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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING | RESEARCH ARTICLE

Design & parametric analysis of band reject ultra


wideband (UWB) antenna using step impedance
resonator
Tejbir Singh, Heena Choudhary, D.V. Avasthi and Vishant Gahlaut

Cogent Engineering (2017), 4: 1301769

Page 1 of 16
Singh et al., Cogent Engineering (2017), 4: 1301769
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2017.1301769

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING | RESEARCH ARTICLE


Design & parametric analysis of band reject ultra
wideband (UWB) antenna using step impedance
resonator
Received: 29 December 2016 Tejbir Singh1,2*, Heena Choudhary3, D.V. Avasthi3 and Vishant Gahlaut4
Accepted: 28 February 2017
Published: 04 March 2017 Abstract:The design and analysis of step impedance resonator (SIR) based, com-
*Corresponding author: Tejbir Singh, pact and band-notch UWB antenna, to minimize the potential interference between
Department of Electronics, Banasthali
University, Rajasthan-304022, India;
wide-band (UWB) and narrow-band (WLAN), has been presented in this paper. The
SRM University Delhi-NCR, Sonepat notched band covers the 5.15GHz to 5.85GHz WLAN range. The frequency band
131023, India
E-mail: tvsp1282@gmail.com
has been obtained by embedding a SIR near the radiating patch of the antenna.
The empirical relationship between the SIR design and band-notch characteris-
Reviewing editor:
Kun Chen, Wuhan University of tics has also been included in the paper. The UWB patch antenna structure is feed
Technology, china
by micro-strip line. The parametric-analysis by varying the parameters the SIR as
Additional information is available at well as the substrate has been performed, to observe the optimal performance the
the end of the article
proposed antenna. The design and functional simulation of the proposed antenna
structure is performed by using HFSS-v14. A close agreement between simulated
and experimental results for the proposed design has been observed and presented
in this paper. The design and results provide ample justification for compatibility and
application of the structure in UWB communication over the entire frequency range.
Subjects: Electrical & Electronic Engineering; Electromagnetics & Communication;
Telecommunication

Keywords: step impedance resonator (SIR); ultra wide-band (UWB); wireless local area
network (WLAN); patch antenna

ABOUT THE AUTHORS PUBLIC INTEREST STATEMENT


Tejbir Singh has completed his Bachelors (BSc) Wireless connectivity has enabled a new mobile
and Masters (MSc) CCS University, Meerut in 2004 lifestyle filled with conveniences for mobile
and 2006 respectively. He has also completed his computing users. Consumers will soon demand
Master of Technology (MTech) in Communication the same conveniences throughout their digital
Engineering from VIT University, Vellore in home, connecting their PCs, personal digital
2010. He is pursuing his PhD in the Electronics recorders, digital cameras, high-definition TVs,
Department of Banasthali University, Jaipur, personal digital assistants, and cell phones, to
Rajasthan, India. connect to each other in a wireless personal area
Heena Choudhary is currently an assistant network (WPAN) in the home. But todays wireless
professor in the Department of ECE, SVS University; LAN and WPAN technologies cannot meet the
Meerut, India. needs of tomorrows connectivity of such a host of
D.V. Avasthi is working as a professor in SVS emerging consumer electronic devices that require
University, Meerut, UP, India. high bandwidth. Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology
Tejbir Singh Vishant Gahlaut is working as a assistant offers a solution for the bandwidth, high data rates
professor in Banasthali University, Banasthali, across multiple devices, cost, power consumption,
Rajasthan, India. His research area is Microwave and physical size requirements of next-generation
Electronics. consumer electronic devices for digital home and
the office. In this context, the UWB antenna design
plays a unique role because it behaves like a band
pass filter and reshapes the spectra of the pulses
and avoid undesired distortions.

2017 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution
(CC-BY) 4.0 license.

