signals and services relies on the continuous and coordinated
operation of a network of specialized system facilities covering different functional needs.
Error! Reference source not found. presents the most relevant elements of the Galileo
system infrastructure in an end-to-end service context.
These facilities can be grouped into three main categories: The Galileo Core Infrastructure,
the Galileo Service Facilities and the Galileo Support Facilities.
The Galileo Core Infrastructure (CI) comprises a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite
constellation continuously transmitting Galileo Signal-in-Space (SIS), i.e. the Galileo Space
Segment, and a global ground system infrastructure providing all the functionality required
to sustain the provision of Galileo navigation services in an independent manner.
The Galileo CI ground infrastructure comprises two main subsystems or segments, the
Galileo Ground Control Segment (GCS) and the Galileo Ground Mission Segment (GMS).
While the GCS provides the Galileo constellation monitoring and control functions, the
GMS supports the generation and distribution/uplink of navigation products and other
mission data required for the onboard generation of the navigation messages modulated
on some of the Galileo SIS components.

Space Segment

The space segment (SS) comprises the GPS satellites, or Space Vehicles (SV) in GPS
parlance. The 24 GPS satellites in the GPS design is distributed into eight each in three
circular orbits. Later it was divided into six orbital planes with four satellites each.
Though, the orbits are centered on the Earth, they don't rotate with the earth and are
fixed with respect to the distant stars. These orbits are arranged in such a way that at
least six satellites should always lie within the line of sight from every part of earth
surface. For this, four satellites are unevenly spaced within each orbit with angular
difference of each orbit being 30, 105, 120, and 105 degrees apart. Thus, making a sum
total of 360 degree.

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Control segment

A control system of GPS is completed by the combination of a master control station


(MCS), an alternate master control station, four dedicated ground antennas and six
dedicated monitor stations. The control segment is responsible for the proper
functioning of all the operations of global positioning system such as changing the
unhealthy satellites with a healthy one if any satellite fails suddenly. It also provides the
operational capability to the system that helps the global GPS users and keeps the GPS
system operational and functional within specification every time. In addition to that the
control segment is responsible for the security issues of the system also.

User Segment

The user segment comprises of thousands of U.S. and allied military users who uses the
secure GPS Precise Positioning Service, and millions of civil, commercial and scientific
users who uses the Standard Positioning Service of global positioning system.
Commonly, the GPS receivers are composed of an antenna, which are tuned to the
frequencies that are transmitted by the orbital GPS satellites, receiver-processors, and a
highly stable clock called a crystal oscillator. In addition to that they consists of a display
that the information about the location and speed to the user. A receiver is generally
known by its number of channels which signifies how many satellites it can monitor at a
time. Earlier, the number was limited to four or five but now a days the number of
channels for a receiver has increased to 12 to 20.

This is how a Global positioning system is designed to get an accurate information about
the location and speed of an object and is used for several purposes and has proved very
useful in today's world.

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Figure 20: Galileo architectural overview

The operations of the Galileo CI are centrally managed from two fully redundant Ground
Control Centres (GCC) located in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) and in Fucino (Italy)
respectively.
The principal service offered by Galileo to the end users is the Galileo SIS, which can be
processed by Galileo compatible receiver equipment for accurate positioning and time
determination in the Galileo terrestrial reference frame (GTRF) and Galileo System Time
(GST) scale respectively. Two Galileo Service Facilities, the so called Geodetic Reference
Service Provider and Time Service Provider, monitor the alignment of GTRF and GST with
the international metrological standards (ITRF and UTC) and provide the Galileo CI steering
corrections to ensure a very high level of consistency between reference systems.

Further to the GTRF and the TSP, there are other Galileo Service Facilities to provide
Galileo-related services to the wide public and to specific user communities. They are the

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GNSS Service Centre (GSC), the Galileo Security Monitoring Centre (GSMC) and the SAR
Galileo Ground Segment.

The Galileo Support Facilities is a further category of facilities not directly involved in the
routine provision of services but playing an essential role in the deployment,
commissioning and maintenance of Galileo. These include among others two external
satellite control centres supporting the Launch and Early Operations Phase (LEOP) of each
Galileo spacecraft and a ground In Orbit Test (IOT) station for satellite commissioning
operations.

