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GDE,W460,NR.

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A P A
T h e E n g i n e e r e d Wo o d A s s o c i a t i o n

DESIGN/CONSTRUCTION GUIDE

NOISE-RATED
SYSTEMS
GDE,W460,NR.0 8/28/00 2:03 PM Page 2

A P A
2000 APA THE ENGINEERED WOOD ASSOCIATION ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. ANY COPYING, MODIFICATION, DISTRIBUTION OR OTHER USE OF THIS PUBLICATION OTHER THAN AS EXPRESSLY AUTHORIZED BY APA IS PROHIBITED BY THE U.S. COPYRIGHT LAWS.

T h e E n g i n e e r e d Wo o d A s s o c i a t i o n

DO THE RIGHT THING RIGHT

Wood is good. It is the earths natural, energy efficient and renewable


building material.
Engineered wood is a better use of wood. It uses less wood to make
more wood products.
Thats why using APA trademarked I-joists, glued laminated timbers, laminated
veneer lumber, plywood and oriented strand board is the right thing to do.

A few facts about wood.


Were not running out of trees. One-third of the United States land base
731 million acres is covered by forests. About two-thirds of that 731 million acres is
suitable for repeated planting and harvesting of timber. But only about half of the land
suitable for growing timber is open to logging. Most of that harvestable acreage also is
open to other uses, such as camping, hiking, hunting, etc.
Were growing more wood every day. American landowners plant more than

two billion trees every year. In addition, millions of trees seed naturally. The forest
products industry, which comprises about 15 percent of forestland ownership, is
responsible for 41 percent of replanted forest acreage. That works out to more than one
billion trees a year, or about three million trees planted every day. This high rate of
replanting accounts for the fact that each year, 27 percent more timber is grown
than is harvested.
Manufacturing wood is energy
Percent of Percent of
efficient. Wood products made up Material Production Energy Use
47 percent of all industrial raw materials
Wood 47 4
manufactured in the United States, yet
Steel 23 48
consumed only 4 percent of the energy
needed to manufacture all industrial raw Aluminum 2 8
materials, according to a 1987 study.
Good news for a healthy planet. For every ton of wood grown, a young forest
produces 1.07 tons of oxygen and absorbs 1.47 tons of carbon dioxide.
Wood. Its the right product for the environment.

NOTICE:
The recommendations in

A PA
this guide apply only to
panels that bear the APA
RED
GINEE TION trademark. Only panels
THE ENA SSOCIA
WO O D bearing the APA trademark
ING are subject to the
SHEATH CH
RATED 15/3 IN
2 Associations quality
32/1D6FOR SPACING auditing program.
SIZE RE 1
EXPOSU
000 PRP-10
8
C-D
PS 1-95
GDE,W460,NR.0 8/28/00 2:03 PM Page 3

CONTENTS

Facts on Noise Control . . . . . . . 4

Acoustical Laboratory Testing . . .5

Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

Conventional Wood Joist Floor


hether in quiet suburbs or clamorous cities, with Resilient Finish Floor . . . . . .8

W apartment and office dwellers share a com-

mon interest: insistence on protection

against noise from the neighbors, from traffic,


Flooring On Sleepers . . . . . . . . .9

Lightweight and Gypsum


Concrete Over Conventional
Wood Joist Floor . . . . . . . . . . .10

Separate Ceiling Joist . . . . . . . .13

from playgrounds and from scores of other Panel/Insulation-Board


Sandwich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
sources. Proper insulation against intruding Long Span Joists . . . . . . . . . . .15

sound is therefore imperative in any high-quality Field Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Short Form Specification . . . . . .18


multi-unit project.
Additional Information . . . . . . .19

This booklet from APA The Engineered Wood

Association is designed to help you avoid the costly

mistake of poor acoustics, the result of which can

be a high vacancy rate. It includes basic informa-

tion on the types, measurement and control of

noise, the results of acoustical tests on various

plywood construction systems, and a report on

field construction versus laboratory tests

conducted by the Pacific Northwest Forest Range

Experiment Station of the U.S. Forest Service.

For additional information on noise-resistant

structural-use panel assemblies, or for assistance

with specific design problems, contact the nearest

APA regional field office listed on the back cover.

2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association


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FACTS ON Structural vibrations are set up from the Noise Measurement


