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373.167.1:811.111
ISBN 978-5-222-28894-8 81.2-9

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Text 1.1
A WORD ABOUT PARACHUTES

A. Parachutes are a technology that started developing years


ago. History knows the name of the Frenchman, Andre Gar-
nerin, who was the first person to make a parachute jump. Origi-
nally, he was interested in flying balloons. But parachutes also
interested him, so he began to experiment with umbrella-shaped
devices. In October 1797, he made the first parachute jump at
a Paris park. It was quite a big parachute, about seven meters
in diameter. The jump was a success attracting a lot of public
attention.
B. The next year, Garnerin announced that his balloon flight
would include a woman as a passenger. The public and the press
were in favor of the project, of course. But the authorities were
against. Garnerin had to prove that it was absolutely all right
for a woman to fly a balloon together with him. He said it could
show her great confidence. So the flight took place, and a young
and beautiful woman got into the balloons basket. The trip
passed without incident.

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C. It looks like Garnerin was able to motivate other young


women to do the same. He had a female student who later be-
came his wife. Not only did she begin her career as a balloonist
but also became the first woman to make a parachute jump. She
did so in October 1799, from an altitude of 900 meters. But of
course those early jumps were not like skydiving of today. The
pioneers of parachute jumping did that in gondolas attached to
parachutes.
D. It was about a hundred years ago that real skydiving
started. Men were the first to do so, in 1911 and 1912. But soon
enough, women followed. In June 1913, a 20-year-old Ameri-
can Georgia Ann Thompson Broadwick made a parachute jump
from a plane over Los Angeles, California. Next year, she dem-
onstrated parachutes to the U.S. Army. At that time the armed
forces had a very small fleet of aircraft. The pilots used no para-
chutes at all. So, a brave young woman showed them how to do
things more safely.
E. Still, fighter pilots didnt use parachutes at the beginning
of the First World War. In the first place, they were too big.
Moreover, some people felt they would have a bad effect on the
courage of pilots. The first military use of the parachute was by
artillery observers who used observation balloons. The balloons
were favorite targets for enemy aircraft. So, the observers mis-
sions were risky. They had to leave the balloons quickly in an
emergency situation by parachute.
F. But the technology didnt stop and finally a standard
pilots parachute was introduced. It is interesting to note that
Russian inventors contributed to the progress in this field. Gleb
Kotelnikov from Russia invented the knapsack ()
parachute. He patented it in France in 1911. During the First
World War, the invention was used successfully by Russian
pilots. Later on, Kotelnikov improved the design and created
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several types of parachutes. Those models were adopted by the


Soviet Air Force and Airborne Troops in the 1930s.
G. You all saw modern military aircraft braking with the
help of parachutes. Well, guess who is behind this invention. It
was in 1912 that a man drove an automobile at top speed on a
road near St. Petersburg. While driving at top speed, he sudden-
ly opened a parachute that was attached to the back seat. The
driver wanted to demonstrate the braking effects of the device.
The drivers name? It was Gleb Kotelnikov, of course. This type
of parachute was used for the first time by Soviet pilots, to land
safely in the Arctic.
1. Like Husband, Like Wife
2. The First Parachute Jump
3. A Womans Advice to Pilots
4. Risk-takers Prefer Skydiving
5. Female Passenger in a Balloon
6. Parachutes in the First World War
7. Parachutes to Slow Down Aircraft
8. The Knapsack Parachute Invented

A B C D E F G

Text 1.2
AIR TRANSPORT HISTORY
A. Historically, powered air transport took two very different
forms. One was heavier-than-air flight and the other, lighter-than-
air flight. At first, people used to fly in balloons. The first suc-
cessful powered balloon flight was made by the French designer
Giffard in 1852. He mounted a steam engine of his own design on
a 147-foot-long balloon. The engine gave the balloon the speed
of six miles per hour. It was just a three-hour ride over Paris.
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B. Many powered balloon flights were made during the next


half century. At the beginning of the 20th century, a huge prize
was offered to the first person who could fly from the Paris
Aero Club around the Eiffel Tower and back in 30 minutes. Two
people took the challenge. One was a young Brazilian named
Santos Dumont. The other was the German Count von Zeppe-
lin. The Brazilian won in the end. It made him an international
celebrity. He often travelled along the streets of Paris at rooftop
level in his airship.

C. However, Santos Dumont soon lost hope for lighter-than-


air flight. He turned to airplanes. But Count von Zeppelin went
on to develop the rigid dirigible into a glorious machine. By
1910, he was flying passengers and achieving remarkable popu-
larity in Germany. Zeppelin airships were also used for military
purposes during the First World War. They were not very effec-
tive, though. In spite of that, von Zeppelin began transoceanic
passenger service with really grand airships.

D. The grandest of these was the Hindenburg. This airship


was completed in 1936. It served 50 passengers and crossed
the Atlantic in two and a half days. It looked more like a two-
story flying hotel. There were rooms, a lounge, a promenade,
and a dining room. Unfortunately, the Hindenburg caught fire
and burned in New Jersey a year later. That accident put an end
to the great dirigibles. People stopped using the dirigible and
went with the airplane.