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1. Introduction
The Ultra wideband (UWB) is a wireless communication technology, which provide a short-range
communication from 4 meters to10 meters, with a low output power and high data rate (up to 1
Gbps) in 3.110.6GHz the frequency range (Federal Communications Commission, 2002). Some
other narrowband applications such as, IEEE802.11a (56GHz) and WiMAX (3.33.6GHz) also exists
along with the UWB range (Agrawall, Kumar, & Ray, 1998; Chu & Yang, 2008). Therefore, the design
of an UWB antenna with band-notch characterstics is a prime requirement to diminish the potential
interference between UWB and co-existing narrowband services.

The micro-strip antennas are popular in a wide variety of applications due to their low profile,
simple design, conformability to planar and non-planar surfaces, low cost and ease in manufacture
with modern printed circuit technology. The radiating patch can be square, rectangular, bow-tie,
circular or any other shape. However, the bow-tie configuration is generally preferred in UWB appli-
cations because of its ability for bandwidth enhancement and miniaturization (Bahadori & Samii,
2007; Schantz, Wolenec, & Myszka, 2003; Yao, Huang, & Feng, 2007). Recent researches have shown
significant interest in the design and analysis of UWB antenna systems in the wireless communica-
tion (Da Xu et al., 2015; Kadam, Gudino, Ramesha, & Nagaraju, 2016; Min, Zhang, Zhong, & Chen,
2016).

The main challenge in UWB antenna design is to achieve impedance matching and bandwidth
control in simultaneity along with high radiation efficiency and low EMI effects (Daniels, 1996;
Kerkhoff & Ling, 2007; Shaman & Hong, 2007). The planar antenna feature is also desirable given
that there are several additional constraints and challenges for the design of a UWB antenna system
(Choi, Kim, Hwang, & Choi, 2014; Chung, Hong, & Choi, 2007; Ma & Wu, 2007; Ojaroudi, Ojaroudi, &
Ghadimi, 2013; Ojaroudi, Yazdanifard, Ojaroudi, & Sadeghzadeh, 2011; Yang, Jin, Vittoria, Harris, &
Sun, 2008; Zhang et al., 2008). The design and validation of SIR based compact bow-tie antenna with
band rejection characteristics is the prime objective of this paper. In this design, the ground plane
structure has been taken uneven. The concluding part of the Paper presents a parametric analysis
by including various design parameters such as SIR and a ground plane.

2. Antenna design
The parametric analysis of the proposed compact band-rejection antenna structure is based on
transmission line modal analysis (Chen, Chia, & Ammann, 2003). The detailed geometry and param-
eters of the proposed antenna structure are depicted in Figure 1 and Table 1 respectively. The simu-
lation results for the proposed antenna structure are obtained with uneven ground patch followed
by the parametric analysis of various design parameters of the system.

Figure 1. Top view of proposed


band-reject antenna using SIR.

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Table 1. Design parameters of proposed antenna


Parameter Data Parameter Data
Frequency 6.2GHz Wg 18mm
Length of substrate L 27.5mm Wg1 2.5mm
Width of substrate W 18mm Wg2 3mm
Height of substrate h 0.64mm Wg3 7mm
Length of patch
L1 27.5mm Wg4 11mm
L2 2mm
Width of patch
W1 16mm Lg1 3mm
W2 1mm
Substrate material Taconic RF-60A Lg2 2.75mm
d1 2.8125mm Lg3 3mm
d2 1.62mm Lg4 5.75mm
sir 9.844mm

The proposed design has the dimension of 1827.5mm2 fabricated on the Taconic RF60 sub-
strate with a thickness of 0.64mm and relative dielectric constant of 6.15, which is having loss tan-
gent (tan ) 0.0023. The width W2 of the micro-strip feed line is fixed at 1mm.

Figure 1 depicts the detailed structure of the compact band-rejection antenna, on the upper sur-
face of the substrate, a half bow-tie shape radiating patch shown in Figure 2(a) and the uneven
ground plane shown in Figure 2(b) respectively.