NOISE CONTROL vibrations of mechanical apparatus such The ability of walls and floors to reduce
as heating fans and plumbing fixtures. noise is measured over the most impor-
Noise originating outside an office or Unless plumbing is properly isolated tant part of the hearing range (from 125
apartment is controlled largely by the (as by acoustically designed hangers), to 4,000 cycles per second) and the
location of the site, by the floor plan, annoying sounds can be transmitted results reduced to a Sound Transmission
and by landscaping. Background noise throughout the entire structure. Class, or STC number. Sound
of this type is an important considera- Impact sounds are produced by falling Transmission Class [STC] is determined
tion because it helps mask intermittent objects, footfalls and mechanical in accordance with ASTM E90 and
intruding sounds. For example, an impacts. Since the most annoying and ASTM E413. Field Sound Transmission
intruding noise which would be intol- critical impact sounds are transmitted Class [FSTC] is determined in accor-
erable in a quiet suburb might go through the floor, floor constructions are dance with ASTM E336.
unnoticed in a busy city where traffic rated for impact noise reduction, as well The significance of STC numbers is
hum may mask noises from an adjoin- as for sound transmission. illustrated in the following chart from
ing room without the background noise the Acoustical and Insulation Materials
itself seeming unpleasant. (Of course, Building Design
Association. (In comparing rated con-
a sudden, obtrusive noise, as distin- The proper design and layout of the
structions, remember that 3 db is the
guished from a general level of back- building can do much to eliminate noise
smallest difference that the human ear
ground noise, is disturbing in problems. Consideration should be
can clearly detect. Thus differences of
any context.) given to such points as location and
1 or 2 points may be considered negli-
orientation of the building, landscaping,
Because of the reduced level of gible. Also note that even this general
segregation of quiet areas, and
background noise, suburban garden comparison is valid only with respect
offsetting of entrance doors.
office/apartment projects will usually to a given level of background noise.)
require higher levels of sound insulation Good construction can minimize sound
In addition to being rated for airborne
than those in a busier environment. problems, but all details must be care-
sound transmission, floors are also rated
fully watched. Sound leaks can be sealed
Noise between units and within a unit is by IIC (Impact Insulation Class) or INR
with nonporous, permanently resilient
controlled through construction meth- (Impact Noise Rating). Impact
materials, such as acoustical caulking
ods and materials that interrupt sound Insulation Class [IIC] is determined in
materials and acoustically designed
transmission paths. Such noises are accordance with ASTM E492.
gaskets and weatherstripping. Piping
transmitted through airborne paths or IIC values rate the capacity of floor
penetrations can be wrapped or caulked.
by impact and structural vibrations. assemblies to control impact noise such
Airborne and impact noise can be con-
trolled through properly designed and as footfalls. The IIC rating is replacing
Types of Noise
constructed wall and floor assemblies.* the earlier INR system. Its easier to use
Airborne noises, such as traffic, voices,
and to compare with the STC system
television, etc., penetrate through walls,
*Many helpful planning and construction since most floors require about equal
doors and other structural elements. points on preventing acoustical problems
STC and IIC values. INR ratings can be
Open windows, cracks around doors, are given in a publication by the National
Association of Home Builders Research approximately converted (2 db) to IIC
heating and ventilating ducts, and other
Foundation entitled Acoustical Manual ratings by the (algebraic) addition of
imperfectly sealed openings may also
Apartment and Home Construction. 51 db.
leak airborne noise. Another good reference is Sound, Noise,
and Vibration Control, by Lyle Yerges, A few codes specify minimum acceptable
1969, Van Nostrand-Reinhold. ratings. Minimum values range from IIC
and STC 45 to 50. However, limits are
often a matter of judgment.

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Other significant flanking paths occur ACOUSTICAL


STC RATINGS through back-to-back electrical and LABORATORY TESTING

25 plumbing outlets, and joist spaces con-


tinuous over partitions. All flanking The construction assemblies shown in
Normal speech can be understood
quite clearly. paths should be taken into account and this section have been tested and rated
eliminated if at all possible. Otherwise for sound resistance according to stan-
30 sound reduction by floor and wall con- dard test methods by recognized acousti-
Loud speech can be understood
fairly well. struction may prove ineffective. cal laboratories. SOME ASSEMBLIES
As illustrated by field tests (page16), actual CONTAIN PROPRIETARY PROD-
35 construction can closely approximate the UCTS, SO TEST SPONSORS SHOULD
Loud speech audible but BE CONTACTED FOR ADDITIONAL
not intelligible.
sound insulation values of test panels, if
installed carefully under adequate supervi- CONSTRUCTION DETAILS.

42 sion. Improper installation, on the other Note: While the listed assemblies
Loud speech audible as hand, can destroy the sound-insulating were tested using plywood, it is
a murmur.
values of the best designs. believed that other wood structural
panels (oriented strand board [OSB]
45 Advantages of Wood
and COM-PLY ) may be substituted
Must strain to hear loud speech. Structural Panels
on a thickness for thickness basis.
Use of light-frame construction systems
48 challenges designers to insulate against
Because of their substantially similar
Some loud speech barely strength and stiffness properties and
audible. noise rather than simply relying on the
slightly higher density, use of these
massiveness of heavy walls and floors.
other wood structural panel products
50 Excellent levels of noise control can be
in lieu of plywood should not com-
Loud speech not audible achieved with good acoustical design in
promise the STC or IIC of the
wood-frame structures surfaced with
tested systems.
wood structural panels. Sound control
The best way to reduce impact noise is can be achieved by applying floor and The sound transmission and impact
to cover a floor with a resilient surfacing wall materials over isolated air spaces ratings shown for these constructions
material such as carpet and padding. that absorb sound. The addition of are well within the range of acceptable
Where a hard surface finish flooring is resilient channels also greatly reduces ratings for multifamily residential and
used, a resiliently mounted ceiling sys- sound transmission. Acoustically rated nonresidential buildings. They should
tem is effective, as is insulation board constructions of the type shown in this apply to actual construction provided
sandwiched between the subfloor and brochure are suggested since simple that recognized precautions are taken
the underlayment. design procedures are not available. for preventing flanking noise and sound
leaks, and provided the construction
Wood structural panels are excellent for
Flanking Paths actually conforms to the assembly
this type of construction. Large panel
Acoustical ratings do not reflect the which has been tested.
size reduces the number of joints and
effect of noise which bypasses, or
cracks that can leak airborne noise. However, quality of workmanship, material
flanks the specific construction.
Wood structural panels are also an and conditions at the site may vary widely.
Flanking can increase noise transmis-
exceptionally good base for resilient Because APA The Engineered Wood
sion significantly. For example, a heating
coverings that cut impact noise. They Association has no control over these
duct in a partition normally having an
are available, versatile and easy to adjust elements, it cannot warrant or assume
STC of 48 could reduce the STC for
when necessary to compensate for responsibility for performance
the combination to around 30, if it
building imperfections. A number of to rated levels.
were not properly isolated.
typical assemblies are shown in the
following pages.

