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downtown meaning main city


For the mayor's plan to work, it is crucial that current drivers use the railway system instead. The railway only extends to the city
limits, so most of the driving commuters must live within the city limits for the plan to work. Look for a choice that speaks to this.

Also, eliminate the answers that undermine, rather than support, the mayor's plan.

The mayor's plan to reduce city traffic congestion is to construct a railway commuter system, stretching comprehensively outwards
from the downtown area and ending at the city limits. According to the mayor, construction of the railway system would cost less
than adding new traffic lanes and would reduce the amount of car traffic in the city.

Question
Which of the following, if true, could the mayor present as evidence to support her plan?
Choices
A
The proposed railway will supplant the traffic lanes of several crucial city
highways.

Your answer was incorrect

This is not the credited choice. Since the new railway reduces city highway access, it undermines the mayor's plan to reduce car
traffic.
B
A lot of city traffic congestion is caused by incoming truck shipments from remote locations outside the city.
This is not the credited choice because it undermines the mayor's plan. If a lot of traffic on the city roads is due to trucks from
outside the city, the mayor's plan is likely to reduce city traffic since the trucks won't be using rail.
C
For most city dwellers, the commuter railway fares will be more expensive than the cost of commuting by car.
This is not the credited choice. It undermines the mayor's plan because expensive railway fares will dissuade commuters.
D
The majority of city drivers are commuting from within the city limits.
This is the credited response. If most commuters live within city limits, they will have access to the railway system.
E
A railway system once existed in the city, but was shut down for lack of use.
This is not the the credited choice because it undermines the mayor's plan. If an earlier system wasn't utilized, it's more than likely
that the proposed system will also be underused.

stay away from absolute answers alawys and choose a normal one quiclkly

Argument: Because caffeine, if drunk as coffee, gets partially used up by digestion instead of reaching brain cells, it is less effective
as a stimulant to alertness. Some non-caffeine stimulants can be inhaled, avoiding this problem.

What scientific advance would make caffeine more beneficial as a stimulant to users? Ideally, users want a more effective delivery
than drinking, so look for a choice
Caffeine, such as that in coffee, must still be administered by the relatively cumbersome process of brewing and drinking. If caffeine
is drunk, some of the caffeine gets partially digested and cannot reach the brain to cause alertness. However, certain inhaled non-
caffeine stimulants contain magnetized elements, which are not subject to separation through digestion.
Question
The statements above most strongly support a claim that a research procedure that successfully accomplishes which of the
following would be beneficial to users of caffeine as a stimulant?
Choices
A
Turning coffee into a gaseous cloud of magnetized elements that is absorbed directly by brain cells.

Your answer was correct!


This is the credited choice. Turning caffeine into a gas (so that it is an inhaled stimulant that does not need digestion) would allow
more caffeine to reach the brain.
B
Using proven laboratory procedures, converting into caffeine-like compounds the non-caffeine stimulants that may be inhaled.
This is not the credited choice. This statement is contradictory; turning convenient non-caffeine stimulants into cumbersome
caffeine copies would be less efficient. How will these new caffeine-like compounds be absorbed?
C
Removing any chemicals that digest caffeine permanently from the stomach and intestine.
This is not the credited choice. The statement is contradictory; permanently removing everything that digests caffeine would be
harmful.
D
Systematically categorizing what separating enzymes and polypeptides exist normally in the digestive tract and how each tends to
be absorbed by the body.
This is not the credited choice. The statement is irrelevant; this academic study offers no clear or practical benefit, and "enzymes
and polypeptides" are never mentioned.
E
Timing the length of time that each non-caffeine stimulant takes to get to brain cells.
This is not the credited choice. This statement is Irrelevant; the activation time is not the problem.

This argument makes the connection between the likelihood of driving drunk and the kind of car one drives. The evidence states two
facts: a small minority of Lalaland highway drivers drove sports cars, while a quarter of all vehicles whose drivers were ticketed for
drunk driving were sports cars. The conclusion is that sports car drivers on Lalaland highways were more likely to drive drunk than
are the drivers of other kinds of vehicles.
The necessary assumption, upon which the conclusion depends, is that those who are ticketed drive drunk more often than those
who are not ticketed.

Although only 2 percent of drivers on Lalalands highways drove sports cars, 25 percent of all vehicles whose drivers were ticketed
for drunk driving in the past 90 days were sports cars. Clearly, sports car drivers on Lalaland highways are more likely to drive drunk
than are drivers of other kinds of vehicles.
Question
The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?
Choices
A
Drivers on Lalaland highways drive drunk more often than do drivers on highways not covered in the report.
This is not the credited choice. Other highways are outside the scope of this argument. The argument is concerned only with
Lalaland.
B
Many of the vehicles ticketed for drunk driving were ticketed more than once during the time period covered by the report.
This is not the credited choice. While this additional information might strengthen the conclusion, it is not necessary for the
argument to be true.
C
Drivers who are ticketed for drunk driving are more likely to drive drunk regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.
This is the credited response. This statement correctly links the evidence (that sports car drivers are ticketed more often) with the
conclusion (that those who are ticketed more often also engage in drunk driving more often).
D
The number of drivers ticketed for drunk driving was greater than the number of sportscars.
Your answer was incorrect

This is not the credited choice. The statement is about the relative number of tickets given out, and not the habits of drivers.
E
Drivers of sports cars are less likely to be ticketed for drunk driving than are drivers of other kinds of cars.
This is not the credited choice. It might be true, and could even strengthen the conclusion, but still isnt necessary.

Hi mneeti

First of all, B and C are totally different in meaning. Let analyze.

B)Many of the vehicles ticketed for drunk driving were ticketed more than once during the time period covered by the report.
B is wrong because B only mentions that those who were ticketed for drunk driving will be ticketed again during the time period. But what if those
who were ticketed more than one time are are drivers of other kinds of vehicles, NOT drivers of sport vehicles. If thats the case, you cannot
conclude drivers of sport vehicles drunk more regularly than drivers of other kind of vehicles do.
Hence, B is not the assumption.