By embedding a resonator, it is observed that rejection of WLAN band can be accomplished for the
proposed structure, thus it is beneficial to minimizing the EMI problem between UWB and WLAN. The
resonator referred in this model is a step impedance resonator. From the electrical viewpoint, it is a
non uniform transmission line, i.e. a transmission line with the cross section varying in steps and
each step is having a different electrical length and impedances. As per the wave cancellation
theory, when two signals with identical properties and a phase shift of 180 interact with each other
at a particular frequency, the resultant signal becomes zero at that particular frequency.

The structure of SIR referred to in this paper is a series combination of different impedances as
depicted in Figure 3(b) and (c). The SIRs generate second harmonics depending upon the difference
of SIR impedances, which is responsible for creating the band rejection. The second harmonics and
the length of transmission line are determined by the following equations (Lee, Kim, Kim, & Yu,
2006):


fs2 = (f )(2 tan1 K) (1)

K = Z1 Z2 (2)


SIR = tan1 K (3)

Equations (1)(3) show that the frequency of the second harmonics, which is two times of the base
frequency in the unitary impedance resonator. Therefore, it can be predicted that the second har-
monics would be generated at frequencies given by the following conditions:

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Figure 2. (a) Geometry of


radiating patch and (b)
Geometry of ground plane
structure.

f s2<2 f 0, when K<1

f s2>2 f 0, when K>1  (4)

The conditions given in Equation (4) shows the second harmonic frequency can be adjusted in ac-
cordance with the variables in the equation. The initial length of the SIR (SIR) is predetermined by the
center frequency of the stop band. The most important design parameters to be decided are the gap,
d1 and d2 of SIR as depicted in the geometry of Figure 4.

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Figure 3. Types of impedance


resonator: (a) Unitary
impedance resonator. (b) and
(c) Types of step impedance.

Figure 4. Geometry of SIR.

3. Simulation results
Figure 5 shows the simulated return losses (S parameter) of the antenna having multi-band charac-
teristic in the UWB spectrum.

It is observed from Figure 5 that the UWB antenna covers 2.810.8GHz range with a return loss
less than 10dB except the rejection band 5.155.9GHz. The result indicates that the proposed an-
tenna structure is having return loss less than 10dB, which is fairly low over the entire UWB range.

The VSWR of the proposed antenna structure with optimized parameters is shown below in Figure 6.
It is observed from the Figure 6 that the simulated VSWR characteristic of the proposed antenna
possesses one exact band notch or frequency rejection band with 5.155.9GHz for WLAN.

4. Parametric analysis

4.1. Effect of variation of the position of SIR


The plot depicted below in Figure 7 shows the comparison of characteristics corresponding to differ-
ent RL curves pertaining to variation in the position of the resonator (SIR) in X-axis.

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Figure 5. Simulated return loss Ansoft Corporation S11 Plot HFSSDesign1

of designed antenna structure. 0.00 Curve Info

dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

Setup1 : Sw eep1

-10.00

dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-20.00

-30.00

-40.00

-50.00
2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00

Freq [GHz]

Figure 6 Simulated VSWR Ansoft Corporation


VSWR Plot HFSSDesign1

characteristic of the proposed 4.00 Curve Info

antenna structure. VSWR(WavePort1)


Setup1 : Sweep1

3.50

3.00
VSWR(WavePort1)

2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00
2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00
Freq [GHz]

The variation in the position of SIR in X-axis causes a change in the bandwidth of the stop-bands
shown in Table 2. There exists a relation between the two i.e. the position of SIR and the bandwidth
of the stop band. Nearer positioning of SIR to radiated patch results in larger bandwidth of the stop-
band, while further positioning results in smaller bandwidth of stop-band.

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Figure 7. Effect of variation S11 (RL) Vs Freq plot for diffrent position of SIR
of the position of SIR w.r.t. 0.00
radiating patch in x-axis on the
S11(return loss) curve.