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In interpreting these tables, there


are some modifications that can be FIGURE 1

made without changing sound- LABORATORY RATINGS FOR WALLS(a)


insulating properties.
Party Wall STC 50 Party Wall STC 46
1. Species and grade of wood structural Test No. KAL 262-6 Test No. KAL 262-4
Resilient channels applied
panels and lumber can be changed. horizontally, spaced 24" o.c.
3/8" APA RATED
2. Width of studs can be 3" or 4" nomi- 5/8" gypsum wallboard
screwed to resilient SHEATHING lining
nal, and depths of joists can vary from channels; joints taped. applied vertically with
8" to 12" nominal. 6d common nails spaced
5/8" gypsum wallboard 6" o.c. at edges, 12" o.c.
applied vertically, joints other framing. Nail heads
3. OSB and COM-PLY may be substi- staggered 12" from plywood dimpled into panel.
tuted for plywood on a thickness for joints. No nails. Laminated
with 3/8" beads of adhesive
thickness basis. See Note. continuous around perimeter 1/2" gypsum wallboard
and spaced 16" o.c. applied vertically, joints
4. 1/2", 19/32" and 5/8" thicknesses vertically. Joints taped. staggered. Nail to framing
can be interchanged, either in wood with 8d nails spaced
4 lb. mineral wool 12" o.c. Joints taped.
structural panels or gypsum wallboard. insulation (24" blanket).
3/8" APA RATED
5. Glass fiber or mineral wool insulation SHEATHING lining applied
can be substituted. vertically with 6d common 24"
nails spaced 6" o.c. at
6. Resilient channels can be used on edges, 12" o.c. other 2x6 plate top and bottom.
framing. Nail heads
one or both sides of a wall. dimpled into panel. 12" 2x4 studs spaced
Major modifications in thickness, or 2x6 plate top and bottom. 24" o.c., staggered.

cumulative changes can, of course, 2x4 studs spaced


24" o.c., staggered.
alter a rated systems sound
insulation properties. Party Wall STC 47 Party Wall STC 54 (b,c,d)
Test No. KAL 262-5 Test No. NRCC TL-93-280
Acoustical ratings for wall constructions
are shown in Figure 1. This section 5/8" gypsum wallboard 5/8" type X gypsum
applied vertically, joints wallboard; joints taped.
shows four constructions for party walls, staggered 12" from
two for bearing walls, and one for an plywood joints. No nails.
Laminated with 3/8" beads 7/16" min.
exterior wall. of adhesive continuous APA Rated Sheathing.
around perimeter and
The floor/ceiling assemblies shown in spaced 16" o.c. vertically.
Tables 1-6 on pages 8 through 15 are Joints taped.
presented in tabular form to show
3/8" APA RATED 3-1/2" glass fiber or
sound transmission and impact ratings SHEATHING lining mineral wool insulation.
for various modifications of six basic applied vertically with
6d common nails
constructions. spaced 6" o.c. at edges,
12" o.c. other framing.
Nail heads dimpled
into panel.
2x4 min. studs
spaced 16" o.c.
2x6 plate top and bottom. (separate wall plates).
12"
2x4 studs spaced
24" o.c., staggered. See Footnote (b).

(a) See Note, page 5.


(b) STC 51 if insulation is omitted from sheathed side of assembly.
(c) One-hour fire-rated load-bearing wall per Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Design No. U341 and
1995 National Building Code of Canada [see Footnote (d)].
(d) Ref: 1995 National Building Code of Canada, Table A-9.10.3.1.A (Wall No. W13a and W13c).

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2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
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FIGURE 1 (CONTINUED)

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR WALLS(a)

Bearing Partition STC 46 Bearing Partition STC 42 Exterior Wall STC 42


Test No. KAL 262-2 Test No. KAL 262-3 Test No. KAL 262-1

5/8" gypsum wallboard 1/2" gypsum sheathing.


cemented to plywood 5/8" gypsum wallboard Nails spaced 7" o.c.
vertically with joints staggered applied vertically with 6d nails
between studs. No nails. spaced 7" o.c. Nail heads
Joints taped. dimpled into gypsum 3/8" APA Exterior plywood
wallboard. siding applied vertically with 6d
box nails spaced 6" o.c. at edges,
2x4 studs spaced 16" o.c. 12" o.c. other framing.
8"
3/8" APA RATED SHEATHING
lining applied vertically with
6d common nails spaced 3/8" APA plywood paneling
applied vertically with 3" glass fiber insulation.
6" o.c. at edges, 12" o.c.
other framing. Nail heads adhesive in 3/8" beads,
dimpled into panel. spaced 16" o.c., and
continuous around
2x4 studs spaced 16" o.c. perimeter. No nails. 2x4 studs spaced 16" o.c.

5/8" gypsum wallboard interior


Vertical 3/8" beads finish; joints taped, with nails
of adhesive spaced spaced 7" o.c.
16" o.c. and continuous
around perimeter of
gypsum wallboard.

(a) See Note, page 5.


(b) STC 51 if insulation is omitted from sheathed side of assembly.
(c) One-hour fire-rated load-bearing wall per Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Design No. U341 and 1995 National Building Code of Canada [see Footnote (d)].
(d) Ref: 1995 National Building Code of Canada, Table A-9.10.3.1.A (Wall No. W13a and W13c).

Minor modifications may be incorpo-


rated in acoustically-rated floor and wall TEST SPONSORS

assemblies to conform to requirements APA APA The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma, Washington
for a one-hour fire-resistance rating. (See
USDA USDA Forest Service, Wood Construction Research, Seattle, Washington
Underwriters Laboratories Fire
Resistance Directory.) Within certain ISU Iowa State University, and USDA Forest Service, Division of Forest Economics and
Marketing Research, Washington, D.C.
limits, such modifications should have
a minimum effect on the acoustical NBS National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (Now National Institute of
ratings shown. In any event, the govern- Standards and Technology NIST)

ing code should be consulted with USG United States Gypsum Company, Chicago, Illinois
respect to fire resistance requirements.
W Weyerhaeuser Company, Dierks Division, Hot Springs, Arkansas
Walls and partitions having wood struc-
tural panels nailed directly to the fram- WWPA Western Wood Products Association, Portland, Oregon
ing will develop excellent racking
GC Gyp-Crete Corporation* Hamel, Minnesota *(Now Maxxon Corp.)
resistance, which is often important in
apartment and office designs requiring NRCC National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
shear walls.
CCA Cellular Concrete Association (Inactive)