C)Drivers who are ticketed for drunk driving are more likely to drive drunk regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.
C means those who are ticketed fro drunk driving are more likely ticketed again. It does not matter drivers of sport cars or other kind of cars. This
is the base for a comparison between the number of ticket/driver of sport cars AND the number of ticket/driver of other kind of cars.

Name drivers of sport cars is SET 1, name drivers of other kind of cars is SET 2.
So, if the number of ticket/driver of SET 1 is greater than that of SET 2, the conclusion is correct.

Let analyze an example:

Assume we have 1000 drivers


SET 1 accounts for 2% = 20 drivers
SET 2 accounts for 98% = 980 drivers

Assume we have 100 tickets for drunk driving.


SET 1 accounts for 25% = 25 tickets
SET 2 accounts for 75% = 75 tickets.

Ticket / Driver:
20 drivers of sports cars got 25 tickets ==> 1.25 ticket / driver
980 drivers of other kind of cars got 75 tickets ==> 0.07 ticket / driver
Clearly, drivers of sport cars are more likely are more likely to drive drunk regularly than are drivers. Hence, C is the assumption.

Hope it helpsthis assumption question relies on the connection between 25 % and more likely. Assuming that if a higher percentage of people have
something happen to them then that makes it more likely. The answer choices are designed to distract the reader with other, irrelevant issues.

Stiv wrote:
Although only 2 percent of drivers on Lalalands highways drove sports cars, 25 percent of all vehicles ticketed for drunk driving in the past 90 days

were sports cars. Clearly, sports car drivers on Lalaland highways are more likely to drive drunk than are drivers of other kinds of vehicles.

The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?

A)Drivers on Lalaland highways drive drunk more often than do drivers on highways not covered in the report. the subject of other highways

is irrelevant becuase the argument does not address other highways

B)Many of the vehicles ticketed for drunk driving were ticketed more than once during the time period covered by the report. Being ticketed

more than once would acutally weaken the argument becuase it would show a problem with the statistics

C)Drivers who are ticketed for drunk driving are more likely to drive drunk regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.this is correct because

it directly connects the number of tickets to the likelyhood of driving drunk

D)The number of drivers ticketed for drunk driving was greater than the number of sportscars. This is irrelevant becuase the ratio of

tickets to sportscars doesn't matter unless all of the sportscars were getting tickets
E)Drivers of sports cars are less likely to be ticketed for drunk driving than are drivers of other kinds of cars.While this may strengthen the

argument, it is not an assumption becuase it is a new fact, not a connection of two facts in the argument itself.

This Complete the Passage question is also a Weaken the Argument question.

The marketing team's argument here is that Haplosoft needs better tutorial material because users depend on it to use the software
well. One engineer disagrees, though, and the credited answer will support this point of view. Look for the choice that will disprove
some part of that original claim, whether the need for new materials or the users' dependence on tutorials in the first place.

A recent tracking survey has shown that the vast majority of users of Haplosoft's new text-editing software ignored the
recommended tutorial that comes with the software. Some representatives of Haplosoft's marketing team expressed concern that
the company would need to develop more attention-grabbing tutorial materials, or else users would fail to know how best to use the
software. However, their concerns were assuaged when a Haplosoft engineer pointed out that ___________________.
Question
Which of the following best completes the passage?
Choices
A
most users look to the software to accomplish a limited range of tasks because that is all they know how to do.
This is not the credited choice. This explanation is almost comforting: it would be if the users only needed to do a small range of
tasks, but that's not what this says. This would lend support to the marketing team's worries.
B
the software packaging contains an instruction manual, which has most of the same content as the tutorial.
This is not particularly persuasive: if the users ignore the tutorial, there is nothing that suggests they will be any more likely to read
a manual. This is not the credited choice.
C
the tutorial is based on a rewritten version of specifications given to the marketing team by Haplosoft's engineers.
This is not the credited choice. It tells us that the tutorial's instructions are good, since they come from the same people who made
the software, but tells us nothing about how the users will use it.
D
the tutorial contains information standard to most text-editing software and with which most users are already familiar.

Your answer was correct!

This is the credited response. If this particular software does not differ too drastically from most other text editors, it is relatively
safe to assume that users will already know how to make the most of the software for their needs, and thus ignore the tutorial
without jeopardizing their experience.
E
historically, very few users have contacted Haplosoft's technical support line with questions about how to use the text editor.
This is not the credited choice. It does not suggest anything about the tutorial; it may mean that customers seek help in other
places, or that they are not using the software for more than a few tasks. In either case, it does not weaken the argument that the
fact that the tutorial is not very helpful is bad for users' ability to use the software well.

Option D, here is how:

Reading through the question stem, the bold words need to be specially focussed on.

A recent tracking survey has shown that the vast majority of users of Haplosoft's new text-editing software ignored the recommended tutorial that
comes with the software. Some representatives of Haplosoft's marketing team expressed concernthat the company would need to develop more
attention-grabbing tutorial materials, or else users would fail to know how best to use the software. However, their concerns were
assuaged when a Haplosoft engineer pointed out that ___________________.

Which of the following best completes the passage?

A. most users look to the software to accomplish a limited range of tasks because that is all they know how to do. This statement supports the
marketing team's concern that users would not know how to BEST use the software. Incorrect
B. the software packaging contains an instruction manual, which has most of the same content as the tutorial. There is no guarantee that this
additional material too will not be ignored as the recommended tutorial. Incorrect
C. the tutorial is based on a rewritten version of specifications given to the marketing team by Haplosoft's engineers. Doesnt concern the question
at hand; Incorrect
D. the tutorial contains information standard to most text-editing software and with which most users are already familiar. The underlined part

seals the deal for us


If the tutorial contains standard material of training that the users already know - then there is no issues even if they ignore the recommended
tutorial. Hence Correct
E. historically, very few users have contacted Haplosoft's technical support line with questions about how to use the text editor.The question stem
states that a new software has been launched - so its no surety that if historically users didnt have questions they will not have some for the new
software too.

