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a, b, c :
+b=b+
a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c
+0= + () = 0
ab = b
(bc) = (b) c
(b + c) = b + c -
(b c) = b c

1= a 1 = 1 ( 0)
a


3
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( + b) = ( ) + b = + (b )
( )
(b + ) = b
( )
( b) : = ( : ) b = (b : )
( )
: (b ) = : b :
( )
( + b) : = : + b :
( )
( b) : = : b :
( )


4
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y = f (x)
, f(x).
x, x + x,
f(x + x).
: y = f(x + x) f(x).

. f (x).


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0+



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