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Radiographic Inspection One of the most important and stops at the joint to be radiographed, Fig. 16-42.

reliable nondestructive testing tools is radiographic in- radiograph beam produces an image of the weld on a strip
spection. On a commercial basis this is done with X-ray of film wrapped around the outside of the joint. Disconti-
or gamma ray sources. Digital radiography is now a viable nuities are revealed when the film is developed. When the
option for onshore, offshore, and refinery use. Generally, exposure is completed, the crawler moves along on com-
X-ray work is done in the shop where equipment can be mand from the isotope locator, Fig. 16-43, which is placed
under better control. Portable radiographic equipment, at the next weld, and the process is repeated.
such as the pipeline crawler, also known as a smart pig, is The crawler can be used in pipelines with diameters
available for field inspection as well. The pipeline crawler ranging from 6 to 72 inches, Fig. 16-44.
is an automated, self-propelled radiograph machine for in-
specting circumferential welds in cross-country pipelines.
The crawler is battery operated and requires no external
cables or connectors.
The crawler is positioned at each weld by means of a
radioactive isotope locator placed at a predetermined po-
sition on the outside of the pipeline. The machine then

Fig. 16-44 Real-time radiographic inspection of pipeline welds.

Digital X-ray technology has advanced to becoming truly real time
Fig. 16-42 Smart pigs come in a variety of designs and capabili- and in high resolution. Utilizing advanced X-ray detector technology
ties. They are typically able to inspect pipe from 6 to 72 inches in and pipeline-specific software, the inspection process has become
diameter with either gamma or X-ray inspection techniques. These a replacement for conventional RT. A typical pipeline crawler is used
crawlers are available to meet quality and rigid production quotas. inside the pipeline, but externally the film is replaced by an RTR
Operators must be qualified and well-experienced. Shaw Pipeline scanning mechanism that runs on a typical band. Shaw Pipeline
Services Services


Fig. 16-43 The smart pig is located in the pipe and is making its way into position to radiograph a girth weld in a cross-country pipeline.
Signals are sent to the crawler at each weld being inspected. Shaw Pipeline Services

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16493
For video of the Digital RT operation, please visit

Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection for discon-

tinuities in pipe welds is also used. The more common
pulse echo or now the more advanced automated phase
array methods can be used, Fig. 16-45. Only a highly ex-
perienced inspector may be able to interpret the differ-
ence between a discontinuity and a defect, noncritical
evidence of slag, porosity, and changes in surface contour
with the pulse echo method. On the other hand, the auto-
matic phase array system can give a better probability of
Fig. 16-45 Equipment used for mechanized ultrasonic testing
for the complete inspection of pipeline girth welds. This inspection
technique allows for rapid inspection and feedback to the welder,
thus allowing tighter controls on the welding process to reduce
For video of the phase array UT testing, please visit
weld repair rates for the project. This type of total weld inspec-
tion philosophy includes weld examination using focused probe
technology, time of flight diffraction (TOFD), and phased array
technology. Shaw Pipeline Services

Liquid Penetrant InspectionDye penetrant inspection The use of compressed air or other gas is not recom-
is used extensively where narrow cracks are suspected. mended because of its explosive force. A failure could be
This method is extensively used on nonmagnetic mate- highly destructive and hazardous to human life. Air test-
rials where magnetic particle inspection processes could ing is used to a limited extent by certain small tank fabri-
not be used. cators and at low pressure. Helium tests and soap bubble
tests are also used.
Magnetic Particle InspectionOften referred to as Destructive hydrostatic testing, Fig. 16-46, is usually
Magnaflux testing, this method can be used only on carried out under controlled conditions in a shop or labo-
magnetic materials. Fluorescent magnetic particles in a ratory on a particular component of the piping system.
liquid medium (usually water) are applied to the work for
the detection of extremely narrow cracks.
Hydrostatic Testing Hydrostatic testing is used
extensively for welded-piping components and
pipelines. The nondestructive testing of sec-
tions between valves is often done. This form
of testing is also applied to shop-fabricated pipe
assemblies. For most work clean water is used
at about the atmospheric temperature to prevent
sweating of the pipe and weld joints. Pressure
is applied gradually by means of a pump and
registers on a gauge. The test pressure should
be that called for by the governing code or con-
tract. It should be at least 112 times the maxi-
mum working pressure to which the piping will
be subjected. For power piping the test pressure
should never be less than 50 p.s.i. nor more than Fig. 16-46 A unit subjected to destructive hydrostatic testing. Note that the
twice the service pressure of any valve included bursting point was in the pipe and that the welds are intact. The pipe burst at
in the test. 6,200 p.s.i., a pressure that is well beyond service requirements.

494Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)
Oil or water may be used as the internal liquid and sub- Trepanning is generally done by removing a cylindri-
jected to high pressure. The pressure is applied to the yield cal plug from the weld by means of a power-driven hole
point in the material or even to the bursting point. This is saw. This permits checking the inside weld surface for
for the purpose of determining the stress concentrations, porosity, cracking, penetration, and fusion. Some codes
strengths, and weaknesses. and standard no longer allow use of this method.
Sometimes narrow strips are removed with a saw or
Service Tests After the piping installation has been com- high speed cutting wheels. After the specimen has been
pleted, a service test, which is essentially a trial operation removed, it is ground and polished, and the prepared sur-
of a system under normal service conditions, is performed. face is etched. Examination of the macro-etched surface
Care must be taken to make sure that all valves and reg- discloses such defects as cracks, lack of fusion, weld pro-
ulating devices are set for proper operation and that all file, porosity, and slag inclusions.
hangers and anchor structures are secured.
The customer expects that the system is free from leaks Common Defects in Pipe Welds
and is able to perform as called for in the specifications. and Acceptance Criteria
If the welders have done their work well, the system will
Following is a list of weld discontinuities that occur fre-
perform as designed. This is a serious responsibility since
quently in pipe welds as described in API (1104). The
the contractor is responsible for any leaks and any damage
welding process is dependable and will consistently pro-
due to leaks.
duce work that is sound, Fig. 16-48. The variable is the
Coupon Testing The most common type of destructive welder. Much poor welding is caused not by welders lack
testing that you will be concerned with as a pipe welder is of skill, but by their carelessness or lack of interest in the
done by taking test coupons from pipe joints that you have work. Skilled welders are concerned welders who are
welded in accordance with the requirements and speci- careful about everything they do.
fications of whatever code you are working under. Cou- Essentially, incomplete joint penetration is defined as
pons may be cut accurately in the field by means of a test the weld metal not extending through the joint thickness.
coupon cutter, Fig. 16-47. The cutter uses an oxyacetylene Incomplete fusion is defined as the lack of bond between
cutting torch. It may be used for both plate and pipe. beads or between the weld metal and base metal. Incom-
plete penetration and incomplete fusion are separate and
Miscellaneous Tests Several other destructive test meth- distinct conditions that occur in different forms as follows.
ods are also employed to maintain control over weld
Incomplete joint penetration (IP). Inadequate penetra-
tion that is not caused by a high or low condition is

Fig. 16-47 A test coupon cutter used in the field for quick, Fig. 16-48 A pipe fabrication that fractured in service. Note that
on-the-spot testing. Mathey Dearman the welds are intact. Crane Co.