Also, this statement assumes that if users have questions they will contact support line. Incorrect

Hope the explanation was helpful.

PUT DOUBLE COROOSS FOR ABSOLUTE NO ANSWERS....TO BE REVIEWED AS DASHSES


SO THAT YOU CAN CROSS SHECK THEM ONCE BEFORE CONFIRMING

Argument structure questions ask you to identify the structural outline of the argument, with the specific content removed. As far as
we're concerned, the content just serves to provide meat for the underlying structure: we're interested only in understanding the
structure. Here, the argument begins by describing an innovation developed in response to a unique challenge. Then evidence is
presented of a new discovery in the archaeological record of a similar innovation in the past, in a different location. This new
evidence is used to argue that the unique challenge that led to this particular innovation must have been shared by the people in
the different location. Sometimes the answer choices use this level of content detail and sometimes they are abstracted even
further; in our case, we could say that the argument's reasoning is based on interpreting new evidence in light of existing known
information.

Because of the venomous spur on its hind foot and its excellent swimming ability, the duck-billed platypus presented unique
challenges for aboriginal Australians intent on trapping it. The Yolngu people of northeastern Australia overcame this challenge by
inventing an innovative aqueous spring-loaded trap that could catch platypuses in the water without getting too close to them.
Recent thousand-year-old archaeological discoveries show that the Maori people of New Zealand had in the past used a very similar
aqueous spring-loaded trap. Although today the duck-billed platypus is found only on the coast of eastern Australia and Tasmania,
this discovery shows that in the past duck-billed platypuses were also found on neighboring New Zealand.
Question
Which one of the following most accurately describes the method of reasoning employed in this argument?
Choices
A
Demonstrating how challenges to people's survival lead to innovative solutions
First of all, this ignores the second half of the argument and doesn't describe its final conclusion. In addition, it mischaracterizes the
nature of the venomous spur: we have no reason to think platypus venom posed a challenge to aboriginal people's survival, only
that it challenged their attempts to capture the platypus.
B
Interpreting new evidence in light of existing known information

Your answer was correct!

This is the credited response.


C
Revising the established theory in light of newly discovered evidence
The established theory, in this case, is how this particular trap was invented in order to trap the duck-billed platypus. But the new
evidence doesn't challenge this theory; it applies it to work toward the conclusion that the platypus was previously found in areas
where it is not found today. Where platypuses are to be found today is not a theory but an observed fact.
D
Dismissing the reliability of new evidence in light of known facts
The argument doesn't dismiss the new evidence--that of the trap remains found on New Zealand--in light of the known facts about
where platypuses can be found today. To the contrary, it accepts these new facts at face value and uses them to develop a theory
that the known facts don't give the complete picture: that even though platypus are not found in New Zealand today, in the past
they were.
E
Explaining the way two groups of people have influenced each other
Although this argument does speak about two peoples, the Yolngu and the ancient Maori, it does not say anything about how they
may have influenced each other. It describes a similarity--they both used similar aqueous spring-loaded traps--but suggests that
similar needs (to trap platypuses) led to the similar innovation, rather than any direct contact between the peoples.

This argument depends on the assumption that the key to winning back clients who have taken their business to Pensacola's rival is
through customer support. In the answer choices below, avoid those that depart from this particular element of the business, and
pick the one that suggests that increasing customer support personnel is ill-advised or unlikely to work.

Pensacola Mail Fulfillment Services found, in a recent survey of its national client base, that some 20% of its customers were less
than completely satisfied with the quality of its service. Pensacola's plan to increase its customer support personnel by one third in
order to regain clients lost to its rival, Good For What Mails You, is likely to succeed unless it is the case that ___________________.
Question
Which of the following best completes the passage?
Choices
A
Pensacola typically offers a bundled set of services, while Good For What Mails You allows its clients to choose from a comparatively
" la carte" list of options.
This is not the credited choice. It is one reason clients might be tempted to leave Pensacola for its rival, but it has no bearing on
whether or not the plan to regain customers by increasing customer support personnel will work.
B
Pensacola still has many loyal customers of long standing who have expressed no dissatisfaction with their customer service
experience.
This is not the credited choice. It does not affect the argument at hand, which is focused only on how to regain the business of those
clients who are less than fully satisfied.
C
the percentage of Pensacola clients who responded to the survey was approximated to be somewhere between 60 and 70 percent.
This is not the credited choice. The sample size could be significant as part of a larger argument, but given this information alone it
is not sufficient to impact the argument presented here; anyway, this high a rate of response is enough to assume that the non-
responding clients break down in a similar proportion.
D
Pensacola's prices have traditionally been lower than those of Good For What Mails You.
This is not the credited choice. Price does not affect customer service, which is the only variable in the argument proposed here.
E
many of Pensacola's customers objected to the poor training and relative inexperience of the company's support personnel.

Your answer was correct!


This is the credited response. If the poor quality of Pensacola's customer support personnel is the root of customer dissatisfaction,
adding more new members to the customer support team without changing how they are trained will certainly not win back clients.

THIS A VERY IMPORATNT STRNETHEN QUESTION ......U NEED TO UNDERSTAND ....THAT CAUSE
---EFFECT CAN BE STRENTHENED BY SYAING NO CAUSE ---- NO EEFECT ...AN EXCELLENT
EXAMPLS OF THAT .........
This argument concerns why product display can affect consumer purchases. Psychologists hypothesize that consumers believe
items displayed on an aisle end-cap are on sale, whether or not the items actually are on sale, and consumers like to buy discounted
items.
You are looking for additional information that will add support to this argument. The credited choice will clarify the link between
these two things without introducing any unnecessary new focus.

Studies in grocery stores show that shoppers purchase more of an item if it is on an aisle end-cap. Psychologists hypothesize that
seeing an item prominently displayed at the end of an aisle makes many shoppers willing to buy more of it because they think the
prominent display means it is on sale, and that they should purchase the item while it is discounted.

