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PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuit
PostedbySwagatamMajumdarat10:18AM

Thissimple,
enhanced,5V
zerodrop
PWMsolar
battery
chargercircuit
canbeused
inconjunction
ElectronicCircuit
withanysolar
Categories
panelfor 3phase(13)
charging AlarmCircuits(37)
cellphonesor Appliances(16)

cellphone Arduino(25)

batteriesinmultiplenumbersquickly,basicallythecircuitis AudioProjects(49)

capableofcharginganybatterywhetherLiionorLeadacid Automation(6)
Ballast(5)
whichmaybewithinthe5Vrange.
BatteryCharger(91)
BicycleProjects(6)
Bluetooth(4)
ThedesignisbasedonaSMPSbuckconvertertopologyusing
Buck/Boost(20)
theICTL494(IhavebecomeabigfanofthisIC).Thanksto CarElectronics(49)
"TexasInstruments"forprovidingthiswonderfulICtous. CellPhoneProjects(22)
Chaser/Flasher(17)
Youmaywanttolearnmoreaboutthischipfromthispost ChristmasProjects(11)

whichexplainshowtomakeaPWMinverterusingICTL494 Components(13)
Datasheets(37)

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EmergencyLight(17)
FenceCharger(8)
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LEDDriver(91)
LM317(17)
LM338(10)
LM567(4)
Medical(6)

Weknowthata5Vsolarchargercircuitcanbeeasilybuilt Meters(28)

usinglinearICssuchasLM317orLM338,youcanfindmore Microcontrollers(20)
MotorCircuits(39)
infoonthisbyreadingthefollowingarticles:
MotorcycleProjects(19)
opamp(31)
Simplesolarchargercircuit
Pets(1)
PIR(8)
Simplecurrentcontrolledchargercircuit
PowerSupply(28)
ProtectionCircuits(14)
Howeverthebiggestdrawbackwiththeselinearchargersisthe PWM(83)
emissionofheatthroughtheirbodyorthroughcasedissipation, RaspberryPi(1)
whichresultsinwastageofpreciouspower.Duetothisissue RelayChangeovers(26)

theseICareunabletoproduceazerodropvoltageoutputfor RemoteControls(36)

theloadandalwaysrequireatleast3Vhigherinputsthanthe Robotics(1)
SeaEnergy(2)
specifiedoutputs.
smps(20)
SolarProjects(70)
Thecircuitofthe5Vchargerexplainedhereiscompletelyfree
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fromallthesehassles,let'slearnhowanefficientworkingis SportProjects(6)

achievedfromtheproposedcircuit. SurgeSuppressors(15)
TemperatureController(12)
Thermostat(9)
Referringtotheabove5VPWMsolarbatterychargercircuit,
TimerProjects(47)
theICTL494formstheheartoftheentireapplication.
TL494(1)
TransformerlessPower
TheICisaspecializedPWMprocessorIC,whichisusedhere Supply(22)
forcontrollingabuckconverterstage,responsiblefor TransmitterCircuits(18)

convertingthehighinputvoltageintoapreferredlowerlevel TriacControl(7)

output. Tubelight(15)
Tutorial(90)
TV(2)
Theinputtothecircuitcanbeanywherebetween10and40V,
UPS(18)
whichbecomestheidealrangeforthesolarpanels.
USB(10)
VoltageDoubler(4)
ThekeyfeaturesoftheICincludes:
VoltageStabilizers(15)
WaterSensors(41)
PrecisePWMoutputwhichisadjustableasperuser Windmill(3)
specification.

InordertogenerateaccuratePWMs,theICincludesaprecise
5Vreferencemadebyusingbandgapconceptwhichmakesit
thermallyimmune.This5Vreferencewhichisachievedat
pin#14oftheICbecomesthebasevoltageforallthecrucial
triggersinvolvedwithintheICandresponsibleforthePWM
processing.

TheICconsistsofapairofoutputswhichcanbeeither
configuredtooscillatealternatelyinatotempoleconfiguration,
orbothatatimelikeasingleendedoscillatingoutput.Thefirst
optionbecomessuitableforpushpulltypeofapplicationssuch
asininvertersetc.

Howeverforthepresentapplicationasingleendedoscillating
outputbecomesmorefavorableandthisisachievedby
groundingpin#13oftheIC,alternativelyforachievingapush
pulloutputpin#13couldbehookedupwithpin#14,wehave
discussedthisinourpreviousarticlealready.

TheoutputsoftheIChasaveryusefulandaninterestingset
http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 3/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

upinternally.Theoutputsareterminatedviatwotransistors
insidetheIC.Thesetransistorsarearrangedwithanopen
emitter/collectoracrossthepin9/10andpins8/11respectively.

