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UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64

01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Mechanical Engineering Laboratory 2
Name of Student : Refuerzo, Cedie L.__________________________________________
Student Number : 14-0635-148________________________________________________
Case No./ Title : _____________________________________________________________
Program, Year, and Section : BS Mechanical Eengineering__________________________
Instructor : Lomotan, Robert James______________________________

Highly Below Satisfactory


Not Score
Criteria Exceptional (5)
Satisfactory (4)
Satisfactory (3)
(2)
Satisfactory
(1)
CONTENT:
Set up and Set-up of
Set-up of
All equipment Set-up of equipment is equipment is not
equipment care equipment is
accurately placed generally workable accurate, help is
All equipment generally accurate
(CO 1, 3, 4) All necessary with several details required with
accurately placed with 1 or 2 small
supplies on hand that need refinement several major
All necessary details that need
Very neat and Some necessary details
supplies on hand refinement
organized supplies have to be Many necessary
All necessary
searched out supplies have to
supplies on hand
be searches out
Complete & well-
written; provides
Data Well-written and The case analysis The engineering
concise, specific,
provides concise, provides concise, There is engineering priniciples needs
processing and and measurable
specific, and specific, and priniciples, but still major
engineering
analysis measurable, measurable, missing some major information
priniciples.
engineering engineering points. and/or is
(CO 1, 2) Evidences of
priniciples. principles. incorrect.
Patent search was
provided.
Effectively
presents how the
objectives were
Conclusion formulated and
attained & the
(CO 5) purpose of the
Objectives were
project. Effectively Objectives were
not attained.
Convincingly presents how the formulated well Objectives were poorly
Conclusions were
describes what has objectives were but the formulated, and
not well written.
been learned by formulated and justifications if conclusions written did
Learnings from
doing the project. attained, and the they have been not correspond
the activity were
Evidences of purpose of the attained were not accordingly.
not documented
successful and project. written profoundly.
as well.
actual
implementation,
sustainable
development of
the project was
provided.

FORM: (How the substance is presented)


The report Report was
The report presents verbal Sufficient findings unclear and not
CLARITY OF presents verbal findings clearly. are well-written
Insufficient/unsupportin
directing to the
WRITING findings clearly Clear and straight although details main point of the
g explanations were
and with sufficient to the point, supporting the activity. The
included. Not written in
(CO 5) support. Clear and written in the form results are not
the manner required.
manner of writing
straight to the required existent. Written in was not at all
point, (engineering- the form required. related to the
lettering) form required.
VISUAL Visuals were
Visuals were
The visual No visuals
APPEARANCE & present, but
clearly and Visuals were representations were (graphs, figures,
explanations to
FORMATTING accurately clearly presented. lacking with necessary tables, etc.) were
support were
presented. details. presented.
(CO 5) missing.

GRAMMATICAL All grammar and Grammar and Grammar was There were some Grammar needs
spelling are correct spelling are correct, but the errors in the grammar improvement,
CORRECTNESS and very well- correct. report has some and spelling of the inappropriate
OF SENTENCES written. typographical submitted report. terms/words
errors. were used, and

Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(CO 5) there were also
spelling errors.

TOTAL SCORE

Comment/s:

___________________________ __________________
Name of Panel Member Date

ACTIVITY NO.1
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

OBJECTIVES:
1.) To differentiate between Internal Combustion Engine and External Combustion Engine.
2.) To define the types of Internal Combustion Engine and its principle.
3.) To identify the parts and functions of an Internal Combustion Engine.
Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

REQUIRED:
1.) Illustrate the parts of an Spark Ignition Engine.
2.) Provide the function of the parts of an Spark Ignition Engine.
3.) Give the operation principle of the Spark Ignition Engine.
4.) Illustrate the parts of a Compression Ignition Engine.
5.) Provide the function of the parts of an Compression Ignition Engine.
6.) Give the operation principle of the Compression Ignition Engine.
7.) Give an example and illustration of an External Combustion Engine.