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TABLE 1

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR FLOORS


CONVENTIONAL WOOD JOIST FLOOR WITH RESILIENT FINISH FLOOR
Test Gypsum
number & Finish wallboard Weight
sponsor floor Deck(a) ceiling Insulation STC IIC (lbs/sq ft)
Case 1 1/8" vinyl asbestos 5/8" Rated Sheathing subfloor 1/2" nailed to joists None 37 34 9.0
NBS-728A tile on 1/2" plywood on 2x joists at 16" o.c.
NBS underlayment
Case 2 1/4" foam rubber 5/8" Rated Sheathing subfloor 1/2" nailed to joists None 37 56 approx.
NBS-728B pad & 3/8" nylon on 2x joists at 16" o.c. 9.5
carpet on 1/2"
NBS plywood
underlayment
Case 3 .075 vinyl sheet on 5/8" Rated Sheathing subfloor 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 46 46 8.9
KAL-224- 3/8" plywood on 2x joists at 16" o.c. resilient channels
1&2 underlayment
APA
Case 4 1/16" vinyl sheet 19/32" T&G Sturd-I-Floor 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 48 45 7.8
KAL-224- on 2x joists at 16" o.c. resilient channels
32 & 33
APA
Case 5 44 oz. gropoint 19/32" T&G Sturd-I-Floor 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 48 69 8.6
KAL-224- carpet and 40 oz. on 2x joists at 16" o.c. resilient channels
3&4 hair pad
APA
Case 6 44 oz. gropoint 1/2" Rated Sheathing subfloor 1/2" screwed to 3" mineral wool 50 71 9.5
CK 6512-8 carpet and 40 oz. on 2x joists at 16" o.c. resilient channels
hair pad, on
USG 25/32" oak
Case 7 Vinyl tile 19/32" T&G Sturd-I-Floor 5/8" screwed to 1" mineral wool 51 51 approx.
G&H-APA- glued to 2x joists at 16" o.c. resilient channels stapled to side of 9.4
1ST joists and bottom
APA of subfloor

Carpet & pad 74 10.2


(a) See Note, page 5.

CASE 5 ILLUSTRATED

Pad and carpet

Wood joists @ 16" o.c. STC 48 IIC 69 19/32" T&G APA


RATED Sturd-I-Floor

3" glass fiber insulation


Resilient channels
spaced 24" o.c.
5/8" gypsum wallboard
screwed to resilient
channels; joints taped

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TABLE 2

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR FLOORS


FLOORING ON SLEEPERS
Test Gypsum
number & Finish wallboard Weight
sponsor floor Deck(a) ceiling Insulation STC IIC (lbs/sq ft)
Case 1 44 oz. carpet 19/32" T&G Sturd-I-Floor 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 52 78 11.7
KAL-224- and 40 oz. pad nailed to 2x3 sleepers which channels
7&8 in turn were glued halfway
between joists to 1/2" insu-
lation board stapled to
1/2" Rated Sheathing subfloor
APA on 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 2 25/32" wood-strip Sleepers glued, halfway 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 53 51 13.0
KAL-224- flooring nailed to between joists, to 1/2" insu- channels
9 & 10 wood sleepers lation board stapled to
1/2" Rated Sheathing subfloor
APA on 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 3 25/32" wood-strip Sleepers glued to 3" wide 5/8" screwed to 3" batts between 55 51 11.3
KAL-736- flooring nailed to strips of 1/2" sound board channels joists; 1-1/2"
8&9 wood sleepers glued, halfway between joists, blanket between
to 1/2" Rated Sheathing sleepers
ISU subfloor on 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 4 Vinyl flooring glued Underlayment over 1x3 5/8 screwed to 3" glass fiber 57 56 11.6
R-TL 70-61 to 1/2" plywood furring strips halfway between channels
R-IN 70-9 underlayment joists, on top of 1/2" sound
board over 5/8" Rated
Sheathing subfloor on
W 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 5 .070 vinyl 19/32" T&G Sturd-I-Floor 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 59 56 20.2
R-TL 71-279 stapled over 2x2 sleepers channels between joists;
R-IN 71-19 glued halfway between joists, 1-1/2" sand
to 1/2" Rated Sheathing between sleepers
subfloor glued to
WWPA 2x joists at 16" o.c.
(a) See Note, page 5.

CASE 4 ILLUSTRATED

1/2" APA T&G


0.075" vinyl sheet Underlayment
1x3 furring strips Mastic grade plywood
1/2" insulation
5/8" APA RATED
board, stapled
SHEATHING (subfloor)
STC 57 IIC 56
Wood joists @ 16" o.c.
3" glass fiber insulation

Resilient channels
spaced 24" o.c.
5/8" gypsum wallboard
screwed to resilient
channels; joints taped

