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Chapter 2

Project Description

2.1 Working of Proposed Scheme

With increase in population there is increase in demand of electricity. Mostly electricity
produces from fossil fuel such as coal, oil, nuclear energy and natural gas which are costly
and have the serious problem to the environment. As we focuses on renewable energy
sources such as wind energy, solar energy and hydroelectric power plant. These are the clean
and easily available sources.

The renewable energy sources are connected with the battery energy storage system is very
popular system to meet the energy demand. The proposed scheme is also on the same bases.
In it we connect the renewable energy source; here we consider the renewable energy source
is wind. The wind turbine is connected to the rectifier through the transformer to give the
supply to the dc link. Then the dc voltage is feed to the inverter for to supply the load. The
battery energy storage is connected parallel between the rectifier and inverter. To control the
inverter operation we use hysteresis current control technique. For that in system we use CT
and PT for sensing the voltage and current and this sensed parameter are feed to the controller
to take the decision of inverter operation. When conventional source is supply to load at that
time battery is charged through renewable energy. If the conventional source is fail to supply
to the load at that time the proposed scheme can supply the energy to the load. Battery energy
storage is used for the mitigation of variation of the load. This system is providing
uninterruptable, reliable and durable supply to the load. This system is also energy saving
system. In this system we make a grid synchronisation which means matching the frequency
and speed of the generator to the system. The generator cannot deliver power if the frequency
of generator does not match with the system. In ac generator for synchronization the
amplitude and time must be match with the system. The dc generator can be connected to the
system by matching open circuit voltage of the generator and system voltage. In ac
synchronization there are some conditions to match with network system they are Phase
angle, frequency, line voltage, waveform, phase sequence. In the synchronization it is
important to the phase sequence of the generator and system must be correct otherwise short
circuit occurs in the system.
2.3 Inverter and Control Scheme

Inverter is a device that converts dc power into ac power using electronic circuit. Its common
application is to convert the battery voltage into the household ac voltage using the electronic
devices when the ac supply is not available. Now a days inverter becomes more common
used in many applications.

Types of Inverter

1. Current Source Inverter: - In it input current remains constant.

2. Voltage Source Inverter: - In it input voltage remains constant.
3. Variable dc linked inverter: In in input voltage is controlled.

In proposed system we use voltage source inverter because the output voltage does not
depend upon the load and it is a small size of inverter. Voltage source inverter has a high
speed response capability. There are three kinds of voltage source inverter square wave
inverter, pure sine wave inverter and modified sine wave inverter.

i. Square Wave Inverter:

Square wave inverter produces the square wave at the output by switching dc source. This
type of inverter is rarely used because many devices used in it are time consuming devices it
takes time for switching.

ii. Pure Sine Wave Inverter:

The output voltage waveform is pure sine wave with low content of harmonics and
clean power like a utility. It is an expensive method to provide power and its main
advantage is that it provides power supply to all devices.
iii. Modified Sine Wave Inverter:
In a modified sine wave inverter the output voltage is suddenly rise or fall, phase
angle is also changes suddenly and it becomes zero volt for some time before
changing its polarity. It is same as square wave but it content less harmonics than
square wave inverter. It provides an easy and cheap solution to powering the ac power
devices. Its main drawback is it is not available for all devices. It is not rated for total
harmonic distortion. Their purpose is to provide affordable and portable ac power.

Inverter control scheme is used for extraction of power from renewable energy source as
well as from BESS system. The WTG is connected to transformer and the output of
transformer is delivered to DC bus through the AC-DC converter. BESS helps to maintain
constant DC-Link voltage. Inverter is connected in the grid network. The inverter is single
phase with four IGBT switches. It feed power to the load with the combination of renewable
source and BESS as shown in fig.


The proposed scheme used hysteresis current controller technique for controlling
inverter. This control system implemented with PI controller to limit the error and to improve
the power quality. Hysteresis current controller generates controlled gate pulses; hence
inverter switching is automatically controlled by these gate pulses. The control scheme for
generating switching pulses is shown in Fig

In the single-phase network, the peak amplitude is calculated with simple ac RMS voltage
and it is expressed as,

Vm 2Vrms
Where, Vrms is the RMS single phase grid voltage.

The unit vectors are achieved from grid voltage and peak amplitude which will in-phase with
grid voltage.

The expression for unit vector is given as,


Hence reference current is obtained from unit vector U which will be in-phase with grid
voltage is given as,

i* i U
i is the output of the PI controller. It is proportional to magnitude of voltage. The PI
controller output i is the controlled signal and multiplied unit vector. Hence, it generate
reference current having magnitude i and phase angle of unit vector. Unit vector has an
important role in grid synchronisation. It is one of the best methods and there is no
requirement phase-locked-loop block.
When the grid source disconnected then renewable source acts as stand-alone generator. In
stand-alone condition, voltage sensor senses condition from reference generator. Hence
inverter keeps the continuous power support to the critical load.
2.4 Hysteresis Current Controller

Proposed control scheme is executed with hysteresis current controller as shown in Fig. 4.
The reference current is obtained from equ.(7) and source current is sensed by current sensor.
The subtraction of reference and actual current gives actual error. This current error is given
to hysteresis controller. This controller limits the error within set hysteresis band. And it
generates controlled switching pulses. These pulses are given to IGBT switches. According to
these pulses the switches are ON/OFF The condition for generating switching is as below:

is (i * HB ) S1 , S 4 1

is (i * HB ) S1 , S 4 0

Here, HB= hysteresis band.

As given in the equation the opposite signal are given to the S2 and S3. The inverter
injects current in such mode that the harmonics of source current get cancelled with inverter
injected current and source current becomes harmonic free. Hence power quality at source
side is improved. And phase angle of source current is same as source current of voltage
means power factor is unity.
The implementation and simulation of hysteresis current control scheme is simple, robust.
As it is current control scheme so it is very fast in the response of inverter so control has
negligible delay.
The switching frequency of IGBT switches are given as follow [19]:
f s (max)
4 L f HB


Vdc M a2
f s ( av) 1
4 L f HB 2

Where Vdc is the DC-Link voltage and Lf is filter inductance.