4.3.3 Frequency Bands used by the Space-Based Navigation


Sustem

The Galileo space segment constellation will comprise a constellation of a total of 30


Medium Earth Orbit satellites, of which 3 are spares. The Galileo satellite constellation has
been optimised to have three equally spaced orbital planes, at an altitude of 23,222 km
with an inclination of 56. Each orbital plane would have 9 operational satellites, equally
spaced and 1 spare satellite (also transmitting). Each Galileo satellite will broadcast 10
different navigation signals in the frequency ranges 1164 1215 MHz (E5 band), 1260
1300 MHz (E6 band), and 15591592 MHz (E2-L1-E1 band), making it possible for Galileo
to offer an open service (OS), safety-of-life service (SoL), commercial service (CS) and
public regulated service (PRS). All satellites will make use of the same carrier frequencies
with different ranging codes again through CDMA transmission.

Table 4: Galileo Signals Main Characteristics

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Six signals, including three data-less channels, so-called pilot tones (ranging codes not
modulated by data), are accessible to all Galileo users on the E5a, E5b and L1 carrier
frequencies for Open Services and Safety-of-life Services and their accessibility are free of
direct charge. Two signals on E6 with encrypted ranging codes, including one dataless
channel are accessible only to some dedicated users that gain access through a given
Commercial Service provider. In GPS only one signal is available, which does not allow the
kind of optimisation performed for Galileo. This will be overcome by the GPS
modernisation programme, where more GPS signals will be made available. However, the
signal of interest for this work is the L1F-d (data), a signal transmitted in the E2-L1-E1 band
as part of the Galileo open service (OS). The advantage of this signal in this work is that
the L1 band of GPS signal is centered in the same carrier, making this signal a non-hardware
changing signal to process in a GPS common SDR, as it can be seen in the spectra of Galileo
signals in E2-L1-E1 Band bellow.

Figure 21: Spectra of Galileo Signals in E2-L1-E1 [1].

The L1F signal is has a data bandwidth of 4.092 MHz, twice that of the GPS system. In the
figure above, the L1F signal is comprised in the two main lobes with zero offset from the
carrier. The L1 band modulation should combine three distinct signals associated to two
different services into a phase modulated composite signal.

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4.3.4 Benefits of Satellite Bases Navigation

The benefits of satellite navigation are all around us. For example, GNSS improves traffic
flow and vehicle efficiency, guides users, and helps track parcels and shipments and even
lost pets - by providing added value logistic solutions. It can facilitate civil protection
operations in harsh environments, speed up rescue operations and provide critical tools to
coastguard and border control authorities. GNSS is also a formidable instrument for time-
stamping financial transactions, for conducting scientific research in meteorology and
geodesy, and for conducting scientific research in meteorology, troposphere and geodesy.

Europes own GNSS programme

Galileo is Europes GNSS. Until now, GNSS users have had to depend on American Global
Positioning System (GPS) or the Russian GLONASS signals. With Galileo, users now have a
new, reliable alternative that, unlike these other programmes, remains under civil control.
This is important as satellite positioning has become an essential service that we often
take for granted. Just think what would happen if GNSS signals were suddenly switched
off. Truck and taxi drivers, ship and aircraft crews and millions of people around the world
would suddenly be lost. Furthermore, financial and communication activities, public
utilities, security and humanitarian operations and emergency services would all come to
a standstill. With the addition of Galileo, we can minimise these risks.
Galileo provides improved positioning and timing information with positive implications
for many European services, businesses and users. For example:
Thanks to the multi-constellation of receivers that Galileo adds to, users can
now know their exact position with greater precision.
The products that people use every day, from the GPS in your car to a mobile
phone, benefit from the increased accuracy that Galileo provides.
Critical, emergency response-services benefit from Galileo.
Galileo helps make Europes roads and railways safer and more efficient.
It boosts European innovation, contributing to the creation of many new
products and services, creating jobs and allowing Europe to own a greater
share of the EUR 175 billion global GNSS market.

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While European independence is a principle objective of the programme, Galileo also


allows Europe to seat at the rapidly expanding GNSS global table. The programme is
designed to be compatible with all existing and planned GNSS and interoperable with GPS
and GLONASS. In this sense, Galileo is positioned to enhance the coverage currently
available providing a more seamless and accurate experience for multi-constellation
users around the world.