E. Surprisingly, here comes the latest news from Britain. In


August 2016, a newly-built aircraft made its maiden flight. The
name of the aircraft is Airlander 10. It is part plane and part air-
ship. It is about 100 meters long, which makes it longer than the
biggest passenger jets. In fact, Airlander 10 is considered to be
the largest aircraft in the world. As it often happens, the airship

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was made with military purposes in mind. In fact, the design


was commissioned by the U.S. military.

F. Civilian companies are also involved in dirigible construc-


tion. One of them is the German company that began to produce
helium-filled airships two decades ago. There are several roles
for airships today. Traditional ones include aerial tourism and
passenger services. There are some new roles, too. The hull of
the aircraft is used for advertising. New Zeppelins are used for
observation platforms by aerial photographers and television
commentators. It is also possible to use Zeppelins for environ-
mental research missions for up to 24 hours at a time.

G. The modern Zeppelin is a fancy airship. The base model


has a passenger capacity of 12 in addition to a crew of two.
The airship is equipped with a variable cabin structure. It can
be changed for various purposes and missions. For example, in
a passenger configuration, they can install a dozen seats along
with heating or air conditioning systems, a kitchenette, and a
restroom in the rear cabin area. Large windows provide pan-
oramic views of the outside. It may well be that in the near
future well start traveling in airships again.
1. The Dirigible Is Back
2. The Disaster That Ended It
3. Travelling Around the Globe
4. Modern Dirigibles Look Cool
5. Lighter or Heavier Than Air?
6. Flying Around the Eiffel Tower
7. New Roles for Old Technology
8. The German Invention at Work

A B C D E F G

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Text 1.3
ITS ALL ABOUT FLYING

A. By the time Charles Lindbergh, the legendary pilot, made


his historical non-stop flight from New York to Paris in 1927,
dozens of people had flown across the Atlantic Ocean. It is an
established fact that the first flight was made eight years before
that from New York to Plymouth, England. The flight was made
in a six-man, four-engine navy flying boat. But it stopped in the
Azores and Lisbon on the way.
B. In July 1919, a British dirigible flew from England to
New Jersey and back. Three years later two Portuguese avia-
tors flew a single-engine British seaplane from Lisbon to Rio
de Janeiro. Of course, that was a longer flight than Charles
Lindberghs, but theres one thing about it. The pilots not just
stopped, they changed airplanes on a small Atlantic island.
More flights followed. Finally, in just one year, seven transat-
lantic heavier-than-air flights were made. And believe it or not,
Charles Lindberghs flight was just the third out of seven.
C. So now you might be ready to ask a question. What was
so special about Lindberghs flight? The answer seems simple.
At the time, it was the longest non-stop, heavier-than-air trans-
atlantic flight. Moreover, it was the first solo crossing Lind-
bergh flew alone. And it was not just the pilot himself it was
his plane, too. Lindbergh wanted a special plane. He found a
like-minded designer who specially built the plane, Spirit of St.
Louis, for the crossing. Perhaps, it also helped the pilot to be-
come such a celebrity.
D. Its curious to know that it turned out to be a lot harder
to fly from Europe to America. That happened due to the pre-
vailing winds. That is why the first solo heavier-than-air flight
from east to west wasnt made until 1932. The pilots name was
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James Mollison, and he flew from Ireland. That was the begin-
ning. Soon after, commercial transatlantic flights started in the
late 1930s. It happened about 20 years after the first transatlan-
tic crossing, and 35 years after the Wright brothers.
E. As pilots, women in America tried not to lag behind men
in those days. One of them was Amelia Earhart. She was 22
years old when she visited an airfield with her father. One of
the pilots gave her a ride in his plane. It seems that the event
changed her life completely. After that 10-minute flight that
cost her father $10, she became determined to learn to fly. She
started working at a variety of jobs and managed to save money
for flying lessons. She had to travel far to get to the airfield but
she never changed her mind. And she turned out to be a quick
study.
F. It was really hard work to learn to be a pilot in those days.
But Earhart was ready to face any kind of difficulty. Sometimes
the difficulties were of a very unusual sort. For instance, Amelia
got herself a new leather jacket, just like other pilots. But she
knew that other pilot would look at her like a greenhorn, she
slept in her jacket for three nights to give it a worn look. To
complete her image transformation, she also cropped her hair
short in the style of other female flyers.
G. Flying itself was a far more serious affair. After six
months of training, Earhart bought a second-hand bright yel-
low biplane. She nicknamed her plane The Canary. In October,
1922 she flew her plane to an altitude of 4,300 meters setting a
world record for female pilots. Next year she became the 16th
woman who obtained a pilots license by the International Aero-
nautical Federation.
1. The Dream Came True
2. Learning the Hard Way

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3. What Pilots Looked Like


4. From Europe to America
5. Flights Before Lindbergh
6. Seven Flights in One Year
7. Ten Dollars for Ten Minutes
8. Lindbergh, the One and Only

