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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 43 (2015) 562568

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Overview of wind energy in the world and assessment of current wind


energy policies in Turkey
Yusuf Alper Kaplan
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskiehir, Turkey

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This article aims to show that wind energy resource isn't efciently used in Turkey and how the using of
Received 5 September 2013 wind energy potential is improved is discussed. Some general information for about political structure
Received in revised form and the lack of support mechanism of Turkey are given. For that purpose, a comparison between some
24 July 2014
developed countries and Turkey is included in this article. Turkey is a country which has wind energy
Accepted 2 November 2014
potential on land and sea more than many European countries but the value of installed wind power
plants is less than these countries. There is no power generation from offshore wind turbines in Turkey
Keywords: whereas it is surrounded on three sides by seas. The 2023 target which is about the renewable energy
Renewable energy generation of Turkey is the 30%. Many developed countries identify long-term plans and implement the
Wind energy
policies depend on these plans to exploit wind energy potential more efciently. In this study, literature
Wind energy policies
screening is adopted. According to ndings obtained from the comparison between developed countries
and Turkey, it is concluded that although Turkey has a higher potential then a lot of developed countries
regarding wind energy, expected efciency cannot be obtained due to the lack of a national renewable
energy policy and the fact that wind energy is not promoted by incentives. Energy planning and
management are necessary to promote wind energy which has a vital importance for the development
and future of Turkey.
& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
2. The importance of using the renewable energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
2.1. The Advantages of wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
2.2. The concept of the Producing wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
3. The general state of wind energy in the world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
3.1. The use of wind energy in the world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
3.2. The use of wind energy in the EU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
3.3. Wind energy policies of foremost countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
4. The general state of wind energy in Turkey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
4.1. The use of wind energy in the Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
4.2. Current Turkish legislation on wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
4.3. Expectations of wind energy sector for Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568

1. Introduction

Nowadays, the need of energy has been increasing day by day


with the population growth and the advancements of technology.
Hence, the search of new energy resources becomes very impor-
E-mail address: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr tant subject for the entire world [1]. Energy is the most important

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.027
1364-0321/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Y.A. Kaplan / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 43 (2015) 562568 563