Question
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the psychologists interpretation of the studies?
Choices
A
The effect noted in the study is also seen in bookstores and large chain discount stores.
This is not the credited choice. That the phenomenon is widespread still doesnt account for why shoppers engage in this kind of
behavior.
B
Shoppers who first see that same item in its regular placement on a shelf are less likely to purchase the item than they are to
purchase comparable, less expensive items.
This is the credited response. This clearly states that the way the product is displayed has an effect on consumer activity. When they
see the same items are in their usual place, customers are more likely to buy less expensive alternatives.
C
Virtually all of the shoppers who purchased items from end-caps used coupons for other items they purchased.
This is not the credited choice. Coupons are out of scope. Just because customers used coupons for other items doesnt mean they
werent motivated by product placement.
D
Sales of any item in a grocery store will increase if it is placed on an end-cap.

Your answer was incorrect


This is not the credited choice. Like answer A, the fact that the phenomenon is widespread doesnt explain the shoppers' behavior.
E
A. Shoppers who purchased items picked up from end-caps had lower grocery bills than those who did not.
This is not the credited choice. The overall total of a grocery bill is out of the scope of this argument.

my take wud be B for only B only resonates with the argument .its a simple cause and effect
logic so all B is doing is is that its telling us that on removing the cause the effect is also
vanishing and hence supporting the argument

ONCE U GET WHAT U PRETHOUGHT U R DONE ......

This is an argument structure/role played question. We are asked to identify the underlying structure of the argument stripped of the
content that gives it its particular contours. The first sentence begins with evidence (the CEO ate the spinach) leading to a particular
conclusion (the company's spinach is safe). Then the logic for the conclusion is given. Finally, the conclusion is called into question
(maybe consumers shouldn't trust that the spinach is safe), and a claim is introduced that challenges the conclusion (CEOs in fact
are willing to take physical risks for the good of their company).

When the CEO of Green Farms appeared on television, eating a spinach salad grown by his company, consumers were
convinced that, as the company had maintained all along, the contamination of one batch of the company's spinach with the
virulent E. Coli bacteria had been an isolated incident, and that the rest of the spinach was safe to eat. They reasoned that he
wouldn't put his life at risk, even if the chance of a particular leaf of spinach being infected were small, and that if he was willing to
eat the spinach it must really be safe. The consumers may have been overly trusting, however, sinceCEOs have been known to
take relatively small risks to their physical well-being in order to promote the financial health of their companies.
Question
In the argument given, the two boldfaced selections play which of the following roles?
Choices
A
The first offers evidence that is taken to support a conclusion; the second provides a reason for questioning that conclusion.

Your answer was correct!

This is the credited response. The first fact supports the conclusion drawn by consumers that the spinach is safe; the second makes
a claim about CEOs which, if true, would undermine that conclusion.
B
The first offers evidence taken to support a conclusion; the second states a contrary conclusion accepted by the argument.
This is not the credited choice. It is true about the first, but not about the second. The second selection doesn't offer a conclusion
about what should or shouldn't be done in this case, just a general claim about the behavior of CEOs. In fact, the argument only calls
into question the first conclusion, but never goes so far as to offer a contrary conclusion.
C
The first offers evidence that supports the conclusion accepted by the argument; the second states that conclusion.
This is not the credited choice. The conclusion supported by the first selection is ultimately called into question by the argument.
The second is a claim or evidence, not a conclusion.

D
The first describes the background circumstances for the argument as a whole; the second
provides an explanation that the argument attempts to prove.
This is not the credited choice. The background circumstances are described in a non-
boldfaced section of the argument.
E
Both offer evidence in support of the conclusion drawn by the argument.
This is not the credited choice. The first selection describes evidence in support of a conclusion called into question by the
argument.

P1:Lark Manufacturing Company initiated a voluntary Quality Circles program for machine operators.
P2: Independent surveys of employee attitudes indicated that the machine operators participating in the program were less satisfied with their work situations after
two years of the program's start.
conclusion: any workers who participate in a Quality Circles program will, as a result, become less satisfied with their job.

we have causal reasoning: participating in quality Circle program --> become less satisfied with their job

All weaken EXCEPT:

A. The second survey occurred during a period of recession when rumors of cutbacks and layoffs at Lark Manufacturing were plentiful weaken.. it
introduces alternative cause for becoming less satisfied
B. The surveys also showed that those Lark machine operators who neither participated in Quality Circles nor knew anyone who did so reported the
same degree of lessened satisfaction with their work situations as did the Lark machine operators who participated in Quality Circles weaken.. it says
becoming less satisfaction is not related to quality circle program
C. While participating in Quality Circles at Lark Manufacturing, machine operators exhibited two of the primary indicators of improved job
satisfaction: increased productivity and decreased absenteeism weaken.. it indicates that the survey data has problem
D. Several workers at Lark Manufacturing who had participated in Quality Circles while employed at other companies reported that while
participating in Quality Circles in previous companies, their work satisfaction has increased the extreme language of the conclusion makes this option a
weakener.. conclusion says any workers who participate in a quality circles program so even if employees participate in another company's quality circle
program and report increase satisfaction, it weakens the argument!!
E. The machine operators who participate in Quality Circles reported that when the program started, the felt that participation might improve their
work situation
this option correctly explains the reason for being less satisfied after participating in quality circle program... their expectation was not fulfilled.
verSurrender wrote:

In the field of eugenics, geneticists have thoroughly scrutinized the human genome and its ability to shape certain traits to select and pre-

determine an increasing impressive number of physiological characteristics in the unborn, each ready to order to parents

specifications.

A) increasing impressive number of physiological characteristics in the unborn, each

B) increasingly impressive number of physiological characteristics in those not yet born, and each one

C) increasing impressive number of physiological characteristics in those unborn who are

D) increasingly impressive number of physiological characteristics in the unborn, all of them

E) increasingly impressive number of physiological characteristics in the unborn

Here the word "Impressive" modifies the word "number".

the word that modifies impressive should be Increasingly. So we can clearly eliminate A and C.

Increasing is an adjective- which gives us the wrong meaning when we read.