THEORY:
A reciprocating internal combustion engine consists primarily of a cylinder, a piston, and a crank.
The fuel is burned within the gasoline/diesel produce of combustion. Rotary motion is obtained by means of
a crank.

QUESTIONS:
1.) How does a 2-stroke engine work?
2.) How does a 4-stroke engine work?
3.) What is the difference between a carburetor and an electronic fuel injector?
4.) What is mechanical efficiency?
5.) What is brake thermal efficiency?
6.) What is indicated thermal efficiency?
7.) What is brake engine efficiency?
8.) What is indicated engine efficiency?
9.) A six-cylinder automotive engine with 9 x 9 cm bore and stroke has a brake fuel consumption of 8.5
x 10-5 kg/kW-s at 300 RPM. Brake work = 86 kW, indicated work = 105 kW. The thermal efficiency
of the ideal cycle is 47% and the fuel has heating value of 44,186 kJ/kg. Determine the following:
a. brake thermal efficiency
b. indicated thermal efficiency
c. brake engine efficiency
d. indicated engine efficiency
e. brake mean effective pressure
f. indicated mean effective pressure

10.) A 8-cylinder, 3.81 x 3.63 inch automotive engine running at 4600 RPM develops 250 Bhp.
Data are:
Compression ratio = 8.5
Air-fuel ratio = 12.6

Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Fuel consumption = 0.47 lb/Bhp-hour with a lower heating value of
18000Btu/lb
Dynamometer brake arm length = 21 inch
Barometer = 29.75 in Hg
Room temperature =85 F

From these data calculate:


a. brake mean effective pressure
b. brake thermal efficiency
c. brake torque
d. the volumetric efficiency
e. the brake engine efficiency based on the hot at standard with k=1.34

Answer Sheet:
I. Required:
1. Illustrate the parts of an Spark Ignition Engine.

Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

2. Provide the function of the parts of an Spark Ignition Engine.


Cylinder block
Cylinder is the main body of IC engine. Cylinder is a part in which the intake of fuel, compression of
fuel and burning of fuel take place. The main function of cylinder is to guide the piston. It is in direct
contact with the products of combustion so it must be cooled. For cooling of cylinder a water jacket (for
liquid cooling used in most of cars) or fin (for air cooling used in most of bikes) are situated at the outer side
of cylinder. At the upper end of cylinder, cylinder head and at the bottom end crank case is bolted. The
upper side of cylinder is consists of a combustion chamber where fuel burns. To handle all this pressure and
temperature generated by combustion of fuel, cylinder material should have high compressive strength.

Cylinder head
The top end of cylinder is closed by means of removable cylinder head. There are two holes or ports
at the cylinder head, one for intake of fuel and other for exhaust. Both the intake and exhaust ports are
closed by the two valves known as inlet and exhaust valve. The inlet valve, exhaust valve, spark plug,
injector etc. are bolted on the cylinder head. The main function of cylinder head is to seal the cylinder block
and not to permit entry and exit of gases on cover head valve engine.

Piston
A piston is fitted to each cylinder as a face to receive gas pressure and transmit the thrust to the
connecting rod. It is the prime mover in the engine. The main function of piston is to give tight seal to the
cylinder through bore and slide freely inside of cylinder
Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Piston rings
A piston must be a fairly loose fit in the cylinder so it can move freely inside the cylinder. If the
piston is too tight fit, it would expand as it got hot and might stick tight in the cylinder and if it is too loose
it would leaks the vapor pressure. To provide a good sealing fit and less friction resistance between the
piston and cylinder, pistons are equipped with piston rings. These rings are fitted in grooves which have
been cut in the piston. They are split at one end so they can expand or slipped over the end of piston. A
small two stroke engine has two piston rings to provide good sealing but in a four stroke engine has an extra
ring which is known as oil ring.

Connecting rod
Connecting rod connects the piston to crankshaft and transmits the motion and thrust of piston to
crankshaft. It converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion of crankshaft. There are two
end of connecting rod one is known as big end and other as small end. Big end is connected to the
crankshaft and the small end is connected to the piston by use of piston pin.