factor which affects economic structure of a country. As is known, resources to meet a large portion of World energy demand and the
energy is seen as not only the internal dynamics of the countries damages of fossil fuel resources to the environment. Countries which
but also a strategic case which affects International Relations, cannot meet their energy demand have to apply external dependent
including political as well as military conicts. Energy is also policies. Expenses of energy consumption in a country seriously
primary element of economic and social development in the affect its economy. In this case, renewable energy in the World is a
world. The most important cause of today's wars is the desire to substantial research topic and it speeds up its improvement day by
dominate energy resources. Countries effectively harnessed differ- day. Especially, Europe is the pioneer of using renewable energy
ent energy resources to become major economic powers. They are source instead of using fossil fuels. Along with the advancement of
also powerful political player, thanks to the economic power. technology the using of renewable energy has increased and the
Currently, wind energy is seen as a positive alternative to fossil power quality of these sources improved. After the technological
fuels and also a way to assist the expansion of local economies in improvements and growth rate of energy demand, the interest of
future. The world will use renewable energy instead of using fossil wind energy has increased for all countries. The conversion systems
fuels in order to meet the demands of the world's energy [2]. of wind turbines increase seriously in electrical power generation. As
The industrialization in Turkey is recently developing which a result of concerning the power quality of the electric systems
respect to the developed countries. At the same time, the increasing sensitivity of consumers has increased to growing interest. The
amount of per capita energy consumption, which is a measure of importance of the renewable energy resources is realized while
development, reveals the importance of energy. Turkey's primary considering the limited duration of the use of fossil fuel resources
energy demand is increasing with a rate of 45% per year and the that damages the environment. Nowadays, the need of energy has
growth rate of electrical energy demand is 8%. These rapid growths been increasing daily with the population growth and the advance-
cause signicant energy gap between demand and supply for the next ments of technology. Hence, the search of new energy resources
1020 years. Turkey imported 72% of current energy sources to meet becomes very important subject for the entire world. Countries,
energy demand considering the current situation. Domestic energy which cannot meet their energy demand, are strongly dependent on
sources in Turkey are highly under-utilized resources.. Turkey elec- external policies and market forces. Expenses of energy consumption
tricity generation by primary sources is shown in Table 1 [3]. This in a country greatly affect its economy. In this case, renewable energy
situation reveals the importance of efcient and effective use of is a substantial research topic in the world and its technology
renewable energy resources. Turkey needs to show their interest in, improves progressively. Especially, Europe is the pioneer of using
and support for clean renewable energy technologies to reduce our renewable energy source instead of using fossil fuels [2].
dependence on fossil fuels. In this context, unlike fossil fuels, wind
power energy is clean and sustainable energy and it also does not 2.1. The Advantages of wind energy
pollute the environment. Therefore, it is denitely a front runner
among all alternate energy sources. The environmental issues are the greenhouse effect and atmo-
Owing to the unstable condition of energy system and the lack of spheric pollution problems caused by the fossil fuel. Also, the
renewable energy policies in Turkey, existing wind energy potential sources of fossil fuel reserves are limited; nding solutions to
has not been efciently used. Although wind energy potential of realize harmony development among energy, economic and envir-
Turkey is 48.000 MW, installed wind power is 2959 MW until 2014. onmental is an inevitable responsibility for modern people [4]. It is
Current policies in wind energy are examined in this study while a useful attempt to replace fossil energy, with the help of wind
evaluating capacities of available installed wind power in Turkey and solar hybrid power generation system. Thereby, avoiding the
some of the developed countries in the world. As a result, the environmental problems caused by burning of fossil. Based on
strategies that affect energy policies in Turkey are discussed in this relevant matching program, we get quantication energy environ-
study in order to support using wind energy. mental benets of promotion wind solar hybrid power generation
Recently, Turkey implements signicant changes within energy system. Based on the electrical load, the total annual electricity
sector similar to other developed countries. Energy producers consumption of one kWh gives out 4 kg of annual emission of
must provide the criteria for efciency and continuity of energy. fumes and residues which causes the pollution. By using renew-
The national energy network must support private initiatives. It able energy sources these hazards can be reduced [5].
also facilitates new partnerships between the public and private Some of the advantages of wind energy are as follows:
sector at national and international level in order to achieve a
reliable and efcient service.  Wind energy is easily available around the world. Thus, there is
no dependence to any country in wind energy production. The
answer to the globe's question of energy in the face of the
2. The importance of using the renewable energy rising fossil fuels prices is wind energy.
 Wind Turbines are generally installed on rural areas. Thus, the
The importance of the renewable energy resources is better economies of rural communities can be revitalized by means of
appeared while considering the limited duration of use of fossil fuel wind energy. This causes the diversication of rural economies
by providing new types of income.
 There is no need to use fossil fuel while generating electrical
Table 1
Turkey electricity generation by primary sources.
energy in wind turbines unlike the other types of electrical
generation. Wind is a native fuel that it is not necessary to be
Sources Generation (GWh) mined or transported.
 The prices of electricity that is generated from fossil fuels can
Natural gas 98.144
change signicantly owing to the high costs of mining and
Hydraulic 51.796
Lignite 35.942 transportation. On the contrary, wind energy does not include
Coal 19.104 these costs due to the fact that wind is always stable and free.
Wind 2.916  Wind energy sector creates jobs for both industry and rural
Liquid fuels 2.180 economies. Especially, wind energy projects provide new short
Others 1.126
Total 211.209
and long term jobs in rural communities in the area of
manufacturing, transportation, and project construction.
564 Y.A. Kaplan / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 43 (2015) 562568