And Increasingly is an adverb, gives us the correct meaning while reading the sentence.

B is awkward- "those not yet born" we would rather prefer simple "unborn" instead of that. So eliminate B.

Same with the D. "all of them" is awkward and redundant. since we have "the unborn"- Noun

The answer should be E.


I assume you are clear that we need "increasingly" and that boils down to optionB, D, and E.

B - those not yet born is wordy and we can strike out this option right out
D - all of them - incorrectly modifies "unborn". unborn is a singular and all of them referes to plural form "unborns". Strike out
E - this is correct because - "ready to order to parents specifications - is also a modifer which directly modifies "unborn". We do not need any
additional modifer in this case and this makes E suitable choice.

Best,
Ameya

First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise
written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid
the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical
treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible.

(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible, and lays
the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, lays
the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(E) and comparing Homers Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both , Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach
laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(OA under spoiler after 5 answers)


Let us just get hold of the gist.

1. A book first - published - in 1946 a past participle is rightly used.


2. A book is -comparing - something ( even as of today) so a present participle comparing is rightly used.
3. Comparison is between the way world appears in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible. Comparison is not between the whole books of Odyssey and
Bible.
4. The book laid the foundation for something beginning from early times to his days. - To his days - is the key here, restricting the foundation as
something of a past and not applicable at the moment. So the correct expression for this will be a simple past laid -.

It may be seen that only A fits in

(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach
laid - the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
Right choice

(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical
treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible.
Wrong because, comparison should come first and then the laying the foundation

(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible,
and lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
wrong

(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homers Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by
Auerbach, lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
wrong

(E) and comparing Homers Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach
laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
E Compares Homers Odyssey with the Bible which alters the intent.

The zoning commission has countered that its consultation process was exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with
leadership councils, business-empowerment boards, and with other community organizations, and that none of the issued permits ought to have
come as a surprise.

A) has countered that its consultation process was exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership councils,
business-empowerment boards, and with other community organizations, and that none of the issued permits ought to have come as a surprise
B) has countered that its consultation process has been exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership
councils, business-empowerment boards, and other community organizations, and that none of the issued permits ought to have come as a surprise
C) has countered that its consultation process has been exhaustive, it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership councils,
business-empowerment boards, and other community organizations, and none of the issued permits ought to come as a surprise
D) countered that its consultation process has been exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership councils,
with business-empowerment boards, and other community organizations, and that none of the issued permits ought to have come as surprises
E) countered that its consultation process was exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership councils,
business-empowerment boards, and other community organizations, and none of the issued permits ought to have come as a surprise

Dear aditya8062,

I got your p.m. and I am happy to help.

Here's the question:


The zoning commission has countered that its consultation process was exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with
leadership councils, business-empowerment boards, and with other community organizations, and that none of the issued permits ought to have
come as a surprise.
A) has countered that its consultation process was exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings withleadership councils,
business-empowerment boards, and with other community organizations, and that none of the issued permits ought to have come as a surprise
One big problem: the inside/outside rule for parallelism. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-paral ... ce-inside/
It would be correct to say either
with R, S, and T or
with R, with S, and with T
but this answer has
with R, S, and with T
which is 100% wrong.

B) has countered that its consultation process has been exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership
councils, business-empowerment boards, and other community organizations, and that none of the issued permits ought to have come as a surprise
No obvious problem. Looks good.

C) has countered that its consultation process has been exhaustive, it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership councils,
business-empowerment boards, and other community organizations, and none of the issued permits ought to come as a surprise
Leaving out the parallel that's is problematic, because it's unclear whether, for example, "it coordinated and participated in ..." is suppose to be
something else the zoning commission claimed or an independent parallel fact. Ambiguous = wrong.

D) countered that its consultation process has been exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership councils,
with business-empowerment boards, and other community organizations, and that none of the issued permits ought to have come as surprises
Sneaky mistake. Almost everything here is good, but "none" is singular, so it doesn't match "surprises." This is wrong.

E) countered that its consultation process was exhaustive, that it coordinated and participated in over 250 meetings with leadership councils,
business-empowerment boards, and other community organizations, and [???] none of the issued permits ought to have come as a surprise
Here, we have a missing "that", a variant on the inside/outside mistake in (A). We need a "that" in front of each of the three branches of the
parallelism. This is wrong.

Thus, the only possibility is (B). This is a good question.

Does all this make sense?

Mike

Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the tulip craze of the seventeenth-century in the Netherlands, include speculative bubbles in South
Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and the obsession for Beanie Babies in the
1990s.

A. Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the tulip craze of the seventeenth-century in the Netherlands, include speculative bubbles in
South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and
[Hold it]
B. Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, include speculative bubbles in South Seas
trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, and the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, as well as
[and + as well as = redundancy]
C. Coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, examples of "tulipomania" include speculative bubbles in South Seas trading
rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, and the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, as well as
[Misplaced Modifier - Coined ---> examples of tulipomania ]
D. Coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, "tulipomania" includes examples such as speculative bubbles in South Seas
trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and
[Misplaced Modifier - Coined --->tulipomania itself ???]
E. "Tulipomania," coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, included speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in
the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and
[Misplaced Modifier - Coined --->tulipomania itself ???]

OA indeed is B .

Sentence : Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the tulip craze of the seventeenth-century in the Netherlands,include speculative
bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and the obsession for
Beanie Babies in the 1990s.

So A has faulty parallelism

A. Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the tulip craze of the seventeenth-century in the Netherlands, includespeculative bubbles in -
*South Seas trading rights in the 1720s,
*Victorian real estate in the 1880s,
*the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and
? obsession for Beanie Babies in the 1990s. (speculative bubbles in obsession for beanie ...? nonsensical)

So we have a 4 item list for speculative bubbles that doesn't make sense.