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16495
defined as incomplete filling base metal. The IC is considered a discontinuity, not
of the weld root, Fig. 16-49. a defect, if any area exceeds the radiographic image
The acceptance criterion density of the thinnest adjacent base metal, but meets
for IP is an individual IP the following criteria: pipe outside diameter 238
No high-low
at root.
Note the
length 1 inch. If the aggre- inch, IC dimension 14 inch, and for any continu-
filling at root. gate IP length in any contin- ous 12-inch length of weld or the total weld length,
One or both bevels may be uous 12-inch length of weld whichever is less, the aggregate dimension of sepa-
inadequately filled at inside is 1 inch and the aggregate rate IC is 12 inch.
IP length is 8 percent of the Incomplete fusion (IF). Incomplete fusion is the lack
Fig. 16-49 Incomplete weld length in any weld less of fusion at the root of the joint or at the top of the
joint penetration of the weld than 12 inches in length, the joint between the weld metal and the base metal,
groove. IP is considered a disconti- Fig. 16-52. The acceptance criterion for IF is length
nuity, not a defect. 1 inch. The IF is considered a discontinuity, not a
Incomplete joint penetra- defect, if its aggregate length in any continuous
tion (IPD) due to a high- 12-inch length of weld is 1 inch or the aggregate
low condition. High-low length is 8 percent of the weld length in any weld
Note high- is defined as a condition less than 12 inches in length.
low at root. in which the pipe and/or Excessive melt-through or burn-through (BT). Ex-
Note incomplete
filling at root on fitting surfaces are mis- cessive BT is a portion of the root bead where exces-
one side only. aligned, Fig. 16-50A. The sive penetration has caused the weld pool to be blown
A weld in a high-low mis- into the pipe, Fig. 16-16, page 473. The acceptance
alignment is acceptable criteria for BT on pipe 238-inch outside diameter
when the length of IPD and BT dimension is 14 inch. The BT is considered a
2 inches or the aggre- discontinuity, not a defect, if the aggregate dimension
gate length of IPD is any of separate BT is 12 inch for any continuous 12-inch
continuous 12-inch length length of weld or the total weld length, whichever
Both sides completely
of weld 3 inches. This isless.
tied-in by weld metal. amount of IPD would be Incomplete fusion due to cold lap (IFD). Incomplete
B considered a discontinuity, fusion due to cold lap oc-
not a defect. It is permis- curs between two adjacent
Fig. 16-50 Incomplete sible provided that the root weld beads or between a
joint penetration due to high- of the adjacent pipe and/or weld bead and the base
low pipe positions. fitting joints is completely metal, Fig. 16-53. The
fused by weld metal, Fig. acceptance criterion for Note absence of bond and
16-50B. IFD is a length 2 inches. that discontinuity is surface
Internal concavity If the aggregate length
(IC). This applies to a of IFD in any continuous Fig. 16-52 Incomplete
bead that is properly fused 12-inch length of weld is fusion at the root of the bead
to and completely pen- 2 inches or the aggregate and the face of the weld.
Root bead fused to both inside
surfaces but center of root etrates the pipe wall thick- length of IFD is 8 per-
pass is slightly below inside ness along both sides of cent of the weld length, the
surface of pipe. Cold lap between
the bevel, but the center IFD is considered a dis- adjacent beads.
Fig. 16-51 Incomplete of the bead lacks buildup continuity, not a defect.
joint penetration due to inter- and is somewhat below Slag inclusion (SI). A slag
nal concavity. the inside surface of the inclusion is a nonmetallic
pipe wall, Fig.1651. solid entrapped in the weld
The magnitude of the IC is measured by the perpen- metal or between the weld Cold lap between weld
bead and base metal.
dicular distance between an axial extension of the metal and the pipe metal.
Note: Cold lap is not surface
internal pipe wall surface and the lowest point on Slag inclusions are further connected.
the weld bead profile. The acceptance criterion for subdivided based on the
IC is any length as long as the radiographic image location and extent of the Fig. 16-53 Incomplete
density does not exceed that of the thinnest adjacent inclusion. Elongated slag fusion due to cold lap.

496Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)
inclusions (ESIs) are continuous or broken slag lines of the molten pool and escape. Porosity is generally
or wagon tracks that are usually located at the fu- spherical but may be elongated or irregular in shape,
sion zone. Isolated slag inclusions (ISIs) are irregularly such as piping (wormhole) porosity. See Table 16-9
shaped and may be located anywhere in the weld. For for the acceptance criteria for porosity.
evaluation purposes the size of a radiographic indica- Cracks. Cracks shall be acceptable when the follow-
tion of slag is considered its length and is the maxi- ing conditions exist. They are shallow crater cracks
mum dimension of the slag. The acceptance criteria or star cracks and are 532 inch. These shallow crater
for an SI on pipe 238 inch is 2 inches in length. If cracks or star cracks are formed in the crater or stop-
parallel ESI indications are separated by approximately ping point of a weld by the weld metal contracting
the width of the root bead, wagon tracks shall be con- during solidifications.
sidered as a single indication. If they are >132 inch Undercut. Undercut is a groove melted into the base
wide, they are considered separate indications. All the metal adjacent to the toe or root of the weld and
following are considered discontinuities, not defects: left unfilled by weld metal. Undercut adjacent to
(1) The aggregate length of ESI indications in any the cover-pass EU or root-pass IU is acceptable if
continuous 12-inch length of weld is 2 inches. the aggregate length of the EU and IV in any com-
(2) The width of an ESI is 116 inch. (3) The aggregate bination, in any continuous 12-inch length of weld,
length of ISI indications in any continuous 12-inch is 2 inches, or if the aggregate length of EV and
length of weld exceeds 12 inch. (4) The width of ISI IV indications, in any combination, is 16 of the weld
is 18 inch if 4 ISI indications are present in any length. When visual testing (VT) with mechanical
continuous 12-inch length of weld. (5) The aggregate measuring devices, the depth shall not exceed that
length of ESI and ISI indications exceeds 8 percent given in Table 16-10 (p. 498).
of the weld length. For pipe with an outside diameter Accumulation or discontinuities. Excluding incom-
<238 inch, the following acceptance criteria apply for plete penetration due to high-low and undercutting,
SIs. The ESI indication is three times the thinner any accumulation of discontinuities (AD) is accept-
of the nominal wall thickness joined. If parallel ESI able if the following conditions exist: The aggregate
indications are separated by approximately the width length of indications in any continuous 12-inch
of the root bead, wagon tracks shall be considered as length of weld is 2 inches or if the a ggregate length
a single indication. If an ESI indication is >132 inch of indications are 8 percent of the weld length.
wide, it is considered a separate indication. All the
following are considered discontinuities, not defects: It must be understood that these acceptance criteria have
(1) The width of an ESI indication is 116 inch. (2) The been developed over many years of experience and that
aggregate length of an ISI indication is two times pipe joints being welded in accordance with API Standard
the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined and 1104 are fit for purpose using this criteria. As a student
the width is one-half the thinner of the nominal wall you must understand you are practicing and being trained
thicknesses joined. The aggregate length of an ESI or in ideal conditions, as compared to production pipe welds
ISI indication is 8 percent of the weld length. on a cross-country pipeline or a turn around at a refinery.
Porosity. Porosity is gas trapped by solidifying weld Your instructor will require you to strive for perfection
metal before the gas has a chance to rise to the surface so that you will have the necessary skills and knowledge