 Wind energy doesn't pollute the air since it does not use fossil However, there are some logistical and design challenges such as
fuel as its energy source. Harmful particulate emissions, which the high cost of installing sub-sea cables to connect to the grid
contribute to global climate change, are greatly produced with along with the stringent environmental conditions. These chal-
other sources of electricity generation whereas wind energy is lenges can be solved with technological development.
pollution free.
 Wind energy preserves the land and environment because
agriculture and animal husbandry can be easily dealt with near 3. The general state of wind energy in the world
the area where the wind turbines are installed.
3.1. The use of wind energy in the world
Although there are lots of advantageous of wind energy, it has a
small number of disadvantageous. One of them is that the wind is There are three major markets for global wind power genera-
unreliable in many areas where the speed of wind is sometimes tion eld. These are in Europe, USA and China. Fig. 1 shows the
too low to support a wind turbine. The other disadvantages of the installed wind power capacity in the world from 2004 to 2013. It is
wind turbines is to cause noise pollution near its construction seen the gure that the world's total installed capacity was
area. Sometimes, the wind turbines, which are installed in the 238.126 GW with more than 20% growth rate in the annual market
route of bird migration, may kill birds [2]. at the end of 2011. More than 45 GW of new wind power capacity
was installed around the world in 2012, bringing the total installed
2.2. The concept of the Producing wind energy capacity up to 283.194 GW. This represents a year-on-year growth
of 18.9%. At the end of 2013, wind power installed capacity
The wind resource varies temporally and geographically. This reached 318.105 GW in the world. The total installed wind power
property of wind resource is one of the most signicant character- capacity increased nearly 35 GW in 2013 [6,7]. This gure shows
istics. The variability of wind continues in very large scales in that there is a very large and growing global demand for
space and time. Wind energy changes with the cube of the wind emissions-free wind power almost everywhere in the world. The
speed. The purpose of the wind turbines is to exploit the wind wind industry sector also creates many new jobs; nearly half a
speed efciently. This is seen as most important design parameter million people are now employed in this industry, and this
of wind turbines. There are two types of wind turbines based upon number will increase year by year. China was the world's largest
the direction of the axis that turbine rotates around a horizontal or market in 2013, has more than doubled in three years its capacity
vertical direction. Most commonly turbine rotates around a from 44.733 GW in 2010 to 91.412 GW and slipped the past USA to
horizontal axis. Wind turbines are installed on onshore or off- become the world's rst largest wind power market by a very
shore. Each of them has unique design characteristics. Wind narrow margin. USA increased wind energy capacity from
turbines may also be used in hybrid systems. For example, wind 40.298 GW in 2010 to 61.091 GW in 2013. The one of the leading
turbines together with a solar collector forms an efcient hybrid countries in terms of installed wind power is India which reached
systems in order to extract energy from the wind and also from the 20.150 GW installed capacity in 2013. India aims to reduce its
the sunlight. dependence on coal and to narrow the country's power decit; the
The factors which affect the economy of wind energy are the Indian government announced plans for a Green Energy Corridor
average wind speed or the amount of energy production, the cost project to address grid integration and availability issues for
of wind turbines, the foundations and investment costs, turbine renewables based electricity generation. In 2013, China led the
life, operating and maintenance. The correct location selection of global market again by adding 16 GW of new wind capacity in last
the wind power generation has the critical importance in terms of year, and cemented its place as the leading wind market with a
economic feasibility due to the fact that electricity production total of 91.412 GW installed as of the end of the year [7].
tightly depends on wind conditions.
Wind turbines are installed onshore or offshore where the 3.2. The use of wind energy in the EU
wind resource is more appropriate and better. Offshore winds are
higher in velocity and more reliable and consistent which makes it The installed wind power in Europe increases a signicant rate
attractive. Capacity factors which affect the wind power are also each year which is shown in Fig. 2. The total wind energy capacity of
much higher at sea. A lot of prime land based locations have been the Europe reaches the 121.5 GW in last year, of which 117 GW is in
exhausted, so the next place to look for wind is off-shore. the European Union. Germany remains the EU country with the

Fig. 1. Installed wind power capacity in the world.


Y.A. Kaplan / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 43 (2015) 562568 565