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TABLE 3

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR FLOORS


LIGHTWEIGHT AND GYPSUM CONCRETE OVER CONVENTIONAL WOOD JOIST FLOOR
Test Gypsum
number & Finish wallboard Weight
sponsor floor Deck(a) ceiling(b) Insulation STC(c) IIC (lbs/sq ft)
Case 1 G&H- None 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" nailed None 48 21.0
USDA-1ST concrete over 5/8" Rated to joists
Sheathing subfloor on
USDA Carpet and pad 2x joists at 16" o.c. 68
Case 2 G&H- None 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" screwed to None 55 20.0
USDA-3ST concrete over 5/8 Rated resilient channels
Sheathing subfloor on
USDA Carpet and pad 2x joists at 16" o.c. 67
Case 3 G&H- None 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 58 20.5
USDA-2ST concrete over 5/8" Rated resilient channels
Sheathing subfloor on
USDA Carpet and pad 2x joists at 16" o.c. 67
Case 4 G&H- None 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" mineral-fiber 3" glass fiber 59 22.2
USDA-5ST concrete over 5/8" Rated acoustical tile on
Sheathing subfloor on suspension system
2x joists at 16" o.c. hung from resilient
USDA channels
Case 5 G&H- None 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" mineral-fiber 3" glass fiber 58 22.1
USDA-6ST concrete over 5/8" Rated acoustical tile on
Sheathing subfloor on suspension system
USDA 2x joists at 16" o.c. hung from joists
Case 6 G&H- .075 vinyl sheet 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 59 52 22.0
USDA-9ST concrete on 1/2" sound resilient channels
board over 5/8" Rated
Sheathing subfloor on
USDA Carpet and pad 2x joists at 16" o.c. 72 22.4
Case 7 44 oz. carpet and 1-5/8" of 75-pcf perlite/sand 5/8" nailed None 47 66 18.4
KAL-224- 40 oz. pad concrete over 5/8" Rated to joists
29 & 30 Sheathing subfloor on
APA 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 8 .075 vinyl sheet 1-5/8" of 75-pcf perlite/sand 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 50 47 17.9
KAL-224- concrete over 5/8" Rated resilient channels
31 & 34 Sheathing subfloor on
APA 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 9 44 oz. carpet and 1-5/8" of 75-pcf perlite/sand 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 53 74 18.5
KAL-224- 40 oz. pad concrete over 5/8" Rated resilient channels
27 & 28 Sheathing subfloor on
APA 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 10 5/16" wood block 1-5/8" of 60-pcf lightweight 5/8" screwed to 3" batt 54 53 18.8
KAL-736- set in mastic concrete on 1/2" insulation resilient channels
12 & 13 board over 1/2" Rated
Sheathing subfloor on
ISU 2x joists at 16" o.c.
(continued on page 11)

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TABLE 3 (Continued)

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR FLOORS


LIGHTWEIGHT AND GYPSUM CONCRETE OVER CONVENTIONAL WOOD JOIST FLOOR (continued)
Test Gypsum
number & Finish wallboard Weight
sponsor floor Deck(a) ceiling(b) Insulation STC(c) IIC (lbs/sq ft)
Case 11 None 5/8" gypsum concrete over 1/2" screwed to 3" mineral wool 56 54 14.5
BBN 670602 5/8" Rated Sheathing resilient channels
& 670601 subfloor on 2x joists at
USG 16" o.c.
Case 12 None 3/4" of 111-pcf gypsum 1/2" Type X 3-1/2" glass fiber 60 12.9
R-TL 81-16 concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to
R-IN 81-1 & -2 Sheathing subfloor on resilient channels
0.10" cushioned 2x joists at 16" o.c. 55
vinyl
GC 0.09" vinyl sheet 49
Case 13 None 3/4" of 111-pcf gypsum 1/2" Type X None 58 12.7
R-TL 81-17 concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to
R-IN 81-3 0.10" cushioned Sheathing subfloor on resilient channels 50
GC vinyl 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 14 None 3/4"(d) of 111-pcf gypsum 1/2" Type X None 50 12.6
R-TL 81-19 concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to joists
R-IN 81-6 Sheathing subfloor on
GC Carpet and pad 2x joists at 16" o.c. 56
Case 15 None 3/4" of 105-pcf gypsum 5/8" screwed to 2-1/2" glass fiber 60* 15.0
IAL 5-761- concrete over 5/8" Rated resilient channels
1&2 72 oz. carpet and Sheathing subfloor on 79
GC 46 oz. pad 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 16 None 3/4" of 105-pcf gypsum 5/8" screwed to None 55 15.0
IAL 5-761- concrete over 5/8" Rated resilient channels
3&4 72 oz. carpet and Sheathing subfloor on 75
GC 48 oz. pad 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 17 None 1" of 111.5-pcf gypsum 1/2" Type X None 50 16.0
IAL 6-019-1 concrete on 1/2" of 24.9-pcf screwed to joists
& 6-035 sheathing over 5/8" Rated
60 oz. carpet and Sheathing subfloor on 75
GC 24 oz. pad 2x joists at 16" o.c.
(continued on page 12)

CASE 9 ILLUSTRATED

Pad and carpet 1-5/8" lightweight


concrete on 4 mil
5/8" APA RATED polyethylene film
SHEATHING (subfloor)
STC 53 IIC 74 Wood joists @ 16" o.c.

3" glass fiber insulation Resilient channels


spaced 24" o.c.

5/8" gypsum wallboard


screwed to resilient
channels; joints taped

11
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
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TABLE 3 (Continued)