-10.00

dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
-20.00

-30.00

-40.00 Position 1
Position 2
Position 3
-50.00
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00
Frequency [GHz]

Table 2. Simulated Results corresponding to the variation of position of the resonator (SIR)
Position name Location of SIR BW of 1st rejection band
Position 1 X=1.44875mm 810MHz (5.145.95GHz)
Y=7.464mm
Z=0.64mm
Position 2 X=1.521875mm 700MHz (5.105.80GHz)
Y=7.444mm
Z=0.64mm
Position 3 X=1.721875mm 530MHz (5.105.63GHz)
Y=7.444mm
Z=0.64mm

4.2. Effect of variation of initial length of SIR


The plot depicted below in Figure 8 shows a comparison of the characteristics to different RL curves
corresponding to variation in the initial length of the resonator.

Table 3 shows that the variation in the initial length of SIR causes a change in the center frequency
of the stop-band. There exists a relation between the two i.e. the initial length of SIR and the Centre
Frequency of the rejection band. A greater length of the SIR results in smaller central frequency of
the stop-band and vice versa.

4.3. Effect of variation of d1, d2 of SIR on the covered bandwidth


It is observed form Figure 9 that a RL curve corresponding to different widths d1 and d2 of the step
impedance resonator and proves the relation between the two d1, d2 and bandwidth. It is observed
that an increase in d1 and d2 decreases the bandwidth of the proposed antenna and vice versa,
which is indicated in Table 4.

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Figure 8. S11 vs. frequency S11 (RL) Vs freq plot for diff. value of initial length
curve for different initial 0.00
lengths of SIR.

-10.00

dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-20.00

-30.00

sir = 9.2375mm
-40.00
sir = 9.4375mm
sir = 9.6375mm
sir = 9.8375mm
-50.00
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00
Frequency [GHz]

Table 3. Simulation result of variation of initial length sir of SIR


Initial length of SIR (sir) Center frequency of rejection band (f0)
sir=9.2375mm 5.61GHz
sir=9.4375mm 5.50GHz
sir=9.6375mm 5.42GHz
sir=9.8375mm 5.39GHz

4.4. Effect of variation of substrate material


The curve depicted below in Figure 10 shows the effect of the variation of substrate material of the
proposed UWB Antenna structure without any tunning in antenna dimensions.

FR4-epoxy has a lowest value of r in the substrate materials included in Table 5, which is implying
larger bandwidth than other two dielectric materials at the cost of Q-factor. At the same time the
dielectric Taconic RF60-A has a moderate value of covered bandwidth, which is sufficient for UWB
application with low loss tangent implying low energy losses in the material. Similarly Rogers RT/
duroid6010 have high Q-factor, but less bandwidth, which cannot fulfill the requirement of UWB ap-
plication. These attributes justify Taconic RF60-A dielectric as appropriate for fabrication of the pro-
posed antenna structure.

4.5. Effect of variation of substrate thickness


The graph depicted below in Figure 11 shows the effect of the variation of substrate thickness of the
proposed UWB antenna structure on its covered bandwidth resonant frequency performance.

The thickness of the substrate is increased progressively from h=0.44 to 0.74mm in three steps.
It is observed that:

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Figure 9. S11 vs. frequency S11 (RL)Vs freq plot for diff value of d1 & d2
curve for different width d1, d2 0.00
of SIR.

-10.00

dB (S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
-20.00

-30.00

d1 =2.4125 mm d2 =1.60 mm
-40.00 d1 =2.8125 mm d2 =1.62 mm
d1 =3.2125 mm d2 =1.64 mm

-50.00
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00
Frequency [GHz]

Figure 10. Effect of variation S11 (RL) Vs freq for diff. substrate material
of substrate material of 0.00
the proposed UWB antenna
structure.