Crankshaft
The crankshaft of an internal combustion engine receives the efforts or thrust supplied by piston to
the connecting rod and converts the reciprocating motion of piston into rotary motion of crankshaft. The
crankshaft mounts in bearing so it can rotate freely. The shape and size of crankshaft depends on the number
and arrangement of cylinders. It is usually made by steel forging, but some makers use special types of cast-
iron such as spheroidal graphitic or nickel alloy castings which are cheaper to produce and have good
service life.

Engine bearing
Everywhere there is rotary action in the engine, bearings need. Bearings are used to support the
moving parts. The crankshaft is supported by bearing. The connecting rod big end is attached to the crank
pin on the crank of the crankshaft by a bearing. A piston pin at the rod small end is used to attach the rod to
the piston, also rides in bearings. The main function of bearings is to reduce friction between these moving
parts. In an IC engine sliding and rolling types of bearing used. The sliding type bearing which are
sometime called bush is use to attach the connecting rod to the piston and crankshaft. They are split in order
to permit their assembly into the engine. The rolling and ball bearing is used to support crankshaft so it can
rotate freely.
Crankcase
The main body of the engine to which the cylinder are attached and which contains the crankshaft
and crankshaft bearing is called crankcase. It serves as the lubricating system too and sometime it is called
oil sump. All the oil for lubrication is placed in it.

Valves
To control the inlet and exhaust of internal combustion engine, valves are used. The number of
valves in an engine depends on the number of cylinders. Two valves are used for each cylinder one for inlet
Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
of air-fuel mixture inside the cylinder and other for exhaust of combustion gases. The valves are fitted in the
port at the cylinder head by use of strong spring. This spring keep them closed. Both valves usually open
inwards.

Spark plug
It is used in spark ignition engine. The main function of a spark plug is to conduct the high potential
from the ignition system into the combustion chamber to ignite the compressed air fuel mixture. It is fitted
on cylinder head. The spark plug consists of a metal shell having two electrodes which are insulated from
each other with an air gap. When high potential current supply to spark plug it jumping from the supply
electrode and produces the necessary spark.

Manifold
The main function of manifold is to supply the air fuel mixture and collects the exhaust gases
equally form all cylinder. In an internal combustion engine two manifold are used, one for intake and other
for exhaust. They are usually made by aluminum alloy.

Camshaft
Camshaft is used in IC engine to control the opening and closing of valves at proper timing. For
proper engine output inlet valve should open at the end of exhaust stroke and closed at the end of intake
stroke. So to regulate its timing, a cam is use which is oval in shape and it exerts a pressure on the valve to
open and release to close. It is drive by the timing belt which drives by crankshaft. It is placed at the top or
at the bottom of cylinder.

Gudgeon pin or piston pin


These are hardened steel parallel spindles fitted through the piston bosses and the small end bushes
or eyes to allow the connecting rods to swivel. It connects the piston to connecting rod. It is made hollow
for lightness.

Pushrod
Pushrod is used when the camshaft is situated at the bottom end of cylinder. It carries the camshaft
motion to the valves which are situated at the cylinder head.

Flywheel
A flywheel is secured on the crankshaft. The main function of flywheel is to rotate the shaft during
preparatory stroke. It also makes crankshaft rotation more uniform.

3. Give the operation principle of the spark ignition engine.

The air and gas mixture is compressed then ignited with spark.
Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

4. Illustrate the parts of a compression engine.

5. Provide the function of the parts of an Compression Ignition engine

Same with the main parts of a spark ignition engine with the main difference the fuel injector
in a compression engine and spark plug in a spark ignition engine.

Injector
Injector is usually used in compression ignition engine. It sprays the fuel into combustion
chamber at the end of compression stroke. It is fitted on cylinder head.

6. Give the operation principle of the Compression Ignition Engine.

In compression ignition (CI) engines, burning of fuel occurs due to compression of the fuel to very
high pressures. At very high pressures the fuel, i.e. diesel, starts burning automatically without the need of
any external flame.