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR FLOORS


LIGHTWEIGHT AND GYPSUM CONCRETE OVER CONVENTIONAL WOOD JOIST FLOOR (continued)
Test Gypsum
number & Finish wallboard Weight
sponsor floor Deck(a) ceiling(b) Insulation STC(c) IIC (lbs/sq ft)
Case 18 0.36" foam-back 1-3/8" of 106-pcf gypsum 1/2" Type X 3-1/2" glass fiber 55 18.2
R-IN 81 parquet concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to
-11, -12, 0.31" regular Sheathing subfloor on resilient channels 51
-13 & -14 parquet 2x joists at 16" o.c.
1/8" VA tile 51
0.09" vinyl sheet 51
Case 19 39 oz. glued 1-3/8" of 106-pcf gypsum 1/2" Type X None 46 17.9
R-IN 81-8 carpet concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to joists
& -10 Sheathing subfloor on 1/2" Type X 51
GC 2x joists at 16" o.c. screwed to
resilient channels
Case 20 G&H .063" vinyl- 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" fire-rated None 49 33 22.3
CA-6MT asbestos tile concrete over 5/8" Rated nailed to joists
CCA-7MT Sheathing subfloor on
CCA Carpet and pad 2x10 joists at 16" o.c. 48 63 22.0
Case 21 G&H .063" vinyl- 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" fire-rated None 55 43 24.8
CCA-8MT asbestos tile concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to resilient
CCA-9MT Sheathing subfloor on furring over
2x10 joists at 16" o.c. 5/8" fire-rated
CCA Carpet and pad nailed to joists 54 63 25.5
Case 22 G&H .063" vinyl- 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" fire-rated None 58 37 22.4
CCA-10MT asbestos tile concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to resilient
CCA-11MT Sheathing subfloor on furring screwed
CCA Carpet and pad 2x10 joists at 16" o.c. to joists 73 23.1
Case 23 G&H .063" vinyl- 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" fire-rated 3-1/2" glass fiber 61 46 22.6
CCA-12MT asbestos tile concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to resilient
CCA-13MT Sheathing subfloor on furring screwed
CCA Carpet and pad 2x10 joists at 16" o.c. to joists 79 23.3
Case 24 G&H .063" vinyl- 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 1/2" fire-rated 3-1/2" glass fiber 60 47 22.0
CCA-14MT asbestos tile concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to resilient
CCA-15MT Sheathing subfloor on furring screwed
CCA Carpet and pad 2x10 joists at 16" o.c. to joists 73 22.7
Case 25 G&H .063" vinyl- 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 1/2" fire-rated None 56 37 21.8
CCA-16MT asbestos tile concrete over 5/8" Rated screwed to resilient
CCA-17MT Sheathing subfloor on furring screwed
CCA Carpet and pad 2x10 joists at 16" o.c. to joists 70 22.5
(a) See Note, page 5.
(b) Except Cases 4 and 5.
(c) Asterisk (*) indicates values are for Field Sound Transmission Class (FSTC).
(d) Manufacturer recommends 1" thickness.

12
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
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TABLE 4

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR FLOORS


SEPARATE CEILING JOIST
Test Gypsum
number & Finish wallboard Weight
sponsor floor Deck(a) ceiling Insulation STC IIC (lbs/sq ft)
Case 1 44 oz. carpet 1-1/8" T&G Sturd-I-Floor 5/8" nailed to 3" glass fiber 51 80 10.7
KAL-224- and 40 oz. pad 48 oc on 2x joists at separate ceiling
14 & 15 16" o.c. joists
APA
Case 2 25/32" hardwood 1/2" Rated Sheathing 5/8" nailed to 3" glass fiber 53 45 11.0
KAL-224- strip subfloor on 2x joists separate 2x joists
12 & 13 16" o.c.
APA
Case 3 25/32" hardwood 2x3 sleepers, glued to 3" 5/8" nailed to 1-1/2" glass fiber 54 50 13.2
R-TL 68-15 strip wide strips of 1/2" sound separate between sleepers
R-IN 68-1 Standard carpet board nailed above the floor ceiling joists plus 3" glass fiber 69 14.0
& -2 on 25/32" joists to 1/2" Rated Sheathing between floor
ISU hardwood strip subfloor on 2x joists 16" o.c. joists
(a) See Note, page 5.

CASE 1 ILLUSTRATED

1-1/8" T&G RATED STURD-I-FLOOR 48 oc


Pad and carpet

STC 51 IIC 80
Wood joists @ 16" o.c.
2x4 ceiling joists @ 16" o.c.
staggered 8" from floor joists
3" glass fiber insulation

5/8" gypsum wallboard


nailed directly to 2x4s

13
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
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TABLE 5

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR FLOORS


PANEL/INSULATION-BOARD SANDWICH
Test Gypsum
number & Finish wallboard Weight
sponsor floor Deck(a) ceiling Insulation STC IIC (lbs/sq ft)
Case 1 3/32" vinyl sheet Underlayment nailed through 5/8" screwed to None 50 48 9.3
NBS-719 on 1/2" plywood 1/2" insulation board, to 1x2 furring strips
underlayment 5/8" Rated Sheathing on resilient clips
subfloor on 2x joists at
NBS 16" o.c.
Case 2 3/32" vinyl sheet Underlayment glued to 1/2" 5/8" screwed to None 52 49 9.6
NBS-718 on 1/2" plywood insulation board, which is in 1x2 furring strips
underlayment turn stapled to 5/8" Rated on resilient clips
Sheathing subfloor on
NBS 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 3 5/16" wood block Underlayment glued to 1/2" 5/8" screwed to 3" batt 54 51 11.5
KAL-736- flooring glued to sound board over 1/2 resilient channels
10 & 11 1/2" plywood Rated Sheathing subfloor
ISU underlayment on 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 4 Carpet and pad Underlayment over 1/2" 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 55 72 10.7
R-TL 70-71 on 1/2" plywood sound board over 5/8" resilient channels
R-IN 70-10 underlayment Rated Sheathing subfloor
W on 2x joists at 16" o.c.
Case 5 Vinyl flooring on Underlayment over 1/2" 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 58 55 10.8
R-TL 70-72 1/2" plywood sound board over 5/8" resilient channels
R-IN 70-11 underlayment Rated Sheathing subfloor
W on 2x joists at 16" o.c.
(a) See Note, page 5.

CASE 2 ILLUSTRATED

3/32" vinyl sheet 1/2" APA Underlayment


5/8" APA RATED grade plywood, glued
SHEATHING subfloor
1/2" insulation board, stapled
Wood joists @ 16" o.c. STC 52 IIC 49
Resilient clips

1x2 furring strips 5/8" gypsum wallboard screwed


to furring strips; joints taped

14
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
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TABLE 6