-10.00
dB (S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-20.00

-30.00

FR4 epoxy
-40.00 Taconic RF60
RogersRT/duroid6010

-50.00
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00

Frequency [GHz]

(a)The increase in substrate thickness h then increases the fringing fields at the edges, which in
turn increases the effective length L of the patch, thereby reducing the resonant frequency of
the system. This apart, the increase in h reduces W/h ratio, thus reducing effective relative
permittivity eff of the dielectric causing increase in resonant frequency of the system. One
important observation is made as, the performance of the antennais increase as r decrease.
Therefore, the net effect of the variation in substrate thickness is the overall decrease the

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Table 4. The simulation result of variation of width d1, d2 of SIR


Value of d1 and d2 Covered bandwidth including notch band
d1=2.4125mm and d2=1.60mm 8.7GHz
d1=2.8125mm and d2=1.62mm 8.2GHz
d1=3.2125mm and d2=1.64mm 7.8GHz

Table 5. Effect of variation of different substrate material


Material r tan BW covered
FR4-epoxy 4.4 0.0200 8.1GHz
Taconic RF60-A 6.15 0.0028 7.9GHz
Rogers RT/duroid6010 10.2 0.0012 5.6GHz

Figure 11. Effect of variation S11 (RL) Vs freq.Plot for differenth


of substrate thickness of 0.00
the proposed UWB antenna
structure.

-10.00
dB (S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-20.00

-30.00
h=0.44mm
h =0.64mm
-40.00 h =0.74mm

-50.00
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00
Frequency [GHz]

resonance frequency due to the dominance of the effect of varying Leff. Hence, when the thick-
ness (h) is increased from 0.44 to 0.74mm, the resonant frequency decreases from 4.69 to
4.54GHz.
(b)As h is increased from 0.44 to 0.74mm, the impedance bandwidth increases from 5,620 to
8,150MHz. Therefore, by increasing the substrate thickness, the bandwidth can be enhanced.
But, the substrate thickness cannot be increased beyond an extent as that would make sur-
face waves dominant. This necessitates judicious selection of substrate thickness for realizing
higher bandwidth.

This justifies the selection of substrate thickness, h=0.64mm in the instant case as it results in a
large bandwidth.

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Figure 12. Effect of variation S11 (RL) Vs freq plot for diff value of Wg
of ground plane width of the 0.00
proposed antenna structure.

-10.00

dB (S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
-20.00

-30.00

Wg = 16.5mm
Wg = 17.0505mm
-40.00
Wg = 18mm

-50.00
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00

Frequency [GHz]

Figure 13. Fabricated


photograph of proposed
antenna structure.

4.6. Effect of variation of width wg of ground


The curve depicted below in Figure 12 shows the effect of the variation of width of ground plane re-
lating to the proposed UWB Antenna structure.

It is observed that the antenna bandwidth increases as the ground width Wg is increased and vice
versa shown in Table 7 and Figure 12 above. At a specific value of ground plane width, there is an
impedance matching and a minimum return loss is achieved (see Figure 13).

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Figure 14. Comparitive graph


for simulated and measured
S11 of the proposed UWB
Antenna structure.

The measured and simulated S11 of the proposed antenna with single band notch characteristics
shown Figure 14. The measurement of S11 was carried out with a network analyzer Agilent N5230
(10MHz to 20GHz). A relatively good agreement between measurement and simulation has been
observed. It is found that the input impedance of the fabricated antenna is well matched as the
bandwidth covers the entire UWB band (3.110.6GHz).

The axial ratios are often quoted for antennas in which the desiredpolarizationis circular. The
ideal value of the axial ratio for circularly polarized fields is 0dB. In addition, the axial ratio tends to
degrade away from themainbeamof an antenna, so the axial ratio may be indicated in a data sheet
for an antenna as follows:

Axial Ratio<3dB for30 degrees from main beam.

This indicates that the deviation from circular polarization is less than 3dB over the specified an-
gular range (see Figure 15).

The axial ratio can be calculated from:

|ERHCP | + |ELHCP |
AR =
|E | (5)
| RHCP | |ELHCP |
And the cross polarization is:

|ERHCP |
XPD = (6)
|ELHCP |

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Figure 15. Comparitive graph


for simulated ERHCP and ELHCP of
the proposed UWB antenna
structure (a) at 4GHz and (b)
at 8GHz.

