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The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering


Reinforcement of non-central holes in rotating discs

H Fessler and T E Thorpe
The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design 1967 2: 317
DOI: 10.1243/03093247V024317

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H. FESSLER Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nottingham

T. E. THORPE Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nottingham

The frozen-stress photoelastic technique was used to determine the stresses around reinforced non-central
holes in discs. Both circular bosses and a thickened annulus were used as reinforcements. Calculations by
Green, Hooper, and Hetherington were found to predict the mean stresses (through the thickness) well but
these calculations cannot predict the peak stresses. The latter were not significantly less than the values of
the unreinforced perforated discs. The stresses in a taper disc were lower than in a disc of constant thickness.

INTRODUCTION Pitch diameter of holes.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF some compressors and turbines for Diameter of non-central hole.
aero engines requires that the blade-carrying discs shall Fillet radius at boss-disc junction.
contain a central hole and an array of non-central holes. Stress index = measured stress x 4/pw2Di2.
Both these features give rise to high-stress concentrations Radial stress index at radius p .
which must be reduced for efficient design. This paper is Radial stress index at radius q.
concerned with the effect of additional material around the Radial stress index at any radius.
non-central holes. Hoop stress index at any radius.
The effect of the size and proportions of bosses was Length of boss measured at the pitch circle.
studied with tapered discs of proportions similar to those Particular radii in plain portion of disc.
used in actual aero engines, except for the hub around the Radius.
central bore which was omitted. These discs each con- Thickness of disc.
tained eight non-central holes, reinforced by circular Thickness at radius p .
bosses of different lengths and diameters. Thickness at radius q.
The applicability of two-dimensional relaxation calcu- Density of disc material.
lations was investigated by testing models of the same Measured stress.
shapes as calculated by Green, Hooper, and Hetherington Angular velocity of disc.
(I)*. Each of these discs contained 20 non-central holes
reinforced by a thickened annulus containing the holes,
or by a circular boss around each hole, or by a tapered
profile. DISC SHAPES
Green, Hooper, and Hetherington solved the equations All discs were symmetrical with respect to the plane of the
of generalized plane stress for discs of uniform thickness mid thickness (z = 0) using r, 8, z cylindrical polar co-
containing 10, 20, and 45 holes, in addition to the rein- ordinates. The basic disc with eight holes, used for varying
forced discs already described. Their method of solution is boss shapes, is shown in Fig. 1 and the disc containing 20
clearly a powerful one for discs which are in a state of holes in Fig. 2. The main dimensions of the discs are
plane stress, i.e. discs of uniform thickness, but for discs defined in Table 1.
of variable thickness in which there is axial variation of This notation is consistent with (2) but not with (I). In
stresses some discrepancies between calculated and actual the eight-hole discs the diameter d of the non-central
stresses may be expected. The frozen-stress photoelastic holes was kept constant but the boss diameter b and boss
technique is the best method by which to investigate this length L were varied as shown in Table 2. (L is measured
effect. at the pitch circle.)
The size of the bosses may be defined in many ways.
Notation One way, used in aircraft and pressure-vessel practice, is
A, B, C Positions at bores of non-central holes defined to compare the cross-sectional area of the boss with that of
in Fig. 1.
b Diameter of boss. Table I . Disc sizes and proportions
Di Bore of disc.
Do Outside diameter of disc. Type of disc

The M S . of this paper wasfirst received at the Institution of Mechani- 8-hole .

cal Engineers on 24th January 1967 and in its revised form, as
accepted by the Council for publication, on 17th March 1967. 23 20-hole . .
References are given in the Appendix.

J O U R N A L O F S T R A I N A N A L Y S I S VOL 2 N O 1967 317

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I Because the variations in boss size were small two types
were tested on each disc. They were arranged in identical
pairs, the identity including the fillet radius, so that the
models were balanced.
Stress index is defined as the measured stress divided by
the stress in a radially thin ring equal in diameter to the
bore of the disc, made of the same material and rotating at
the same speed, i.e. I = 4u/pw2Di2.
This makes the results applicable to any geometrically
similar discs. The bore diameter was chosen as the
reference diameter so as to be consistent with (I).
The fillet radius f was made -&in and Q in for different
bosses of the types Nos 2-5. When it was found that this
variation of f / d from 0-16 to 0.31 did not affect the peak
stresses at the centre of the bores (positions A and C in
Fig. l), the other bosses were made with f = &in only.
In the 20-hole discs the fillet radii were made as small as
practicable in order to maintain similarity with the models
of (I).