7. Give an example and illustration of an External Combustion Engine.


An external combustion engine uses a working fluid, either a liquid or a gas or both, that is
heated by a fuel burned outside the engine. The external combustion chamber is filled with a fuel
and air mixture that is ignited to produce a large amount of heat. This heat is then used to heat the
Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
internal working fluid either through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid expands when
heated, acting on the mechanism of the engine, thus producing motion and usable work.

A good example is steam engine.

II. Questions:
1. How does a 2-stroke engine work?

In case of the 2-stroke, the suction and compression strokes occur at the same time. Similarly,
the expansion and exhaust strokes occur at the same time. Power is produced during the
expansion stroke. When two strokes of the piston are completed, one revolution of the engine's
crankshaft is produced.
Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

2. How does a 4-stroke engine work?

In the four-stroke engine the cycle of operations of the engine are completed in four strokes
of the piston inside the cylinder. The four strokes of the 4-stroke engine are: suction of fuel,
compression of fuel, expansion or power stroke, and exhaust stroke. In 4-stroke engines the
power is produced when piston performs expansion stroke. During four strokes of the engine two
revolutions of the engine's crankshaft are produced.

3. What is the difference between a carburetor and an electronic fuel injector?

The difference between the two is that carburetor is purely mechanical and the electronic fuel
injector is electronic. The carburetor is less efficient compared to EFI because the fuel supply is
not consistent. The carburetor is reliable because its easy to fix and low cost compared to the EFI
that if its broken youll have to get your car towed.
4. What is mechanical efficiency?

Mechanical efficiency is the measure of effectiveness of a machine's energy and power that is
input into the device into an output that makes force and movement. Mechanical advantage by
comparing the input and output force you can find the advantage of a machine. Mechanical
advantage= Output force.

5. What is brake thermal efficiency?

Brake Thermal Efficiency is defined as break power of a heat engine as a function of the
thermal input from the fuel. It is used to evaluate how well an engine converts the heat from a
fuel to mechanical energy.

6. What is indicated thermal efficiency?

The ratio between the indicated power output of an engine and the rate of supply of energy in
the steam or fuel.

Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

7. What is brake engine efficiency?

Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is a measure of the fuel efficiency of any prime mover
that burns fuel and produces rotational, or shaft, power. It is typically used for comparing the
efficiency of internal combustion engines with a shaft output. It is the rate of fuel consumption
divided by the power produced.

8. What is indicated engine efficiency?

Indicated Engine Efficiency is the ratio of indicated power to the ideal power.

9. A six-cylinder automotive engine with 9 x 9 cm bore and stroke has a brake fuel consumption of
8.5 x 10-5 kg/kW-s at 300 RPM. Brake work = 86 kW, indicated work = 105 kW. The thermal
efficiency of the ideal cycle is 47% and the fuel has heating value of 44,186 kJ/kg. Determine the
following:
g. brake thermal efficiency
h. indicated thermal efficiency
i. brake engine efficiency
j. indicated engine efficiency
k. brake mean effective pressure
l. indicated mean effective pressure

10. A 8-cylinder, 3.81 x 3.63 inch automotive engine running at 4600 RPM develops 250 Bhp. Data
are:
Compression ratio = 8.5
Air-fuel ratio = 12.6
Fuel consumption = 0.47 lb/Bhp-hour with a lower heating value of
18000Btu/lb
Dynamometer brake arm length = 21 inch
Barometer = 29.75 in Hg
Room temperature =85 F

From these data calculate:


f. brake mean effective pressure
g. brake thermal efficiency
h. brake torque
i. the volumetric efficiency
j. the brake engine efficiency based on the hot at standard with k=1.34
Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean
UPHSD-LP-COE-TFF-64
01-09-2015-00

Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona 3, Las Pias City, Metro Manila 1740, PHILIPPINES
www.perpetualdalta.edu.ph +63(02) 871-06-39

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Date of Revision: Date of Effectivity: Endorsed by: Noted by: Approved by:

January 2017 June 2017 Robert Lomotan Joel R. Palacol Lorena C. Ilagan
Department Chair CQI Officer College Dean