Accuracy:
According to Russian System of Differentional Correction and Monitoring's data, as of
2010, precision of GLONASS navigation definitions (for p=0.95) for latitude and longitude
were 4.467.38 metres (14.624.2 ft) with mean number of navigation space vehicles
(NSV) equals 78 (depending on station). In comparison, the same time precision of GPS
navigation definitions were 2.008.76 metres (6 ft 7 in28 ft 9 in) with mean number of
NSV equals 611 (depending on station).[citation needed] Civilian GLONASS used alone is
therefore very slightly less accurate than GPS. On high latitudes (north or south),
GLONASS' accuracy is better than that of GPS due to the orbital position of the satellites.
Some modern receivers are able to use both GLONASS and GPS satellites together,
providing greatly improved coverage in urban canyons and giving a very fast time to fix
due to over 50 satellites being available. In indoor, urban canyon or mountainous areas,
accuracy can be greatly improved over using GPS alone. For using both navigation systems
simultaneously, precision of GLONASS/GPS navigation definitions were 2.374.65 metres
(7 ft 9 in15 ft 3 in) with mean number of NSV equals 1419 (depends on station).

Time/Frequency Dissemination using Satellite Navigation

Time and Frequency play a key role in modern navigation. Therefore, navigation satellites
usually have an on-board clock of high stability as part of the navigation system. Thus,
navigation satellites while providing reliable and accurate navigation aids, offer, at the same
time, the ability of disseminating time and frequency to a high degree of accuracy.

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4.3.5 Current Limitations of space-based Navigation systems

Ionospheric Delay & Total Electron Count (TEC)


Ionospheric delay is proportional to the TEC of the ionosphere along the signal path
TEC is the number of free electrons along the path from receiver to satellite
TEC varies depending on solar activity & geomagnetic disturbances
Increase in TEC values will result in errors in GNSS range measurements Multi-
frequency systems allow the delay to be measured

Multipath occurs when signals reach an antenna along more than one path, i.e., besides the
direct line-of-sight path, signals reflected from nearby surfaces are also received. Carrier
phase measurements are affected less than code measurements [Georgiadou and Kleusberg,
1988b]. This error is dependent on the environment around the antenna, and will repeat on
a diurnal basis (minus approximately four minutes each time) due to the 17 orbital period
of the satellites. Suppression of multipath can be achieved by careful site selection, away
from reflective surfaces and the use of antennae with gain patterns which will be less likely
to pick up reflected signals.

4.3.6 Working Principles of Satellite Augmentation

Aircraft-Based Augmentation System (ABAS)


The augmentation may also take the form of additional information from navigation
sensors being blended into the position calculation, or internal algorithms that improve
the navigation performance. Many times the additional avionics operate via separate
principles than the GNSS and are not necessarily subject to the same sources of error or
interference. A system such as this is referred to as an aircraft-based augmentation
system (ABAS) by the ICAO. The most widely used form of ABAS is Receiver Autonomous
Integrity Monitoring (RAIM), which uses redundant GPS signals to ensure the integrity of
the position solution, and to detect faulty signals.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring RAIM is so named because the airborne
receiver performs self-contained fault detection.
RAIM compares each GPS measurement to the consensus of the other available GPS
measurements. In this way, RAIM detects the presence of a faulty satellite within the
current set of in-view satellites.

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Satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS), such as EGNOS, complement


existing global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). SBAS compensate for certain
disadvantages of GNSS in terms of accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability.
All of the systems comply with a common global standard and are therefore all compatible
(do not interfere with each other) and interoperable (a user with a standard receiver can
benefit from the same level of service and performance whether located in the EGNOS or
WAAS coverage area).
WAAS
The full Wide Area Augmentation System will consist upon completion of 25 reference
stations, two master stations and three uplink stations, which serve as connection to two
geostationary INMARSAT III communication satellites
EGNOS
The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service when completed will consist of a
total of 44 ground stations, most of which are located in Europe. He will also have three
geostationary satellites and is compatible and interoperable with WAAS and MSAS. As
with WAAS also a horizontal position accuracy of better than 7 m is required. In practice,
however, a much higher accuracy is expected in the meter range.

A Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) augments the existing Global Positioning
System (GPS) used in U.S. airspace by providing corrections to aircraft in the vicinity of an
airport in order to improve the accuracy of, and provide integrity for, these
aircrafts' GPS navigational position.

The goal of GBAS implementation is to provide an alternative to the Instrument Landing


System (ILS) supporting the full range of approach and landing operations

Current non-federal (non-Fed) GBAS installations provide Category I (CAT-I) precision


approach service. CAT-1 GBAS is referred to internationally as GBAS Approach Service
Type-C (GAST-C) (CAT-I minima).