largest installed capacity, followed by Spain, the UK, Italy and France. designed and put in practice in order to promote the use of
Germany was again the largest market in 2013 adding nearly 3GW of renewable energy sources. As a result of different political and
new capacity. The EU continues to be world's one of the leaders in economic situations, the governments have taken different poli-
total installed wind energy capacity, and one of the strongest regions cies to encourage the investment and sale of wind power. Wind
for new development. Fig. 2 show that EU increased capacity to energy policy focuses that some important categories which
106.454 GW by adding nearly 12GW of new installed capacity in includes research and development organizations, commercial
2012. At the end of 2013, nearly 11 GW new wind power installed generators and producers. The aim is to provide incentives for
and the total capacity reached 117.289 GW in the EU [7]. require production and installation of wind turbines or facilitate
Europe has certain target to cut greenhouse gas emissions. In 2020, the appropriate location of wind turbines. A number of developed,
230 GW of wind energy in Europe will avoid the emission of 333 transition countries and developing countries have already
million tonnes of CO2 per year. Europe needs to reduce its greenhouse adopted some type of policy to promote renewable power gen-
gas emissions by 30% by 2020 compared to 1990 levels to boost eco- eration are given in Table 2 [9].
nomic growth, maintain its technology leadership and keep climate All of the developed countries have succeeded in effectively
change in check. Because of the recession EU has already reached 17%. expanding the usage of wind energy. China focuses on signicantly
EU's current target - a 20% cut - has become easy to meet: Wind economic policies which guarantee sales of wind power produced
energy is already tackling climate change: Wind power in the EU by investors to power grid companies. These policies free renew-
avoided the emission of 106 million tonnes (Mt) of CO2 in 2009 [8]. able companies from concerns about limitations of market. Since
2011, all new projects must rst be included in the project
3.3. Wind energy policies of foremost countries development plan announced by the National Energy Administration
(NEA) and undergo approval before starting construction, whereas
It is clearly seen that renewable energy sources can facilitate previously quite a number of projects had started without the
economic and social development in all country in the World. All relevant permissions fully in place. This allows the NEA to get a
countries should develop new public policies which should be well sense of the total volume of the projects to be permitted, while

Fig. 2. Installed wind power capacity in the EU.

Table 2
Renewable energy incentives in selected world countries.

Renewable energy promotion Country


policies

Feed-in tariff Austria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech, Czech Rep., Estonia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovak Rep., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Ukraine, Algeria,
Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rika, India, Indonesia, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, Kenya, Ecuador, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia,
Macedonia, Uganda
Renewable portfolio standards Australia, Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, Poland, Sweden, United States, China, India, Thailand, Chile
Capital subsides, grants or Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Japan, Lithuania,
rebates Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, Argentina
Cambodia, China, India, Thailand, Turkey
Investment excise or tax credit Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Rep., France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
Slovak Rep., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United States, China, Guatemala, India, Mexico, Nicaragua, Philippines
State tax, energy tax or VAT Canada, Czech Rep., Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Korea, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom, United
reduction States, China, Guatemala, India, Philippines
Tradable renewable energy Australia, Austria, Belgium, Czech Rep., Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United
certicates States
Energy production payments or Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, United States, Argentina
Tax credit
Net metering Belgium, Czech Rep., Denmark, Italy, Japan, United States, Mexico, Thailand
Public investment, loans or Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland, Slovak Rep., Spain, United States, Brazil,
nancing China, India, Philippines
Public competitive bidding Canada, France, Ireland, Norway, Poland, United States, China, India
566 Y.A. Kaplan / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 43 (2015) 562568