The models were cast in epoxy resin Araldite CT 200,
cured, annealed, and machined to the final dimensions.
The circular bosses of models Nos 2-5 were made
separately and cemented into the main body of the disc,
but this technique proved to be unsatisfactory and sub-
sequent reinforcements were made integral with the discs
by profile machining.
For the freezing-in of the centrifugal stresses, each
Fig. 1. Hole reinforcement for an eight-hole disc model was located on a turntable by four radial pins which
were sliding fits in four holes drilled approximately 1 in
the hole in the unreinforced component. The boss size deep from the outside surface of the disc. This method of
can be expressed as the location allowed radial growth of the disc during loading
to take place without constraint. The turntable was driven
Cross-sectional area of boss through a suitable reduction gear by a 3 hp synchronous
Area ratio =
Cross-sectional area of hole in plain disc motor at a speed of 857 rev/min, chosen to produce the
and this definition has been used in this paper. The boss lowest fringe orders which were sufficient to give accurate
is shown cross-hatched in Fig. 1. results. The axis of rotation was horizontal, so that the

Fig. 2. Hole reinforcement for a 20-hole disc


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No. 1 Boss proportions Peak stress indices

Shape, Area Hoop Axial Shear
Llb ratio at A I at C at A I at C at A I at C
1 - 0 66.4 59.1 -2.2
9 0.09 0.49 0.06 0.63 59.0 56.7
7 0.09 1.oo 0.08 0.83 58.6 54.0 -1.4 -5.6
_ . 30.0 29.8
6 0.09 1.34 0.09 0.94 60.5 54.0 0 -3.2 30.2 28.6
2 0.14 1.oo 0.10 0.71 56.1 49.5 -12.8 32.0 31.1
3 0.18 1.oo 0.12 0.64 53.4 48.5 -11.0 -14.5 32.2 31.5
4 0.29 1.oo 0.16 0.54 50.3 52.6 - 12.4 -14.9 31.3 33.7
8 0.41 1.oo 0.20 0.48 51.0 45.8 -12.5 -13.8 31.7 29.8
5 0.53 1.oo 0.23 0.44 52.7 43.0 -14.4 - 18.5 33.5 30.7

stresses due to self-weight were reversed many times dur- and the body force causing the above is
ing cooling and were not frozen in. The complete assembly
was contained in a thermostatically controlled oven, so
that each model could be cooled at about 2 degC/h from
135 to 85C while the disc was spinning. The square-bracket terms have been determined for
Thin slices (about 0.06in) were cut from the models each of four discs by graphical summation and the results
with a high-speed diamond-impregnated cutting wheel, are given in Table 3.
copious quantities of coolant being used to ensure
that no partial annealing of the slices occurred during
cutting. A typical slice had a fringe order of about unity.
Fractional fringe orders were determined by the Tardy The results for the tapered eight-hole discs with circular
method of compensation. reinforcements are presented in Table 2. In every case the
No attempt was made to determine the separate princi- hoop and axial stresses at the non-central-hole boundaries
pal stresses because peak stresses were expected to occur were a maximum in the centre plane of the discs and on a
at the hole boundaries where one of the principal stresses radial line through the hole centres (points A and C in
is known to be zero and comparisons with theoretical Fig. 1). Most of the peak stresses occurred at the inner
results could readily be made using only boundary stresses point A but for completeness the stress values at both A
and principal stress differences away from boundaries. and C are tabulated, and are plotted in Figs 3 and 4.


In order to determine the stress-optical coefficient of the
model material, which may differ for each casting, a small
tensile specimen was cut from each model and the fringe 40
( +
order resulting from freezing-in a known stress was A

measured. The material density was determined by

weighing a part of each model both in air and in water.
T o investigate the overall accuracy of the results, the
equilibrium of portions of some discs under the action of \BOSS LENGTH/BOSS DIAMETER I
centrifugal forces and the hoop and radial stresses acting 0.4 0 5 0.6
on them were checked.
For part of an annulus, inside radius p and outside
radius q, subtending an angle of 7r/2 at the disc centre, the ----e ------ -- - - - ~
resultant boundary force normal to one radial face of the
part may be expressed as x, A, 0 refer to point A; +, v, refer to point c.
Fig. 3. Stress indices at the centre of bore of eight-hole
discs: effect of change of boss shape for unit area ratio

Table 3

Disc Boundary force Body force on Boundary force

on 4 annvlus 4 annulus Body force

20-hole. Annular-reinforced 5.87 8.81 59.3 55.1 1.075

Boss-reinforced . 5.87 8.81 57.9 55.1 1.050
Tapered . . 5.87 8.81 72.6 74.4 0.976