B corrects this error by saying:

B. Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, include speculative bubbles in

*South Seas trading rights in the 1720s,


*Victorian real estate in the 1880s, and
*the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, (3 item list ends)
as well as obsession for Beanie Babies in the 1990s

HTH

The paradox of the Roman empires history is marked by the fall of the western part around the 5th centaury A.D with several regions succumbing
to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency, breaking into independent kingdoms, the rise of the eastern part, with the empire fire-walling
the crises, and retaking most of the lost territories to establish a firm rule of over most of the Eastern Europe for another six to seven centuries

(A) with several regions succumbing to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency, breaking into independent kingdoms, the rise of the eastern
part, with the empire fire - walling the crises, and retaking

(B) as several regions succumbed to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency and broke into independent kingdoms, and the rising of the
eastern part as the empire fire-walled the crises and retook

C) when several regions succumbed to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency and broke into independent kingdoms, and by the rise of the
eastern part, where the empire fire-walled the crises to retake
(D) with several regions succumbing to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency and breaking into independent kingdoms, and by the rise of
the eastern part, with the empire fire -walling the crises, and retaking

(E) amid several regions succumbing to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency broke into independent kingdoms, and by the rise of the
eastern part, as the empire fire -walling the crises, retook

Can somebody rate this?

(A) with several regions succumbing to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency, breaking into independent kingdoms, the rise of the eastern
part, with the empire fire - walling the crises, and retaking
Unparallel; no - by - before the rise

(B) as several regions succumbed to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency and broke into independent kingdoms, and the rising of the
eastern part as the empire fire-walled the crises and retook
Unparallel; no - by - before the rise

C) when several regions succumbed to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency and broke into independent kingdoms, and by the rise of the
eastern part, where the empire fire-walled the crises to retake

-several regions succumbed and broke- is not parallel to - empire fire-walled the crises to retake The first part is using two simple past
tenses namely succumbed and broke while the latter is using a simple past and an infinitive fire-walled and to retake. IMO, this error
downgrades C

(D) with several regions succumbing to cross border terrorism


and internal insurgency and breaking into independent kingdoms, and by the rise of the eastern part, with the empire fire -walling the crises, and
retaking

The prepositional phrase - with several regions succumbing to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency and breaking into independent
kingdoms is perfectly matched by an equally parallel - with the empire fire -walling the crises, and retaking - both parts using present
participles with vantag
This is why this is the OA.

(E) Amid several regions succumbing to cross border terrorism and internal insurgency broke into independent kingdoms, and by the rise of the
eastern part, as the empire fire -walling the crises, retook
Structurally flawed and fragmented without conjunction

Thanks to those brave hearts who have given us great insight into their thinking and I regard those opinions

WHEREAS NEED NO PARALLELSIM ..............


There is a difference in the way the term turnover and the term revenue is used in business across the Atlantic; in the United States, turnover
refers to how rapidly the inventory acquisition and transaction occurs whereas in Europe turnover refers to a company's income, known in the
States as revenue.
(A) way the term turnover and the term revenue is used in business across the Atlantic; in the States, turnover refers to how rapidly the inventory
acquisition and transaction occurs whereas
ARE must be used instead of IS coz subject "way the term turnover and way the term revenue" is Plural. OCCUR must be used instead of OCCURS
coz the subject " the inventory acquisition and transaction ( X and Y)" is plural. Thus Incorrect

(B) use of the term turnover and the term revenue in business across the Atlantic; in the United States, turnover refers to how rapidly the inventory
acquisition and transaction occurs whereas
OCCUR must be used instead of OCCURS coz the subject " the inventory acquisition and transaction ( X and Y)" is plural. Thus Incorrect

(C) way the term turnover and the term revenue are used in business across the Atlantic; in the United States, turnover refers to how rapidly the
inventory acquisition and transaction occur since
- Author want to make comparison rather than to give Reason why something happened. Thus Incorrect

(D) usage of the term turnover and the term revenue in business across the Atlantic; the rapidness of inventory acquisition and transaction is called
turnover in the United States whereas - CORRECT

(E) way the term turnover and the term revenue are used in business across the Atlantic; in the United States, the rate at which the inventory
acquisition and transaction occur are called turnover whereas
Singular verb (IS) must be used instead of ARE coz the subject "RATE" is singular. Thus Incorrect

blueseas wrote:
RAPIDLY ==>This is an adverb

adverb ==>they either modify verb ...or adjective...

in this case it is modifying THE ACQUISITION which is a noun ...hence wrong.

HOW RAPIDLY THE INVENTORY ...=>This is incorrect construction.

Hi Blueseas,
RAPIDLY is not modifying any Noun in option B. It is correctly modifying VERB OCCURS (RAPIDLY..... OCCURS)

WHEN ALL LOOK INCORRECT SEE THE FIRST ONE REAALY CAREFULLY AS IN THE BEGINNING
U DO NOT THE INETENDED MEANING ....AND THUS AS TIMES DO NITPICKING TO
ELIMINATELY USELESSLY .....ALSO DO NOT ELIMINATE OPTION A AT FISRT GO UNLESS A
BLATANT LY WORNG ANSWER IS TEHERE

avohden wrote:
Before converting to Christianity and marrying Jadwiga, the second of Poland's Angevin

rulers, thereby becoming King of Poland, Wladyslaw II was known as Jogaila, Grand

Duke of Lithuania.

(A) Before converting to Christianity and marrying Jadwiga, the second of Poland's

Angevin rulers, thereby becoming King of Poland, Wladyslaw II was known as

Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

(B) Before he converted to Christianity, married Jadwiga, the second ruler of Poland's

Angevin, and became King of Poland, Wladyslaw II was known as Jogaila, Grand

Duke of Lithuania.

(C) Before marrying Jadwiga, the second of Poland's Angevin rulers, thereby converting
to Christianity and becoming King of Poland, Wladyslaw II was known as Grand Duke

of Lithuania, Jogaila.

(D) Before Wladyslaw II converted to Christianity and married Jadwiga, the second ruler of

Poland's Angevin, thereby becoming King of Poland, he was Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

(E) Before Wladyslaw II converted to Christianity and married Jadwiga, the second of Poland's

Angevin rulers, thereby becoming King of Poland, he was Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jogaila.