previously the local governments had authority to approve small 48.000 MW wind power is available in the regions where the
projects, making it impossible to predict overall volume of projects annual wind speed is 7 m/s or over in Turkey. Furthermore, the
[7]. US concentrate on investment policies in the eld of renewable regions where the annual wind speed is 8.5 m/s or over has at
energy. One of these policies is especially the tax credit systems that least 5.000 MW available wind power. We can say that Turkey has
cover up to 30% of total eligible expenditures [10]. Concrete signs that 8.000 MW available wind energy which is very efciently and
US policymakers understand wind power's value to the nation 40.000 MW available wind energy which is at a moderate level [2].
continued as 2013 got under way. In his State of the Union Address, Turkey's wind energy potential is primarily focused in Marmara,
US President Barack Obama called for a doubling of renewable Aegean and Mediterranean regions from higher to lower is shown
energy by 2020 as a means of creating good manufacturing and in Table 3, respectively [13].
construction jobs, and reducing harmful greenhouse gas emissions Wind Energy investments in Europe seem to be very low before
[7]. Through this mission the Indian government aims to have a 2006. However, it can be seen that these investments signicantly
generating capacity of 100 GW of wind power installed by 2022, from increased after 2006. A signicant similar trend on wind energy
the present 20 GW. Developed countries in EU have used effective investments has been recently started in Turkey. Fig. 3 shows that
policies for about using the renewable energy. For example Germany the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey year by year. In
has used a long-term protective tariff policy for wind power and 2011, wind power capacity is increased with an amount of
other renewable energy investors. Britain and the United States took 477 MW and total installed wind power capacity is 1806 MW. In
a main renewable energy quota policy. In addition, a public benets 2012, 506 MW of new wind power installed and total installed
fund was established to support the development of wind power. As wind power has reached 2312 MW. Turkey added 647 MW of new
a nancing mechanism, fund setting has been adopted in many wind power in 2013 for a total capacity of 2959 MW.Turkey's
countries in the renewable energy sector. The Netherlands uses green installed capacity has grown by nearly 500 MW per year since
power transactions to support the wind power development [11]. 2010 and the national transmission company expects annual
installations to reach 1,000 MW per year from 2013 onward.
Turkey's best wind resources are located particularly in the
4. The general state of wind energy in Turkey Balkesir, zmir and Manisa provinces. As of the end of 2012, the
Marmara region has the highest installed wind capacity with a
4.1. The use of wind energy in the Turkey total of 923.65 MW, followed by Aegean region with 857 MW
and the Mediterranean region with 384.50 MW [7]. Turkey is
In Turkey, electricity is mostly produced in thermal power surrounded by seas on three sides and it has 3500 km coastline.
plants (TPPs) by consuming coal, lignite, natural gas, fuel oil. The Particularly, the wind is wind is a continuous and very regular
production of electricity from renewable has small amount [12]. in Aegean and Marmara coastline. Nevertheless, there is no
Turkey is one of the richest countries in terms of wind energy serious investment and production for offshore wind energy
potential. It is possible to make economic investment of wind production.
energy at 48.000 MW in power in Turkey. Because the annual
average speed of wind is greater than 7.5 m/s. According to the
Turkey wind energy potential atlas prepared in 2007, at least

Table 4
Minimum price of renewable electricity in some
Table 3 European countries (Eurocent/kWh).
Technical wind energy potential by regions in Turkey.
Country Price (Eurocent/kWh)
Region Wind power potential Percentage
Netherlands 9.69.9
Marmara 43.917 38.5 France 8.4
Aegean 26.150 22.9 Austria 7.8
Black Sea 14.312 12.5 Portugal 7.57.9
Mediterranean 11.214 9.8 Greece 6.4
Central Anatolia 10.904 9.6 Spain 6.37.5
South-eastern Anatolia 4703 4.1 Germany 6.28.5
Eastern Anatolia 4974 2.6 Turkey 5.05.5

Fig. 3. Installed wind power capacity in Turkey.


Y.A. Kaplan / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 43 (2015) 562568 567

4.2. Current Turkish legislation on wind energy institution, General Directorate of Renewable Energy (YEGM)
was established in November, 2011[16].
Energy policy in Turkey is often discussed in certain platforms. Investment incentive Licensing
Some of the reasons are as follows. At rst, Turkey does not keep (i) Installed capacity of 500 kW is exempted from licensing and
up with the developments in the eld of energy at international setting up a company.
level. Energy system is not established well and also not stable in (ii) Only 1% of licensing cost is paid by corporate entities applied
Turkey. In addition, energy policies have some weaknesses and to get a license and these entities do not pay annual licensing
deciencies in Turkey such as lack of adequate supporting cost for the rst eight years.
mechanism for renewable energy sector. The strategies of energy (iii) Priority is ensured for system connection.
management change with every new government. The universities Land appropriation
and other R&D institutions are not integrated enough in the (i) Real properties either regarded as forest or private property of
decisions and programs taken for energy system. All of them Treasury are leased or right of easement or usage permits are
cause energy system to become unbalanced. However, some of given to such properties
additional policy measures have made renewable energy produc- (ii) 85% of discount is given to rent, right of easement and usage
tion increase in recent years in Turkey. permits and Forest Villagers Development Revenue, Foresta-
Minimum price system is used many developed countries tion and Erosion Control Revenues are not demanded during
which requires an electricity utility to purchase a portion of its the rst 10 years.
electricity requirement, called as green energy, at a minimum
price dened. Legally dened minimum prices change according In addition to the feed-in tariff, the Turkish government
to the country; some of these prices can be seen in Table 4 [14]. provides other measures to promote wind energy development,
Energy policies in Turkey include fundamental objectives as notably priority access to grid, facilitation and discounts for
followings: obtaining leases and authorization to use state owned land. Also,
most restrictions on foreign investment in the Turkish power
 Energy and its safety in Turkey should be provided in a cost- sector have been lifted. The electricity market regulation has been
effective and sustainable way while investigating the environ- revised and will take effect on April 2013. The electricity business
mental effects. is largely in the hands of the state owned Electricity Generation
 The economic importance of Turkey in regional and global Company EUA and its afliates. A transition to a competitive
energy trade should be increased. electricity market is needed in order to attract private sector
 The current situation in energy efciency should be improved. investments to help meet demand growth of an average 69%
per year, and also to reduce electricity prices [7].