Table 6. Effect of substrate thickness on bandwidth


Substrate thickness (h) Resonant frequency (fr) BW
h=0.44mm fr=4.69GHz 5,620MHz (3.759.37GHz)
h=0.64mm fr=4.62GHz 7,990MHz (2.8310.82GHz)
h=0.74mm fr=4.54GHz 8,150MHz (2.5810.73GHz)

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Table 7. Simulation result with the variation of ground plane width Wg of the proposed
structure
Ground plane width (Wg) Covered bandwidth
Wg=16.5mm 3.058.89GHz (5,840MHz)
Wg=17.0505mm 2.9110.6GHz (7,690MHz)
Wg=18mm 2.810.8GHz (8,000MHz)

[ ]
AR + 1
XPD = 20Log dB (7)
AR 1
where; XPD is cross polarization.

5. Conclusion
This work, as evidenced from the characteristic curves and Tables 27 included in the paper has been
successfully designed and realized the proposed microstrip antenna structure with a half bow-tie
patch and miniaturization, which makes it suitable for UWB applications. The proposed antenna has
impedance bandwidth covering the entire UWB range (2.810.8GHz), along with rejection-band in
the WLAN (5.155.85GHz). A prototype antenna is fabricated by using low-cost Taconic RF60 sub-
strate. Overall, the performance of the proposed antenna meets the desired requirements in terms
of return loss (<10dB) and VSWR (<2).

Funding Choi, H. S., Kim, T. W., Hwang, H. Y., & Choi, K. (2014). An UWB
The authors received no direct funding for this research. antenna design with adjustable second rejection band
using a SIR. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 50, 913916.
Author details http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2013.2283774
Tejbir Singh1,2 Chung, K., Hong, S., & Choi, J. (2007). Ultrawide-band printed
E-mail: tvsp1282@gmail.com monopole antenna with band-notch filter. IET
Heena Choudhary3 Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 1, 518522.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-map:20050356
E-mail: hcecengg@gmail.com
Chu, Q. X., & Yang, Y. Y. (2008). A Compact Ultrawideband
D.V. Avasthi3
Antenna With 3.4/5.5GHz Dual Band-Notched
E-mail: ava_meeshu@yahoo.co.in
Characteristics. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and
Vishant Gahlaut4 Propagation, 56, 36373644.
E-mail: vgceeri@gmail.com Daniels, D. J. (1996). Surface-penetrating radar. Proceedings of
1
Department of Electronics, Banasthali University, the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 6, 7293.
Rajasthan-304022, India. Da Xu, K., Zhang, Y. H., Spiegel, R. J., Fan, Y., Joines, W. T., & Liu,
2
SRM University Delhi-NCR, Sonepat 131023, India. Q. H. (2015). Design of a stub-loaded ring-resonator slot
3
Department of Physics, Banasthali University, for antenna applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas
Rajasthan-304022, India. and Propagation, 63, 517524.
4
Subharti Institute of Technology and Engineering, SVS Federal Communications Commission. (2002). Federal
University, Meerut, 250005, India. Communications Commission revision of part 15 of the
commissions rules regarding ultra-wideband transmission
Citation information system from 3.1 to10.6GHz. Washington, DC: Author.
Cite this article as: Design & parametric analysis of band Kadam, B. V., Gudino, L. J., Ramesha, C. K., & Nagaraju, S.
reject ultra wideband (UWB) antenna using step impedance (2016). A band-notched ultra-wideband compact planar
resonator, Tejbir Singh, Heena Choudhary, D.V. Avasthi & monopole antenna with u-shaped parasitic element.
Vishant Gahlaut, Cogent Engineering(2017), 4: 1301769. Procedia Computer Science, 93, 101107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.07.188
Cover image Kerkhoff, A. J., & Ling, H. (2007). Design of a band-notched
Source: Author. planar monopole antenna using genetic algorithm
optimization. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and
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