LABORATORY RATINGS FOR FLOORS


LONG SPAN JOISTS
Test Gypsum
number & Finish wallboard Weight
sponsor floor Deck(a) ceiling Insulation STC(b) IIC (lbs/sq ft)
Case 1 44 oz. carpet and 1-5/8" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" nailed to None 46 62 20.4
KAL-224 40 oz. pad concrete over 5/8" Rated joists
-37 & -38 Sheathing subfloor on steel-
APA wood trusses at 16" o.c.
Case 2 44 oz. carpet and 1-1/8" T&G Sturd-I-Floor 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 47 69 10.5
KAL-224 40 oz. pad 48 oc on steel-wood resilient channels
-35 & -36 trusses at 32" o.c.
APA
Case 3 Vinyl tile 1-1/2" of 100-pcf cellular 5/8" screwed to 3" glass fiber 58 50 21.0
G&H USDA concrete over 3/4" Rated resilient channels
-11ST Sheathing subfloor on
G&H USDA Carpet and pad plywood-webbed 77
-11xST I-beams at 24" o.c.
USDA None None 57 20.7
Case 4 None 1" of 106-pcf gypsum 5/8" nailed to None 51* 13.2
IAL 5-905-1 concrete over 5/8" Rated joists
& -3 0.174" of 29.6-pcf Sheathing subfloor on 52
linoleum steel-wood trusses at
GC 19.2" o.c.
Case 5 None 3/4" of 106-pcf gypsum 5/8" screwed to None 62* 12.5
IAL 5-905-2 concrete over 5/8" Rated resilient channels
0.174" of 29.6-pcf Sheathing subfloor on 61
linoleum steel-wood trusses at
GC 19.2" o.c.
Case 6 None 3/4" of 106-pcf gypsum 5/8" Type X None 58* 14.8
IAL 6-442-2, Linoleum concrete over 3/4" T&G screwed to 53
-3 & -5 50 oz. carpet Rated Sheathing subfloor resilient channels 74 15.5
GC and 50 oz. pad on open-web wood
trusses 24" o.c.
(a) See Note, page 5.
(b) Asterisk (*) indicates values are for Field Sound Transmission Class (FSTC).

CASE 2 ILLUSTRATED

1-1/8" T&G RATED STURD-I-FLOOR 48 oc


Pad and carpet
2x4 (typ)
Steel-wood trusses STC 47 IIC 69
spaced 32" o.c. Two 3" x 16" glass fiber
blankets laid on top of
channels; tight butt joint

5/8" gypsum wallboard Resilient channels spaced 24" o.c.


screwed to resilient channels

15
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
GDE,W460,NR.0 8/28/00 2:03 PM Page 16

FIELD TESTS Values were even closer for floors. The serious oversights in construction con-
paper goes on to state that The average tribute to sound leaks or flanking. It is,
Field tests prove laboratory sound rat- of the FSTCs** determined for 15 of course, still true that these ratings are
ings can be achieved in practice. Table 7 field-tested floor-ceiling assemblies was not achieved without determined effort
on the following page shows results of only one point lower than the average of at every stage in the design and
field tests made by the U.S.D.A. Forest the STCs based on laboratory tests of construction process.
Service.* A number of tests performed eight related assemblies. The entries near the bottom of the table
in apartment buildings in the Seattle Comparisonsbetween impact should be of particular interest for
area have shown that in general, field sound insulation measured in the labo- manufactured housing. They illustrate
STC values can indeed closely approach ratory and in the field are more limited the actual field test values for sound
laboratory values if all personnel than those of airborne sound insulation, insulation in a modular motel. Plywood
involved are careful in installation. The but indicate that laboratory and field sheathing was used in both floor-ceiling
following are excerpts from a paper by J. impact noise ratings are of the same and wall construction, primarily because
B. Grantham and T. B. Heebink, entitled general magnitude. of its excellent resistance to racking
Field/Laboratory STC Ratings of Wood- during transportation and erection. In
These findings refute the common
Framed Partitions, printed in Sound tests of comparative constructions, the
belief that actual field construction
and Vibration for October, 1971. wall with plywood sheathing produced
cannot approximate the behavior of the
For the 16 field tests that could be laboratory-tested samples. Actually, acoustic isolation just slightly better
compared with laboratory tests of com- Mr. Grantham states in his paper, The than an otherwise identical construction
parable wall constructions, the average comparison of field-measured insulation using fiberboard sheathing.
difference between predicted and actual of 21 walls and 15 floors with laboratory
performance was 3-1/2 points. With tests of similar wall and floor construc-
two cases of flanking and one of leaking tions reveals that the sound insulation *Wood Construction Research, Pacific
corrected, the average difference Northwest Forest Range Experiment Station,
predicted by laboratory tests can be Seattle, Washington
was 2-1/2 points. closely approximated in the field unless
**Field Sound Transmission Class.

16
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
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TABLE 7

FIELD TESTS OF SOUND INSULATION COMPARED WITH LABORATORY TESTS(1)


Laboratory tests Field tests
Details of Field modifications
basic construction STC IIC Test Ref. FSTC IIC or conditions
Conventional wood joists. 46 46 KAL224-1 & -2 46 44 1-1/8" T&G plywood subfloor
Subfloor, insulation, ceiling on
resilient channels.
Tile flooring. 51 41 1/2" fiberboard over 3/4" plywood
Conventional wood joists; 47 66 KAL224-29 & -30 47
lightweight concrete topping 44 Possible perimeter leaks
over plywood subfloor. 48 68 G&H-USDA-1ST 49 63
Ceiling nailed; no insulation. G&H-LCR-1MT 48 66
Carpet flooring. 48 71
Ceiling on resilient channels; 55 67 G&H-USDA-3ST 52 74
no insulation. Carpet flooring.
1-1/2" glass fiber. Carpet flooring. 58 67 G&H-USDA-2ST 56 75 Corrected a leak through fireplace
1/2" sound board under concrete; 59 72 G&H-USDA-9ST 57 77
3" insulation. Carpet flooring.
1/2" sound board under ceiling 56 G&H-USDA-4ST 57 78 Carpet flooring
channels; 3" insulation.
Long-span joists.
Particleboard on 3/4" plywood; 48 62 R-TL 70-48 45 70
no insulation; ceiling nailed. R-IN 70-7
Carpet flooring.
Stressed-skin panels.
Lightweight concrete over
factory-glued panels;(2) 56
ceiling on resilient channels.
Floor-ceiling assembly, as achieved
by stacking modular units.
Plywood floor on upper unit. No roof,
but 3" insulation and nailed gypsum 53 45 KAL-224-12 & -13(3) 49 42 No finish floor. 3/8" plywood on 1/2" sound
wallboard ceiling on lower unit. 51 80 KAL-224-14 & -15(4) board roof on top of joists of lower unit.
Party wall.
Achieved by assembling modular
units with 1" space between. Each wall
with 5/8" gypsum wallboard, 2x3 studs
spaced 16" o.c., insulation, and 49 47
1/2" sound deadening board.
Same, but with glued plywood instead
of the sound deadening board. 50
(1) Floors carpeted except as noted.
(2) Stressed-skin panels had 5/8" top skin, 2x8 stringers, 2x4 T-flanges on bottom, no bottom skin.
(3) Hardwood flooring (25/32") over 1/2" subfloor.
(4) Carpet and pad over 1-1/8" subfloor.