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GBAS has an particular importance in the field of sattelite aided precision approaches
andlandings. It should serve as a future replacement for the currently used ILS (Instrument
Landing System), because significant cost savings are expected with regard to acquisition,
maintenance and flight inspection. In addition, the opportunity created
by GBAS approaches to satellite and CATII and CATIII carried out (see table below). For
this to be installed in the vicinity of airports on local ground monitor stations whose data
are then transmitted by radio to the aircraft.

4.3.7 Implementations of Satellite-Based Navigation Systems

Global Positioning System (GPS)

GPS is a satellite-based radio navigation system which uses precise range


measurements from GPS satellites to determine position and time anywhere in the
world. The system is operated for the government of the United States by the
United States Air Force. In 1994, the United States offered the GPS standard
positioning service (SPS) to support the needs of international civil aviation and the
ICAO Council accepted the offer.
The design of GPS space segment is comprised of 24 satellites in six orbital planes.
The satellites operate in near-circular 20 200 km (10 900 NM) orbits at an
inclination angle of 55 degrees to the equator; each satellite completes an orbit in
approximately 12 hours. The GPS control segment has five monitor stations and
four ground antennas with uplink capabilities.

Globalnaya Navigatsionnay Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS)

GLONASS provides three-dimensional position and velocity determinations based


upon the measurement of transit time and Doppler shift of radio frequency (RF)
signals transmitted by GLONASS satellites. The system is operated by the Ministry
of Defence of the Russian Federation. In 1996, the Russian Federation offered the
GLONASS channel of standard accuracy (CSA) to support the needs of international
civil aviation and the ICAO Council accepted the offer.

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The nominal GLONASS space segment consists of 24 operational satellites and


several spares. GLONASS satellites orbit at an altitude of 19 100 km (10 310 NM)
with an orbital period of 11 hours and 15 minutes. Eight evenly spaced satellites
are to be arranged in each of the three orbital planes, inclined 64.8 degrees and
spaced 120 degrees apart
The GLONASS control segment performs satellite monitoring and control functions,
and determines the navigation data to be modulated on the coded satellite
navigation signals. The control segment includes a master control station and
monitoring and upload stations.

Augmentation Systems

Even though the core constellations and the receivers can provide accuracy,
continuity, availability and integrity to meet from en-route to non-precision
approach (NPA) requirements, for precision approach and procedures that require
a greater degree of accuracy or integrity, it is necessary to have some source of
augmentation for these parameters.
The augmentation systems that are listed in Annex 10 SARPs are ABAS, GRAS, SBAS
and GBAS and will be briefly described below.

1. Aircraft-Based Augmentation System (ABAS)

In the early 1990s, many aircraft operators were quick to adopt GNSS because of
the availability of relatively inexpensive Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.
Operators used these early receivers as an aid to visual flight rules (VFR) and
instrument flight rules (IFR) navigation. They quickly saw the benefits of having
global area navigation (RNAV) capability, and demanded avionics that could be
used for IFR navigation.
The most common ABAS technique is called receiver autonomous integrity
monitoring (RAIM). RAIM requires redundant satellite range measurements to
detect faulty signals and alert the pilot. The requirement for redundant signals
means that navigation guidance with integrity provided by RAIM may not be
available 100 per cent of the time.

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2. Ground-Based Regional Augmentation System (GRAS)

GRAS was a system conceptually developed but was never set to operation
considering its complexity and the advances in other augmentation systems.
The concept was based on ground reference stations installed all over a large area
in precisely defined positions that transmitted the signal received to a master
station capable of processing all information and generating error correction for
each pseudo-range information received from the satellites.

3. Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)

An SBAS augments core satellite constellations by providing ranging, integrity and


correction information via geostationary satellites. The system comprises:
a) a network of ground reference stations that monitor satellite signals;
b) master stations that collect and process reference station data and generate SBAS
messages;
c) uplink stations that send the messages to geostationary satellites; and
d) transponders on these satellites that broadcast the SBAS messages.
SBAS can support all en-route and terminal RNAV operations. Significantly, SBAS
offers the promise of affordable RNAV capability for a wide cross section of users.
This will allow States to reorganize airspace for maximum efficiency and capacity,
allowing aircraft to follow the most efficient flight path between airports.

4. Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS)

The current core constellation is unable to provide accuracy, availability, continuity


and integrity to achieve precision approach. GBAS uses the concept of differential
corrections to augment satellites signal in order to meet these requirements.
The Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is being developed and
implemented in several countries and a large amount of information is being
generated. This guide intends to be a basis for countries interested in
implementation of GBAS.
GBAS provides augmentation to the core constellations to enable precision
approach up to Category III.

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SARPs for CAT II/III are already developed by the ICAO Navigation System Panel
(NSP) but not yet included in Annex 10, waiting for developments in the industry.
GBAS works based on three segments: satellites constellation, ground station and
aircraft receiver.

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APPENDIX J- SUB-TOPIC 4.3 Questions

1. Europes Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS), providing improved


positioning and timing information with significant positive implications for many
European services and users.

a) GLONASS c) GPS
b) Galileo d) All of the Above

2. Is a satellite based navigation system that provides the exact location and time of
an object at any place in the globe in all weather conditions.

a) GNSS c) Global Positioning System


b) GLONASS d) None of the Above

3. The comprises a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite


constellation continuously transmitting Galileo Signal-in-Space (SIS), i.e. the Galileo
Space Segment, and a global ground system infrastructure providing all the
functionality required to sustain the provision of Galileo navigation services in an
independent manner.

a) Galileo Ground Control Segment (GCS) c) Space Segment


b) Galileo Core Infrastructure (CI) d) CAA

4. Augments the existing Global Positioning System (GPS) used in U.S. airspace by
providing corrections to aircraft in the vicinity of an airport in order to improve the
accuracy of, and provide integrity for, these aircrafts' GPS navigational position.

a) Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) c) WAAS


b) Aircraft-Based Augmentation System (ABAS) d) EGNOS

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5. PERFORMANCE-BASED NAVIGATION
5.1 PBN
ICAO performance-based navigation (PBN) specifies that aircraft required navigation
performance (RNP) and area navigation (RNAV) systems performance requirements be
defined in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability, continuity, and functionality required
for the proposed operations in the context of a particular airspace, when supported by
the appropriate navigation infrastructure

5.1.1 Principle of Area Navigation

Area navigation (RNAV) is a method of instrument flight rules (IFR) navigation that allows
an aircraft to choose any course within a network of navigation beacons, rather than
navigate directly to and from the beacons. This can conserve flight distance, reduce
congestion, and allow flights into airports without beacons. Area navigation used to be
called "random navigation", hence the acronym RNAV.[1]
RNAV can be defined as a method of navigation that permits aircraft operation on any
desired course within the coverage of station-referenced navigation signals or within the
limits of a self-contained system capability, or a combination of these.

Performance-based navigation (PBN) - Performance-based area navigation requirements


applicable to aircraft conducting operations on an ATS route, on an instrument approach
procedure, or in a designated airspace.

Performance Based Navigation encompasses a range of operations which are all based
upon Area Navigation. Area navigation, commonly abbreviated as RNAV, has been
available for around 30 years using a variety of technologies, however some difficulties
arise in the dual application of the term RNAV as a fundamental method of navigation
(area navigation) and also as a particular type of operation (e.g. RNAV 5). Further
complications arise with the implementation of Required Navigation Performance (RNP)
operations which by definition are also area navigation operations.

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Area Navigation Principles

Area navigation (RNAV) is a term applied to navigation between any two selected points
on the earths surface. RNAV has been around since the 1960s and the earliest avionics
used triangulation measurements from ground-based navigation aids to compute an
RNAV flight path between waypoints.
A number of self-contained navigation systems which are independent of any ground
based navigation systems have also been developed, including OMEGA (now obsolete)
LORAN C, GPS, Glonass, Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Inertial Reference Systems
(IRS).

FMS (FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS)

Flight management system (FMS) is the term used to describe an integrated system that
uses navigation, atmospheric and fuel flow data from several sensors to provide a
centralized control system for flight planning, and flight and fuel management. The system
processes navigation data to calculate and update a best computed position based on the
known system accuracy and reliability of the input sensors. This system may also be
referred to as a multi-sensor RNAV. FMS controls differ widely between aircraft types
and manufacturers, but the Typical FMS Control Unit figure, on the right, gives a typical
arrangement.
The heart of any FMS is the navigation computer unit. It contains the micro processor and
navigation data base. A typical base contains a regional or worldwide library of navaids,
waypoints, airports and airways.
FMS sensor input is supplied from external DME, VOR, air data computer (ADC) and fuel
flow sensors. Usually one or more long range sensors such as INS, IRS, ONS, LORAN-C or
GPS are also incorporated. Depending on the capabilities of the navigation sensors, most
flight management systems are approved for en route IFR in most classes of RNAV airspace.