J O U R N A L OF S T R A I N A N A L Y S I S VOL 2 NO 4 1967 319

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greatest shear stress is half of the hoop stress: this is shown

in Figs 3 and 4 by a series of dots.
The fact that the peak stress at the non-central holes
appears as a hoop stress at the point on the hole boundary
nearest the disc centre indicates that an increase in the

r,-I5 8' 1--i5

number of holes would be of advantage (2). It is estimated
that a reduction of 22 per cent in the hoop stress in these
discs could be effected without using boss or rim reinforce-
ments by increasing the number of holes to 22. There
would be no increase in axial stress.
--- --_______ - -----
Although the discs containing 20 non-central holes were
- 20 analysed fairly extensively, a requirement for the equili-
brium checks, only the stress distributions close to the ring
x , A , 0 refer to point A; +, v, 0 refer to point C . of non-central holes are of interest and these are presented
Fig. 4. Stress indices at the centre of bore of eight-hole here.
discs: effect of size of boss for lengthldiameter = 0.09 Figs 5, 7, and 9 show the radial distributions of hoop
and radial stresses on the surface of the discs, both in a
The peak hoop stress at a non-central hole can be re- radial plane containing the centre of an eccentric hole and
duced by about 25 per cent by the choice of a suitable in a radial plane midway between adjacent hole centres.
cylindrical reinforcement, but this reduction is gained at Also shown are the radial distributions of 'mean' hoop and
the expense of a considerable increase in the axial stress at radial stresses, interpreted from the figures of (I), deter-
that point. Indeed Fig. 3 shows that there is a slight in- mined by the solution of the generalized plane-stress
crease in the shear stress in the centre plane of the disc, equations.
which suggests that the reinforcement may be detrimental Figs 6,8, and 10 show the axial distribution, at various
to the structure. Changing the boss size, while maintaining radii, of the difference between hoop and radial stresses in
the same length/diameter ratio, appears to have no effect planes through a hole centre and between adjacent holes.
on the maximum shear stress. These hoop and radial stresses are in fact the secondary
The full lines marked 'shear' in Figs 3 and 4 are principal stresses in planes normal to the axis of rotation.
obtained from the difference between hoop and axial Again the theoretical values of (I) are shown by horizontal
stresses. Where the axial stresses become tensile, the dashed lines, being constant with change of axial position.

Type of stress Experiment (1)

Radial Full line x Dotted

HOOP Long chain dotted 0 1 Short chain dotted


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Full lines and o experimental, dotted lines from (I). For key see Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Stresses near holes in 20-hole disc with thickened Fig. 8. Stresses near holes in 20-hole disc with circular
unnulus: distributions of the differences of the hoop and bosses: distributions of the differences of the hoop and
radial stress indices (Ze -I,) radial stress indices (ZB-ZR)

For key see Fig. 5.

Fig. 7. Surface stresses near holes in 20-hole disc with circular bosses

JOURNAL O F S T R A I N A N A L Y S I S VOL 2 N O 4 1967 321

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Type of stress I Experiment

First Second
model model
Radial Full line x + Dotted
Hoop Longchaindotted 0 Short chain

At the hole boundary the radial stresses are zero and the over the complete thickness of the disc and reinforcement,
plotted curves represent the hoop stresses. For complete- and not simply the semi-sum of the maximum and
ness one curve of radial stress distribution for the line on minimum values.
the hole boundary (not in the plane through the hole It may be seen that the calculated mean values exceed
centre) at the pitch-circle radius is also shown. On this line the experimental mean values in all except one position
the hoop stress is zero. but are smaller than the experimental maxima in a number
To avoid confusion caused by overlapping of stress of positions. There is good agreement between calculated
graphs, these graphs have been spaced out arbitrarily and and experimental mean values for the disc with annular
are connected to the section to which they refer by inclined reinforcement.
lines from the zero stress-index value for each curve. The The hoop stresses at the hole boundary in this disc
stress-index scale for all graphs is indicated in the figures. varied little through the thickness (see Fig. 6, right-hand
It should be emphasized that the graphs in Figs 6, 8, and side), indicating that the thickened annulus did not greatly
10 represent differences between hoop stress and radial disturb the hoop stresses in the disc. As may be expected
stress. Negative values (plotted downwards of course)
therefore indicate that the radial stress exceeds the hoop Table 4. Stress indices in 20-hole discs
stress. ~~ ~~

The experimental work revealed that axial variation of Type of Position Experimental
stress existed in regions close to the holes, and a state of
almost plane stress occurred in parts of the disc more than
~ ~ Max. 1 Min. 1 Mean
I 1 91.0 I 73.0 I 87.0 I 92.0 I
1 I 1 1 1
two diameters away from the pitch circle of the holes. Thickened A 1.06
. ..