Forapplicationswhichrequireapositiveoutput,theemitters
canbeusedastheoutputs,whichareavailablefrompins9/10.
ForsuchapplicationsnormallyanNPNBJToranNmosfet
wouldbeconfiguredexternallyforacceptingthepositive
frequencyacrossthepin9/10oftheIC.

InthepresentdesignsinceaPNPisusedwiththeICoutputs,
anegativesinkingvoltagebecomestherightchoice,and
thereforeinsteadofpin9/10,wehavelinkedpin8/11withthe
outputstageconsistingofthePNP/NPNhybridstage.These
outputsprovidesufficientsinkingcurrentforpoweringthe
outputstageandfordrivingthehighcurrentbuckconverter
configuration.

PWMControl

ThePWMimplementation,whichbecomesthecrucialaspect
forthecircuitisachievedbyfeedingasamplefeedbacksignal
totheinternalerroramplifieroftheICthroughitsnoninverting
inputpin#1.

ThisPWMinputcanbeseenhookedupwiththeoutputfrom
thebuckconverterviathepotentialdividerR8/R9,andthis
feedbackloopinputstherequireddatatotheICsothattheIC
isabletogeneratecontrolledPWMsacrosstheoutputsinorder
tokeeptheoutputvoltageconsistentlyat5V.

Otheroutputvoltagecanbefixedbysimplyalteringthevalues
ofR8/R9asperonesownapplicationneeds.

CurrentControl

TheIChastwoerroramplifierssetinternallyforcontrollingthe
PWMinresponsetoexternalfeedbacksignals.Oneoftheerror
http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 4/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

ampisusedforcontrollingthe5Voutputsasdiscussedabove,
theseconderrorampisemployedforcontrollingtheoutput
current.

R13formsthecurrentsensingresistor,thepotentialdeveloped
acrossitisfedtooneofinputspin#16oftheseconderroramp
whichiscomparedbythereferenceatpin#15setontheother
inputoftheopamp.

Intheproposeddesignitissetat10ampthroughR1/R2,
meaningincasetheoutputcurrenttendstoincreaseabove
10amps,thepin16canbeexpectedtogohigherthanthe
referencepin15initiatingtherequiredPWMcontractionuntilthe
currentisrestrictedbacktothespecifiedlevels.

BuckPowerConverter

Thepowerstageshowninthedesignisastandardpowerbuck
converterstage,usingahybridDarlingtonpairtransistors
NTE153/NTE331.

ThishybridDarlingtonstagerespondstothePWMcontrolled
frequencyfrompin8/11oftheICandoperatethebuck
converterstageconsistingofahighcurrentinductorandahigh
speedswitchingdiodeNTE6013.

Theabovestageproducesaprecise5voutputensuring
minimumdissipationandaprefectzerodropoutput.

Thecoilortheinductorcanbewoundoveranyferritecore
usingathreeparallelstrandsofsuperenameledcopperwire
eachwithadiameterof1mm,theinductancevaluecanbe
anywherenear140uHfortheproposeddesign.

Thusthis5VPWMsolarbatterychargercircuitcanbe
consideredasanidealandextremelyefficientsolarcharger
circuitforalltypesofsolarbatterychargingapplications.

http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 5/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

Labels:BatteryCharger,PWM,SolarProjects

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20COMMENTS:

PRITAMBHOWMIK May12,2015at1:04PM

Iamgonnamakesolarprojects.Butneverboughta
solarpanel.Howmuchinrsthesolarpanelof12v

Reply

Replies

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR May12,2015at1:26PM

you can easily find out the specs and the


rates from any online source, there are
plenty of them on the web....the cost will
dependontheV/Ispecificationsoftheunit.

http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 7/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

Reply

RBTTECHDEPOT January25,2016at8:25PM

Whataboutfor12Vbattery?

Reply

Replies

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR

January26,2016at7:06PM
adjustR8

RBTTECHDEPOT February2,2016at12:34PM

canyousuggestanearestvalueforR8?

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR

February2,2016at6:42PM
youwillhavetoverifyit
practically, you may replace it with a 10k
presetandsetitaccordingly.

RBTTECHDEPOT February4,2016at7:34PM

okthankyou..