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5.1.2 Navigation Applications in use in Europe

BASIC AREA NAVIGATION (B-RNAV)

RNA V is a navigation method which allows aircraft operations on any of the desired flight
paths within the boundaries of the reference navigation instrument positions or the
capabilities of autonomous instruments, or their combination. On-board RNA V
equipment determines automatically the position of the aircraft by processing the data
from one or more sources and guides the aircraft in accordance with the adequate
instructions about the route.

The introduction of B-RNAV operations into the ECAC airspace will insure numerous
advantages compared to the conventional navigation oriented to ground systems, at the
same time maintaining the existing safety standards.

Precision-Area Navigation (P-RNAV)

Precision-Area Navigation (P-RNAV) is the European terminal airspace RNAV application


and it is the natural progression from Basic RNAV which became mandatory in European
airspace in April 1998. The P-RNAV track keeping accuracy equates to cross track accuracy
of RNP1 (+/- 1NM).
Aircraft P-RNAV equipment automatically determines aircraft desired flight path by a
series of way points held in a database. P-RNAV procedures are designed to a common set
of design principles specific to RNAV equipped aircraft. These procedures will replace the
current multitude of RNAV procedures many of which are unsuitable for a wide range of
aircraft types. It is recognized that the existing variations in RNAV approval requirements,
the variations in procedure design and procedure publication/charting, as well as the
variations in navigation data integrity could have considerable safety implications.

Required Navigation Performance (RNP)

Required Navigation Performance (RNP) equipment provides onboard navigation


capability that allows crews to fly aircraft along a precise flight path with exceptional

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accuracy, and most importantly, the ability to determine aircraft position with both
accuracy and integrity.
Not only does RNP offer safety benefits with precision and accuracy, it reduces the cost of
inefficiencies such as multiple step-down non-precision and circling approaches (saving
fuel and time).

APPENDIX K- SUB-TOPIC 5.1 Questions

1. Precision-Area Navigation (P-RNAV) is the European terminal airspace


RNAV application and it is the natural progression from Basic RNAV which became
mandatory in European airspace in April 1998. The P-RNAV track keeping accuracy
equates to cross track accuracy of RNP1 (+/- 1NM).

a) Precision-Area Navigation (P-RNAV) c) GPS


c) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) d) All of the Above

2. Is the term used to describe an integrated system that uses navigation,


atmospheric and fuel flow data from several sensors to provide a centralized
control system for flight planning, and flight and fuel management.

a) Area Navigation c) Flight management system (FMS)


c) Performance Based Navigation d) None of the Above

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5.2 Future Developments


5.2.1 Future Navigation Developments

A 4D area navigation system was designed to guide aircraft along a prespecified flight
path(reference path) such that the aircraft would arrive at the approach gate at a time
specified by the ATC controller. Key components to achieve this requirement were:
(1) stored reference trajectories;
(2) a continuously recomputed capture trajectory to a selected waypoint on the reference
trajectory so as to achieve the desired time of arrival;
(3) electronic situation displays; and
(4) a control system to follow the overall trajectory in space and time.
The system was implemented in a digital integrated avionics system (STOLAND) installed
on a CV-340 airplane. Although the 4D system was designed primarily for automatic
operation, it was flight tested in a flight director mode (the pilot follows the flight director
commands), because the CV-340 autopilot servos were not tied to the avionics system.
The flight test showed that, even in the flight director mode, the pilot did achieve the
objectives of path tracking and time of arrival control with only moderate workload. The
system also permitted controlled delay of the time of arrival by path stretching, which
takes advantage of the continuously changing capture trajectory to predict the time of
arrival. While time of arrival was controlled to within less than 5 sec, more work is needed
to minimize throttle activity in the presence of varying winds and navigation errors.
Simulations in the automatic and manual modes were used to complement the flight data.

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APPENDIX L- SUB-TOPIC 5.2 Questions

1. Was designed to guide aircraft along a prespecified flight path(reference path) such
that the aircraft would arrive at the approach gate at a time specified by the ATC
controller.

a) 4D area navigation system c) Area navigation (RNAV)


b) Navigation d) None of the Above

2. The the pilot did achieve the objectives of path tracking and
time of arrival control with only moderate workload.

a) flight director mode (RNP) c) Navigation


b) Precision-Area Navigation (P-RNAV) d) None ot the Above

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