17
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
GDE,W460,NR.0 8/28/00 2:03 PM Page 18

SHORT FORM
TYPICAL APA REGISTERED TRADEMARKS
SPECIFICATION

Each construction panel shall be identi-


fied with the appropriate trademark of
A PA
THE ENGINEERED
A PA
THE ENGINEERED
WOOD ASSOCIATION WOOD ASSOCIATION
APA The Engineered Wood Association
and shall meet the requirements of APA RATED SHEATHING RATED STURD-I-FLOOR
23/32 INCH
32/16 15/32 INCH 24SIZED
ocFOR SPACING
performance standards or Voluntary SIZED FOR SPACING
T&G NET WIDTH 47-1/2
Product Standard PS 1-95, Construction EXPOSURE 1 EXPOSURE 1
000 000
and Industrial Plywood or Voluntary PRP-108 HUD-UM-40C PRP-108 HUD-UM-40C

Product Standard PS 2-92, Performance


Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use
Panels. All panels with edge or surface
permanently exposed to the weather A PA
THE ENGINEERED
A PA
THE ENGINEERED
shall be Exterior type, except panels WOOD ASSOCIATION WOOD ASSOCIATION

identified as Exposure 1 may be used RATED SHEATHING RATED SHEATHING


for roof sheathing where they are 48/24 23/32 INCH 24/16 7/16 INCH
SIZED FOR SPACING SIZED FOR SPACING
exposed on the underside, such EXTERIOR EXPOSURE 1
000 000
as eaves. PS 1-95 C-C PRP-108 PS 2-92 PRP-108

Panel thickness, grade, and Group num-


ber or Span Rating shall be equal to or
better than that shown on the drawings.
Application shall be in accordance with
the recommendations of APA The
Engineered Wood Association.

18
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
GDE,W460,NR.0 8/28/00 2:04 PM Page 19

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

The trademark of APA The Engineered Wood Association appears only on


products manufactured by APA member mills and is the manufacturers
assurance that the product conforms to the standard shown on the trade-
mark. That standard may be an APA performance standard, the Voluntary
Product Standard PS 1-95 for Construction and Industrial Plywood or
Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-92, Performance Standard for
Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels.
APA The Engineered Wood Associations services go far beyond quality
inspection and testing. APAs research and promotion programs play
important roles in developing and improving wood structural panel
construction systems and in helping users and specifiers to better
understand and apply panel products.
Information in this and all APA publications is based on the use of panel
products of known quality. Always insist on panels bearing the mark of
quality the APA trademark.
For additional information on panel products and construction systems,
write APA The Engineered Wood Association, P.O. Box 11700, Tacoma,
Washington 98411-0700, for any of the publications listed below.
For a more complete list of titles and price information, request
the Publications Index, Form, B300.
APA Product Guide: Performance Rated Sidings, Form E300
APA Product Guide: Performance Rated Panels, Form F405
APA Design/Construction Guide: Residential & Commercial, Form E30
APA Design/Construction Guide: Fire-Rated Systems, Form W305

19
2000 APA - The Engineered Wood Association
GDE,W460,NR.0 8/30/00 9:52 AM Page 20

NOISE-RATED SYSTEMS
DESIGN/CONSTRUCTION GUIDE

We have field representatives in most


major U.S. cities and in Canada who can help
answer questions involving APA trademarked
products. For additional assistance in specifying
APA engineered wood products, get in touch with
your nearest APA regional office. Call or write:

WESTERN REGION
7011 So. 19th St. P.O. Box 11700
Tacoma, Washington 98411-0700
(253) 565-6600 Fax: (253) 565-7265

EASTERN REGION
2130 Barrett Park Drive, Suite 102
Kennesaw, Georgia 30144-3681
(770) 427-9371 Fax: (770) 423-1703

U.S. HEADQUARTERS
AND INTERNATIONAL
MARKETING DIVISION
7011 So. 19th St. P.O. Box 11700
Tacoma, Washington 98411-0700
(253) 565-6600 Fax: (253) 565-7265

Addres
eb s
W
@
:

www.apawood.org

PRODUCT SUPPORT HELP DESK


(253) 620-7400
E-mail Address: help@apawood.org

(Offices: Antwerp, Belgium; Bournemouth,


United Kingdom; Hamburg, Germany; Mexico City,
Mexico; Tokyo, Japan.) For Caribbean/Latin
America, contact Mexico City, Mexico.

The product use recommendations in this publica-


tion are based on APA The Engineered Wood
Associations continuing programs of laboratory
testing, product research, and comprehensive field
experience. However, because the Association has
no control over quality of workmanship or the con-
ditions under which engineered wood products are
used, it cannot accept responsibility for product
performance or designs as actually constructed.
Because engineered wood product performance
requirements vary geographically, consult your
local architect, engineer or design professional to
assure compliance with code, construction, and
performance requirements.

Form No. W460N/Revised August 2000/0300

A P A
T h e E n g i n e e r e d Wo o d A s s o c i a t i o n

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