Increasing the use of renewable energy resources, reducing the 4.3. Expectations of wind energy sector for Turkey
dependence on energy imports and ensuring the security of
supply are important elements of national energy policy in Turkey. Complicated and slow administrative procedures are the great-
To this end, some acts and regulations are made in Turkey. est obstacle to wind development in Turkey. Moreover, grid
Some important acts and regulations are as follows: capacity is an area of concern to be able to connect the 11 GW of
new wind installations currently planned. The Turkish Wind
In 2005, Turkey has installed a law on the use for the purpose of Energy Association has set a target of reaching 5 GW in 2015. To
generating electrical energy from renewable energy resources. ensure that these targets are met the transmission system opera-
The law aims to improve the use of generating electrical energy tor has announced investments in grid reinforcements between
from renewable energy resources. These resources are also 2013 and 2020 [7].
brought into the economy in a reliable, economic and high- There are many points that affect the future of wind industry.
quality manner with this law. Increasing diversication of energy The economic factor is the most important one among them.
resources, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, assessing the Furthermore, the other factors and its affects are specied below:
waste, and keeping the environment safe are the other aims of
this law. Lastly, this law enables the manufacturing sector to  Government supports for national energy plans and
develop in order to realize of these objectives. renewable energy
Energy efciency law was made in 2007 to ensure the efcient  The growth of the market and the industry's current dynamics
use of energy, waste prevention, relieving the burden of energy  Wind resource assessment and how to use this
costs on the economy, protection of the environment and  Assessment the developments in the similar markets with
increasing the efciency on the use of energy sources. In previous structure
addition to this, the regulation related with this law was made  Specic information on major projects
in 2008 in order to increase the productivity on energy  Growing number of contracts of major energy companies and
resources and energy use. national network
In 2010, a law was made in order to support the production and
the use of renewable energy. The law changed another law of Overall, it seems that under well designed public policies, the
the purpose of generating electrical energy from renewable potential for developing renewable sources of energy to facilitate
energy resources [15]. Law was amended by Law Regarding the development in developing countries may be considerable [17].
Amendment in the Law of Utilization of Renewable Energy Many of the factors given above are now positive in the wind
Resources for the Purpose of Generating Electricity (Law no: industry. There is a strong political support in terms of both energy
6094) in December 2010. Within this law, principles of Wind security and carbon reduction measures. Wind energy offers
Power Plant Supporting Mechanism such as price, time and solutions against the global crisis such as energy crisis, nancial
payments were determined. The new Law changed the feed-in crisis and environmental crisis with the features of local, reliable,
tariffs for each renewable energy sources. Moreover, General affordable and clean source. However, at this point, it is difcult to
Directorate of Electrical Power Resources Survey and Develop- predict short-term effects of the difculty in nding credit on
ment Administration (EIEI) was repealed. Instead of this investments in wind energy. Besides, relatively small projects in a
568 Y.A. Kaplan / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 43 (2015) 562568

stable political framework are less affected rather than more risky seas, feasibility of offshore wind turbines for Turkey's seas should be
investments in the countries with unstable political framework investigated in detail and related research should be encouraged in
because of the difculty of nding credit such as large offshore order to deploy these systems. Local supports should be given
wind energy stations [18]. together with required tax exemptions. Granting long-term xed-
Although a wind farm owner/operator cannot change para- price guarantees should be on the agenda of the government.
meters such as the incident wind speed, understanding how wind
farm efciency changes as a function of these parameters is critical
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