A B C D E F G

Text 1.4
WHAT IF SOMETHING BAD HAPPENED

A. Flick through the TV channels and there are always some


TV programs dealing with the theme of survival. There are var-
ious reality shows with a group of participants you wouldnt
want to spend five minutes with at the bus stop, let alone a
whole month on an island. There are also more factual shows
where an expert shows you how to survive making a tent and
finding food just in case if you are ever shipwrecked or lost
in the jungle.
B. What does the popularity of such programs tell us? De-
spite the convenient gadgets, tools and technology of the mod-
ern age, we are aware that one day we could end up in a situation
without them. We also know that man is not always in control of
nature we have no power over tsunamis, earthquakes, storms
and volcanic eruptions. Many disasters happen because of hu-
man nature like a plane crash due to a pilots error or a traffic
accident because the driver was sleepy or inattentive. Some-
times we ask ourselves: would I survive if that happened to me?
C. It was his background in the Navy as a diver that helped
save New Zealander Robert Hewitts life after he spent 75 hours
in the freezing open sea. One windy February day he was div-
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Text 2.1
SCHOOL AT HOME
My name is Jordan Baker. I am just a normal kid, like ev-
erybody else. I have an eighteen-year-old sister and a close re-
lationship with all my family. But, unlike other kids, I never
go to bed on Sunday night and dread having to go to school
on Monday. I actually look forward to it. Thats because Im a
homeschooler. Im sure most kids imagine I can get up when-
ever I want, watch TV and pretty much do nothing all day. But
its not like that at all.
Basically, I wake up every weekday at about 8 a.m., show-
er and get dressed. After breakfast I do algebra in the kitchen
with my mom, then we move on to other subjects. My mom is
my main teacher, though she isnt certified, but my dad helps
out, too. After lunch, if I have a big load of schoolwork, I
study for another hour or two and then have piano lessons. I
play all kinds of music classical, jazz, rock, but if I had a
choice I would probably focus on jazz. Its the kind of music

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that gives you more freedom. After that, I either play tennis
or eat dinner and maybe watch TV or read. I also work out
at the gym two or three days a week to be sure I get enough
exercise.
I was taken out of public school not because it was our whim.
At first I went there like everybody else Monday through
Friday. I got on well with my classmates and I loved my first
teacher I am still overjoyed to see her. But when I was in the
second grade I developed a severe allergy I was actually al-
lergic to the plastic that covers school desks almost everywhere.
So my parents had no choice but homeschool me.
My favorite subjects are history and literature, and my least
favorite is algebra, because it doesnt come easy to me. I study
the same stuff most kids learn at public school, but at my own
pace. And I do have to take tests and exams like everybody else.
As a matter of fact I take standardized tests every year just to
see how I am doing. Right now, Im about a year ahead. That
means Im going to graduate when I am sixteen. It brings me
closer to my ultimate goal, which is to become either a pediatri-
cian or a teacher in Africa. I dont think I could have done it if I
had gone to public school.
I would say that the greatest thing about homeschooling is
that I can study things that apply to what is going on in my life.
And nobody rushes me I can spend more time on the topics
that either fascinate or challenge me and go fast through really
easy ones. Plus, since my schedule is flexible, we get to travel
and take day trips when we feel like it rather than wait for sum-
mer vacation or field trips. As a result I have visited most major
museums and sights not only in our state, but many neighboring
ones.
Even with all the pluses, there are a few downsides. Mak-
ing new friends can be tricky. Its not easy to socialize when
there are no other kids around. Luckily, I have friends from our
church and extracurricular activities. Most of my friends go to
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public school and we stay in touch through e-mail. One day,


Id like to homeschool my own kids even with all the work
involved because I know its definitely worth it.

1. Not all kids understand what homeschooling really


means.
1. True
2. False
3. Not stated
2. Several times a week a teacher from school comes to
the girl to teach her.
1. True
2. False
3. Not stated
3. Jordan loves jazz best.
1. True
2. False
3. Not stated
4. Jordan dislikes algebra because it is hard for her.
1. True
2. False
3. Not stated
5. The girls parents were not happy with her progress
at school.
1. True
2. False
3. Not stated
6. Jordans dream is to help people in developing countries.
1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

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A 2 5 5 6 6 2 2 6 3 8 2 3 8 2 4 4 4 3 1 3 6 5 4 3 2
B 5 6 6 3 2 7 4 7 5 4 6 4 6 5 6 6 7 4 8 5 5 3 6 5 6
C 1 8 8 8 4 5 6 1 4 2 5 5 2 7 8 7 3 1 6 4 2 6 5 7 3

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D 3 2 4 7 7 8 5 8 2 7 1 1 3 8 3 5 8 5 3 7 4 2 1 6 7
E 6 1 7 1 1 6 7 5 8 1 7 7 4 6 2 2 2 7 2 8 8 7 2 1 5


F 8 7 2 4 3 3 1 2 6 3 3 2 7 1 5 8 5 8 5 2 1 4 8 4 1
G 7 4 1 2 5 1 8 4 7 6 8 6 1 4 1 3 1 6 4 1 3 8 3 2 8

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