Interesting question - Has so many modifiers and commas, none of the answers seem correct.

Source: GMAT Hacks - 091913

Honestly, I used the process of elimination here. I read A and jumped into the other choices (Not the best way to do..w/o prethinking)
Though we definitely have a meaning issue here beside a modifier issue.

What the org sentence is trying to say is: Wladyslaw II became the king of Poland after marrying Jadwiga( second of Poland's Angevin rulers). But
before converting to Christianity and marrying Jadwiga, he was known as Jogaila (Grand Duke of Lithuania)

B - Before he converted to Christianity, married Jadwiga, the second ruler of Poland's


Angevin, and became King of Poland, Wladyslaw II was known as Jogaila, Grand
Duke of Lithuania.
The 'and' sounds like before converting he became the king of Poland and was Jogalia. But the statement actually says that he became the king of
Poland because he married Jagwiga

C - Before marrying Jadwiga, the second of Poland's Angevin rulers, thereby converting to Christianity and becoming King of Poland, Wladyslaw II
was known as Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jogaila.
This sounds like he became the king before he married Jadwiga and he converted to Christianity because of that.

D- Before Wladyslaw II converted to Christianity and married Jadwiga, the second ruler of
Poland's Angevin, thereby becoming King of Poland, [color=#0000ff]he was Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania.[/color]
'he was Jogalia' as a stand alone phrase seems incorrect. It sounds like the second ruler of Poland's Angevin became King of Poland.
thereby becoming King of Poland incorrectly modifies the second ruler of Poland's Angevin

E- Before Wladyslaw II converted to Christianity and married Jadwiga, the second of Poland's
Angevin rulers, thereby becoming King of Poland, he was Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jogaila.
This almost seems correct, but the statement ends in Jogalia! It's like saying: He was smart, Tom

P.S: IF the words are too confusing, you can shorten them. I translated Jadwiga and Jogalia to Jad and Jog so I could read faster!

ALWAYS WRITE A KEYWORD IN LARGE OPTION QUESTION FOR ELIMINATING AN


OPTION ...........IT WILL BE USEFUL IN FINAL SELECTION HCOICE .......HERE I KNEW USED
OFTEN IS WRONG STILL I FORGOT IT LATER AND CHOSE A AGAIN AS NOTHING WAS
SUITING ...BEWARE
The word inspired is used often by numerous critics in their description of a great play; it is precisely the emotion experienced by the audience as
the final curtain descends.

A. The word inspired is used often by numerous critics in their description of a great play; it is precisely the emotion experienced by the audience
as the final curtain descends
B. Used often by numerous critics in their description of a great play is the word inspired, which is the precise emotion experienced by the
audience as the final curtain descend
C. Precisely describing the emotion of the audience as the final curtain descends is the word inspired, often used by numerous critics to describe a
great play
D. The word inspired is often used by numerous critics in their descriptions of a great play and describes the emotion of the audience as the final
curtain descends as well.
E. The word inspired is the precise emotion of the audience as the final curtain descends and is used by numerous critics to describe a great play.

Good question. I got it wrong though.


Upon second review, I got my mistake.

'Used often' is unidiomatic -> should be 'often used' instead. So options A and B are out.

C is correct as the modifying phrases


1. 'Precisely describing the emotion of the audience as the final curtain descends'
2. 'often used by numerous critics to describe a great play'

closely follows what its modifying : the word inspired.

D is not logically parallel.

I would want to hear why E is wrong.

A/B/D : The word X...............IS Used in their description of a great play

C/E : The word X................IS Used to describe a play ( Guess this sounds much better / concise )

Thus A/B/D : Eliminated

Bxn C & E :

one says : The word X............is the emotion

another says : The word X..........describes emotion

E : The word inspired is the.............. emotion of the audience ( The word cannot be an Emotion............ It can describe / symbolise an
Emotion ) : Eliminated

C : Describing the emotion of the audience ...................is the word inspired ( The word Inspired....Describes/ Symbolises the emotion of
audience ) : Perfect

Leading to C, my take.

A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it
has been more common for some townhouses and other attached homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other attached homes that are relatively small and old, located in central
cities.
(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other attached homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in
central cities.
(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other attached homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central
cities.
(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other attached homes that are relatively small and old and located in
central cities.
(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other attached homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central
cities.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
Hi there,
In a parallel list, comma is used before the parallel marker or the connector that joins all the entities in the list when there are more than two
entities in a list. For example:
Sri love apples and mangoes.
Sri loves apples, mangoes, and grapes.

Since there are only two entities in the first sentence, we don't need comma before "and". But since there are three entities in the list in the
second sentence, we need comma before "and".

In the given question, there are two lists. The second list resides in the first list. However, both the lists have only
two entities.
Entities in the main list - "are relatively small and old" (are) located in central cities.
Entities in the sub-list - small and old.

This means that we don't need comma before any of the "and" because they join only two entities in the list. You can study other official
sentences for this usage of comma.

Hope this helps.


Thanks.
Shraddha

Hi,

'Which' vs 'that' is a core SC concept that you need to learn properly. Any decent SC book will do this.

[i]Which - is used to describe something that you've already defined.

That - is used to narrow down a list of things that is undefined.

For example:
Galileo's 4th theory (there is only 1 4th theory) which (no need to define) talks about xyx

Galileos' theory (many theorys) that (need to define) talks about xyz[/i}

Here, we need to define, so we use that

James

Hi,

you are perfectly fine in thinking so....they are two ICs.


but options with semicolon are not gramatically correct.
moreover 2 ICs can be connected by a COLON(:)..provided that the later clause must explains the preceeding clause.

below is an excerpt of MANHATTAN SC guide:

==>The colon (:) provides further explanation for what comes before it. For example, you can
use a colon to equate a list with its components. You should be able to insert the word
namely or the phrase that is after the colon.
What comes before the colon must be able to stand alone as a sentence. What comes after
the colon does not have to be able to stand alone.