Table 16-9 Acceptance Criteria for Porosity According to API Standard 1104

Diameter of Aggregate Length in

Type of Porosity Size of Pore Length Cluster Area Distribution 12 in. of Weld
Individual scattered (P) 18 in. or 25% of NA NA Less than concentration NA
wall thickness specified in standard
Cluster porosity (CP) 116 in. NA 12 in. NA 12 in.
final pass only. All
other passes see (P)
Hollow bead (HB) NA in. NA 14 in. in length 2 in. or 8%
separated by 2 in. weld length

NA = not acceptable.

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16497
Table 16-10 Maximum Dimensions of Undercutting According to API Standard 1104

Depth Length
> 32 in. or >12.5% of pipe wall thickness, whichever is
>164 in. or >6% to 12.5% of pipe wall thickness, 2 in. in a continuous 12-in. weld length or one-sixth the weld length,
whichever is smaller whichever is smaller
>164 in. or 6% of pipe wall thickness, whichever is Acceptable regardless of length

NA = not acceptable.

to function on the job. When welding in ideal conditions, 37 1/2

you should be able to eliminate nearly all the discontinui-
2 1/2 2 1/2
ties that have been described.

Practice Jobs
T 3/16 R T
Instructions for Completing
Practice Jobs
In practicing the jobs presented in the Job Outline,
Table 16-11 (pp. 519520), follow the same general proce- 1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16
dures presented in Chapters 13 through 15. For example,
 he recommended practice for the detail of welding bevel is as follows:
the welding procedures used in the practice Job 16-J2 are For wall thicknesses 316" to 34" inclusive, 3712 212, straight bevel;
essentially the same as those used in practice Job 14-J36. root face 116" 132".
The Job Outline lists the jobs in the previous chapters For wall thicknesses greater than 34", 20 212, J-bevel, 316" radius;
that give the techniques to be followed in completing the root face 116" 132".
Welding ends having thicknesses less than 316" are prepared with a slight
jobs in this chapter. Review the job drawing, the General chamfer or square in accordance with manufacturers practice.
Job Information, and the Welding Technique in the job to
which the Job Outline refers you. Then study the informa- Fig. 16-54 Recommended bevel sizes for pipe joints. (Left)
tion on the pages in this chapter to which the Job Outline Recommended standard J-bevel of welding ends for thickness (T)
refers you. greater than 34". (Right) Recommended standard straight bevel of
welding ends for thickness (T) 316" to 34" inclusive.
The sequence followed in completing the basic op-
erations for the jobs in the Course Outline should be as