The theoretical values of mean stress through the thick-

ness of the disc agreed closely with the mean of the experi-

Circular bosses
I 75.0 -9.0 34.0 35.6
86.3 60.0 81.3 95.0

mental curves. 100.0 -13.7 56.0 77.0 1.38
81.7 -10.0 433 38.0 0.87
In the vicinity of the non-central holes the greatest 100.0 -15.5 56.0 79.0 1.41
stresses occur in the surface of the holes. Values of hoop
stress at positions A and C and of radial stress at position Tapered profile A 75.0 62.5 71.3 92.0 1.29
63.5 57.7 61.3 74.2 1.22
B are given in Table 4 together with calculated mean
values. The experimental mean values are the averages i e 74.7
73.0 73.9 93.0 1.26


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Table 5. Predicted stress indices in unreinforced 20-hole


Poissons ratio
. : :1 I

0.3 ~

0.3 ~


Position B {*c .
:. 82.7

dimensional stress systems, but the discrepancy between

the experimental and theoretical values for the tapered
disc cannot be explained by this. The experimental work
shows that the tapered disc approaches closely to a general-
ized plane-stress case and good agreement with calculated
values could be expected. The experimental results have
been verified by repeating the analysis of the tapered disc,
results from both discs being plotted in Fig. 9.
T o assess the effectiveness of the various reinforcements
it is necessary to compare the measured peak stresses with
those occurring in a plain disc. No plain disc of the same
geometry as the 20-hole discs was tested but values
may be obtained from (2) and from the calculations of (I).
These values are given in Table 5.
I I It should be noted that the change of Poissons ratio has
no significant effect on the stresses in discs with non-central
STRESS INDEX holes and that there was fair agreement between the
25 calculated values and those predicted from experimental
0 CENTRE results. The greatest stresses occur at position A; com-
For key see Fig. 6.
parison of the maximum values at this position in the
reinforced and unreinforced discs therefore gives the
Fig. 10. Stresses near holes in 20-hole disc with tapered efficiencyof the reinforcement.
profile: distribution of the differences of the hoop and
radial stress indices (lo-Zr)
from the shapes, the radial boundary stress in the annular- It may be concluded from this work that the reinforce-
reinforced disc and radial and hoop boundary stresses in ment of non-central holes in rotating discs by a thickened
the bossed disc show considerable axial variations. These annulus or by bosses of any shape does not reduce the peak
stresses show a marked decrease in the reinforcement com- stresses by a significant amount. However, the use of a
pared with those in the main body of the disc. This is further tapered disc, which has a generally lower stress level than
shown by a rise in the difference between hoop and radial a similar disc of uniform thickness, does result in lower
stresses in parts of the annulus not on the hole boundary, peaks at the non-central holes.
Thus, although the mean of the radial component through The plane-stress theoretical results of Green, Hooper,
the disc thickness was smaller than would be expected in and Hetherington give only the mean-stress values through
an unreinforced disc, this was due to the low radial stress the disc thickness. These values are considerably lower
in the annulus and not the reduction of the peak in the than the peaks in the central plane of the discs at the hole
centre plane of the disc. The radial stress concentration boundaries.
predicted in (I) for the unreinforced disc was 75 units, but
whilst the mean radial component was reduced to 35 units
by this type of reinforcement, the peak radial concentra- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
tion remained at 75. The conclusion of the theoretical Mr L. D. McConnell suggested the method of rim loca-
work that this type of reinforcement is suitable for closely tion. Part of the work on the eight-hole discs was supported
spaced holes, in which the radial concentration is highest, by Rolls-Royce Ltd. The authors wish to thank the
is unjustified. Indeed, this type of reinforcement, which technicians and workshop staff for their skilful assistance.
carries hoop stress only, can be expected to be most bene-
ficial for widely spaced holes, which have the greatest hoop
concentration, but the improvement has been shown here APPENDIX
to be marginal. REFERENCES
In a comparison of the theoretical results of (I) with the (I) GREEN, G. T. J. and HETHERINGTON,
experimental values obtained for the similar discs, the Stress distribution in rotating discs with non-central
differences between the annular reinforced disc and the holes, Aeronuut. Q. 1964 15, 107.
(2) H. and THORPE,
FESSLER, T. E. Optimization of stress con-
boss-reinforced disc can be explained by the inability of centrations at holes in rotating discs, J . Struin Analysis
the plane-stress concept to describe adequately three- 1967 2,152.

J O U R N A L O F STRAIN A N A L Y S I S V O L 2 NO 4 1967 323

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