You can put a main clause after a colon as well. The key is that this clause must explain
what precedes the colon-perhaps the entire preceding clause.

example: On January 1, 2000, the national mood was completely different from
what it would become just a few years later: at the turn of the century,
given a seemingly unstoppable stock market and a seemingly peaceful
world, the country was content.

The words after the colon, at the turn of the century. " was content, can stand alone as a sentence.
They serve to explain the entire clause that comes before the colon (a clause that
asserts an upcoming change in the national mood, as of the first of the year 2000).

Do not confuse the semicolon (;) with the colon (:). The semicolon connects two related
independent clauses, but the second does not necessarily explain the first. In contrast, the
colon always connects a sentence with a further explanation.

hope it helps

Something not quite write in even D:

d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other attached homes that are relatively small and oldand located in central

cities.

how this makes sense? I think it should be:

d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other attached homes that are relatively small and old located in central cities.

second and not needed here, it is misleading.

OPTION D is PERFECTLY RIGHT.


ACTUALLY D is like this:

difficult: It has been more common for A that are relatively B and C.

here:
A=SOME TOWNHOUSES AND OTHER ATTACHED HOMES====>SEE THIS IS A COMPOND SUBJECT AND HENCE PLURAL ...AND THIS IS WHYARE IS USED
AFTER THAT.
B=SMALL AND OLD
C= LOCATED IN CENTRAL CITIES
B and C are the characterstics of A.
OLD LOCATED IN CITIES doesnt makes sense....
hope it helps.

t is no surprise that Riyadh, the Saudi capital where people revere birds of prey and ride camels regularly, is home to the largest hospital for
falcons, a place where falcons from all over the world are treated in operating rooms, an ophthalmology department, and a pox area, and to the
largest veterinary clinic for desert mammals, a place where camels and other desert species are expertly cared for.

Structure of the sentence:


The city is home to two separate things:
-the largest hospital for falcons
-the largest veterinary clinic
Since those two thing express a similar attribute of the city, they must be parallel:

"Riyadh (...) is home to the largest hospital for falcons, (a place...description), and to the largest veterinary clinic, (a place...description)"

In B E they are not parallel, eliminate them. D uses an wrong structure:

D to an ophthalmology department, and to a pox area and the largest veterinary clinic for desert mammals, a place where camels and other
desert species are expertly cared for.

This sentence uses parallelism to describe the hospital and not to put on the same level the hospital and the clinic: wrong structure.

A and B are left

A an ophthalmology department, and a pox area, and to the largest veterinary clinic for desert mammals, a place where camels and other desert
species are expertly cared for.
B an ophthalmology department, to a pox area, and to the largest veterinary clinic for desert mammals, a place where camels and other desert
species are expertly cared for.
B says that the city is home to the largest hospital, to a pox area, and to the largest veterinary clinic. By using "to a pox area", B places it at the
same level as the hospital and the clinic, so the clause "a pox area" is no more part of description of the hospital itself.

Hope it's clear.

Use parallelism to put on the same level things that express a similar concept.( a parallel idea)
Example:
1)I lived in Miami, a city in Florida, and in Boston. From this sentence you get that I lived in Miami and in Boston.
2)I lived in Miami, in Florida and in Boston. From this sentence you get that I lived in Miami, in Boston AND in Florida(unspecified city).

Among the important themes that characterize Chinese history are the patterns of dynastic rise and fall, intermittent aggression from northern
aliens, and varying degrees of openness to outside cultural influences and the dynamics of stability and social harmony

We see following four lists in Qn:


P--> the patterns of dynastic rise and fall,
Q--> intermittent aggression from northern aliens,
R--> varying degrees of openness to outside cultural influences
S--> the dynamics of stability and social harmony
List P & Q are noun clauses that needs to be parallel
List R & S are adjective clauses that needs to be parallel

Now let us check each of the options:

A. Among the important themes that characterize Chinese history are the patterns of dynastic rise and fall, intermittent aggression from northern
aliens, and varying degrees of openness to outside cultural influences and the dynamics of stability and social harmony
Incorrect, P,Q,R & S cannot be parallel simultaneously as they belong to different clause category.

B. Among the important themes that characterize Chinese history are the patterns of dynastic rise and fall, and intermittent aggression from
northern aliens, together with varying degrees of openness to outside cultural influences and the dynamics of stability and social harmony
Correct. P is parallel to Q, [connector] R is parallel to S

C. The important themes that characterize Chinese history are the patterns of dynastic rise and fall, intermittent aggression from northern aliens,
along with varying degrees of openness to outside cultural influences and the dynamics of stability and social harmony
Incorrect. Here Q follows P but is not separated by parallel marker "and". R is parallel to S.

D. Among the important themes of Chinese history are the patterns of dynastic rise and fall, intermittent aggression from northern aliens, varying
degrees of openness to outside cultural influences and the dynamics of stability and social harmony that characterize its history
Incorrect. Same as A. Also the phrase "the dynamics of stability and social harmony that characterize its history" changes the intended meaning of
"themes that characterize its history"

E. The important theme that characterizes Chinese history is the pattern of dynastic rise and fall, intermittent aggression from northern aliens,
along with varying degrees of openness to outside cultural influences and the dynamics of stability and social harmony
Incorrect. Same as C

Answer: B

Hope this helps!

Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as
companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as
companies that compete
Correct.

B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet
industry, as competing companies
Wrong.
"the more established industries" differs from "industries that are more established". If you say "THE more + Adjective + Noun" ==> [more
adjective] plays as adjective that modifies the noun directly. But when you say "industries that are more established ....(than what?)" ==> you're
comparing industries with some thing else. But there's nothing to compare here --> the comparison is incomplete. (correct grammar is: ....
more ....than....)
C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as
companies that compete
Wrong. Comparison problem: the lines vs. the internet.

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as
companies that compete
Wrong. Pronoun problem. "they" refers to what?

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as
competing companies[/quote]
Wrong. Pronoun problem. "those" refers to what?

Hope it helps.
_________________