Joint Preparation 2. Bevel the pipe by hand, machine, or machine oxy-

acetylene cutting. Be careful to leave the inside
The preparation of the pipe to be welded should be done
edge of the pipe intact so that it serves as a point of
so as to conform as nearly as possible to the specifica-
contact in preserving proper alignment of the joint
tions as shown in Table 16-3, p. 478, and Fig.16-54. Poor
when it is set up. Make sure that the bevel angle
beveling and poor preparation and setup of the parts to
conforms to the specifications. An insufficient angle
be welded are responsible for many weld failures. A joint
of bevel will make it very difficult to secure the
properly prepared is insurance against failure. Narrow
proper root penetration and fusion.
groove butt joints are becoming more popular on heavy
3. Clean the bevel face and the pipe surface for at
wall pipe when automatic welding equipment is being
least 1 inch from the edge of the welding groove
used. The groove angle of these narrow groove butt joints
to remove rust, scale, paint, oil, and grease. Grind
can be 10. This greatly reduces the volume of weld metal
flame-cut surfaces smooth enough to remove all
traces of scale and any cutting i rregularities. Sur-
1. Refer to Table 16-3, page 478, for the specifica- face finishing may be done with a file, scraper,
tions that refer to the joint and position being emery cloth, chipper, power grinder, or sandblasting
practiced. equipment.

498Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)
Setting Up and Tacking Vertical-up welding uses lower current and slower
Tack welding should be done with great care and preci- travel speed to produce a joint with fewer but heavier
sion. The tacks must hold the joint in proper alignment and beads. Since there are fewer beads to clean, cleaning time
keep distortion at a minimum. If improperly applied, tack is greatly reduced, giving the vertical-up method a speed
welds contribute to weld failure. There must be enough advantage on heavy wall pipe. The slower travel speed
tack welds of the proper size to hold the pipe in place. of vertical-up welding and the highly liquid pool melts
out gas holes more effectively than vertical-down weld-
1. Refer to Figs. 16-19 through 16-25 to see how the ing. Welds made by this method are better able to meet
various joints are clamped and prepared for tacking. radiographic requirements for the high pressure, high

2. Make sure that the proper root opening between the temperature piping found in refineries and power plants.
pipe ends has been set up. This is very important Vertical-up welding requires a larger root spacing and
because an opening that is too small frequently bevel angle than vertical-down. Thus more electrode is
causes weld failure on the root- and side-bend tests. required per joint.
The root opening should be 332 to 18 inch. The sim- Compare the specifications given in Figs. 16-55 and
plest way to secure and maintain an accurate root 16-56. The vertical-down method requires 55 to 80 more
opening is to use a 18-inch gas welding wire of the amperes than the v ertical-up method. Although the number
proper size. By crossing the wire, you have accurate of passes is the same, larger electrode sizes are specified
spacing at four points along the circumference of for vertical-down. The bevel angle is 15 less for vertical-
the joint if you have maintained a square root face down, and the root opening is 116inch less. Thus the beads
around the pipe. are smaller for welds of equal size, and less filler metal
3. Tack the joint. On piping up to and including is needed. For the joint de-
4inches in diameter, make two 12-inch long tacks sign shown, the travel speed 345 30
on opposite sides of the joint. On larger pipe sizes, for vertical-down is more than
make tack welds at 4- to 6-inch intervals around twice that for vertical-up. T
the circumference of the pipe. In no case should
tack welds be longer than 1inch. They should pen- Number of Passes The num- 21

etrate the joint and fuse through the full thickness ber of passes required for Pass Electrode Amps
of the root face. Make sure that the faces of the welding various joints in fer- 5/32
1 150175
welds are flat. rous piping varies with the 2 5/32 170200
4. Clean the tack welds thoroughly and remove any following factors: 3 3/16 170205
4 3/16 170205
high spots or crater cracks by grinding. Feather the 5 3/16 170205
tack weld out. Diameter and wall thick-
ness of the pipe
Joint design Fig. 16-55 Vertical-down
Welding Technique Position of welding
welding technique.
It is well at this point to review a few of the impor- Size and type of electrode 37 1/2
tant welding techniques that you will need to practice Direction of travel 4 5
if you are going to master the welding of pipe in all Adjustment of the welding
positions. current employed T