Reply

http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 8/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

SHAILESHLOKHANDE January31,2016at11:50PM

SirIwanttoknowsolarpanelspecificationrequired
forchargingmobilebattery

Reply

Replies

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR

February1,2016at4:58PM
you can try a 8V,
500mA panel, but make sure to a voltage
regulatorwithit

Reply

BOATENGDANSOJOSEPH March9,2016at9:00PM

HelloSirpls.WhichoftheresistorsistheR8,Rtor
Ref.Thanks

Reply

Replies

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR

March10,2016at4:29PM
Pleaseclickthediagram
to enlarge, and you will be able to locate
themeasily

Reply

http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 9/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

BEACONLIGHT March16,2016at8:52PM

hello sir , you have mentioned "to pin 14" at two


points in cct diagram.....will u please define ,is the
resistor configuration at pin 2,3&4 is connected to
PIN14orwhat??

SameisthecasewithPIN1??

waitingforyourresponse.........

Reply

Replies

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR

March17,2016at9:48AM
I'll correct the diagram
andpostitsoon,thanks!

BEACONLIGHT March17,2016at1:05PM

Ok Sir thanks a lot, but i have assembled


almost all components......your guidance
requiredinthisregard.....asigotconfused
atthementionedtwopoints....

|| I have used TIP35A NPN and TIP36B


PNP in place of NTE331&NTE153......is
thatok??

||| If i skip 12Amp diode at output ,my


required O/P is somewhere around
4Amp.....Itwillworkforme???

http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 10/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR

March18,2016at9:07AM
Instead of TIP36, I
would recommend BD140 or 2N2907 or
anyothersimilarsmallerBJT.

for 4amp requirement can replace the


NTE6013 with a 6 amp fast recovery
diode....the diode is a part of the buck
converterandcannotberemoved.

BEACONLIGHT March19,2016at1:31AM

thanks sir,i got it ......diode is necessary


partofbuckconverter......

Reply

BEACONLIGHT March23,2016at11:40PM

HelloSir,
TheCctwasworkingfine

Iuseda10KvariableatR8......and9.1KatR2
O/Pslidingbetweenzeroandinputvoltage(19V).
ItchargedfourLiIoncells.......atconstantvoltage
of14.8V.

Suddenly ,diode got short and Q2 heated up..i


replaced SB560 diode with YG911S3R but variable
stoppedworkingandO/PisvaryingB/W19.2Vand
18.1V.

http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 11/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

Anysuggestionplz..transistorsarefineTL494is
OK

Reply

Replies

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR

March24,2016at10:57AM
Hellobeaconlight,

check Q2 also, and if possible replace it


withanewone.

a diode could become faulty if its current


exceeds the safe operating limits....or
probablyifthedeviceisaduplicatequality.

also make sure you have selected R13


correctly for proper current control
functioning

Reply

ANONYMOUS May22,2016at3:00PM

HelloSir,

I am trying to implement this cct in power


bank....input is from dell laptop charger19.5V,
4.62A...cells from old laptop battery has been used
aspowersourceformobilebattery......

Problem1:
Cells I am using as power source are not
http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 12/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

working at all.....I tried four cells in series at 14.1


constant charging voltage.....but cells dont get
charged...afteranhourtwoofthefourcellsshowing
1.5Vor.9V.....Itdamagedalmost15cells.
Before charging each cells showing exactly 3.2 to
3.5V.
Helprequired:::pleasesuggestappropriatebatteries
forthispurpose.

Problem:2
Please suggest best possible CCT for charging
mobilebatteryfromthebatterysource.
i need such type of cct which does not dissipate
heat....cctotherthan7805,LM338,317......meansit
wouldbeefficientandwillnotwasteenergyasheat.

Is it possible to get two out puts from TL494....we


givebackbatteryO/PtoTL494andachieveanother
O/Pof5V/1A.????

Problem:3
HowdoicheckAmpereatO/Pofthiscct......???

Waitingforyourkindsuggestion.

Reply

Replies

SWAGATAMMAJUMDAR May22,2016at8:02PM

Hello,

did you confirm the working of the circuit


before using it with the battery? Any new
circuit needs to be first confirmed with its
voltage and current parameters before
implementingitfortheactualjob.

http://www.homemadecircuits.com/2015/05/5vpwmsolarbatterychargercircuit.html 13/17
8/14/2016 PWMSolarBatteryChargerCircuitElectronicCircuitProjects

This is a buck converter circuit with many


crucial parameters which needs to be first
verified using a multimeter and a dummy
load.

If you are having difficulty optimizing the


above design you can try a simple IC 555
based design as shown in the following
article.trythesecondbuckcircuit:

http://www.homemade
circuits.com/2015/10/calculatinginductor
valueinsmps.html

youwillneedtooptimizethepotsperfectly
inordertogettheexpectedresults

Reply

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