Direction of TravelTwo methods of welding used are When welding in the rolled 1/8
vertical-down travel and vertical-up travel. Vertical-down (1G) and fixed horizontal po- 3 2 1
welding requires higher welding current and faster travel sitions (5G), a generally ac- Pass Electrode Amps
speeds than vertical-up so that the joint is made with sev- cepted technique is to deposit 1 1/8 E6010 85/95

eral smaller beads. Root openings are less than those re- one layer for each 18 inch of 2 5/32 E6010
1/8 E7018
quired for vertical-up welding, or there may be no root pipe wall thickness. The size 3 5/32 E6010 115/125
openings at all. The bevel angle of the joint is also less of electrodes may vary from 1/8 E7018 90150
than in vertical-up. The vertical-down method is faster 1
8 to 532 inch in diameter for 4 5/32 E6010 115/125
1/8 E7018 90150
and more economical on pipe under 12 inch in wall thick- the root pass. The electrode 5/32 E6010 115/125
ness. Since most cross-country pipelines have walls less for the intermediate and final 1/8 E7018 90150
than 12 inch thick, they are usually welded by this method. passes should have a diam-
The welds are of excellent quality and able to meet ordi- eter of 532 inch. For pipeline Fig. 16-56 Vertical-up
nary test requirements. welding using the downhill welding technique.

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16499
method and occasionally for other piping systems, elec- Electrode Aimed at Center of Pipe
trodes with diameters of 316 or even 14 inch are used for the
intermediate and final passes. In welding medium carbon
and alloy steels, the number of layers is increased by the
use of smaller electrodes and thinner passes. This reduces
the heat concentration and ensures complete grain refine-
ment of the weld metal.
When the pipe is in the fixed vertical position and
welding is on a horizontal plane (3G), the weld metal is
deposited in series of overlapping stringer beads for the
intermediate and final passes. Occasionally, a weave bead
is used for the final pass. Few welders are able to master
this technique, however, and its use is discouraged. The
root pass is made with 18- or 532-inch electrodes. The inter-
mediate and cover passes may be made with 532- and even
16-inch electrodes.

Control of the Arc Before beginning to weld, it is essen-

tial to establish a good work connection and make sure
that both cable connections to the machine are tight. The
work connection should be attached close to the pipe joint
being welded. Current control is extremely important in
welding the root pass. A high current setting causes ex-
cessive penetration on the inside of the pipe and makes
control of the molten weld pool impossible. If the current
setting is too low, there is little penetration and fusion at Fig. 16-57 Angle of the electrode as the welder follows the con-
the root. tour of the pipe.
You will recall that the length of the arc determines
the voltage across the arc. The voltage and the amperage reduce the erratic effects of arc blow by varying the angle
provide the heat to melt the electrode and the base metal of the electrode to meet the conditions of welding.
to form the weld pool. High voltage caused by a long arc Refer to Figs. 15-49 through 15-67, pages 460 to 464,
gap provides a wide weld bead with little directional con- which show properly made welds.
trol and excessive weld spatter. Low voltage caused by a
short arc length causes the bead to pile up in the groove Beading and Making a Butt Joint V Groove Weld on
with little fusion and penetration. Low voltage also causes Pipe Axis in the Rolled Horizontal Position (1G): Jobs
an uneven burnoff rate of the electrode coating so that the 16-J1 and J2 Before proceeding with jobs 16-J1 and J2,
slag covers the weld bead inadequately. Poor slag cover- review the welding procedures and photographs for Jobs
age causes porosity in the weld metal. 13-J4 and J5 (pp. 345347) and 14-J33 (p. 403). Also study
The speed of travel is another important element in the Fig. 16-56.
formation of the weld bead that is deposited. A high speed Beading practice around the outside of the pipe in Job
tends to cause undercutting and a high, narrow bead. Un- 16-J1 is for the purpose of getting used to the changing
dercutting produces a stress concentration at the point position of the electrode holder while following the con-
of undercut and can result in joint failure. A low speed tour around the pipe. This is
causes too much metal to pile up. This causes poor fu- an essential technique in pipe 35
sion along each edge of the weld and seriously affects the welding. The practice should
soundness of the weld. be both downhill and uphill, .375
and both stringer and weaved
Electrode Angle The angle of the electrode while weld- beads should be deposited.
ing has a significant effect on the final weld. The angle is For the V groove weld, 1/8 1/16
especially critical in pipe welding since it changes con- prepare the pipe for welding
stantly as the weld progresses around the pipe, Fig. 16-57. as shown in Fig. 16-58. Clean, Fig. 16-58 Butt joint
The welder can maintain control of the weld pool and set up, and tack the pieces preparation.

500Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)