Page 51
Section 5: Sequences And Series
5.1
SEQUENCES
5.1.1 Basic Deﬁnitions Concerning Sequences
Deﬁnition 1:
A sequence is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers.
Notation for Sequences:
Let u(n), with n
When we use this notation, u _{n} will be called the n ^{t}^{h} term of the sequence.
∈
N, be a sequence. We will denote this sequence by {u _{n} } or {u _{1} , u _{2} ,
,
u _{n} ,
.}.
Deﬁnition 2:
Let A ⊆ R. A is said to be bounded above if there exists α ∈ R such that a ≤ α for each
a ∈ A. Further, such an α is said to be an upper bound for A.
Similarly, A is said to be bounded below if and only if there exists β ∈ R such that
β ≤ a for each a ∈ A. Further, such a β is said to be a lower bound for A.
Finally, A is said to be bounded if and only if A is bounded both above and below.
Examples:
N 
is bounded below but not bounded. 
Z 
is neither bounded above or below. 
[−1, 1] is bounded.
1,
1
1
2 ^{,} _{3} ^{,}
,
1
_{n} ^{,}
is bounded.
Deﬁnition 3:
A sequence {u _{n} } is said to be monotonic increasing if u _{n} ≤ u _{n}_{+}_{1} for each n ∈ N.
Similarly, a sequence {u _{n} } is said to be monotonic decreasing if u _{n}_{+}_{1} ≤ u _{n} for each
n ∈ N. A sequence which is either monotonic increasing or monotonic decreasing will be
said to be monotonic.
Finally, we say {u _{n} } is strictly monotonic increasing if u _{n} < u _{n}_{+}_{1} for each n ∈ N.
Similarly, we have strictly monotonic decreasing sequences.
Deﬁnition 4:
A sequence {u _{n} } is said to converge and to have limit L if and only if for each > 0,
there exists n _{0} ∈ N such that u _{n} − L < whenever n > n _{0} . If {u _{n} } has limit L, we will
write L = lim
n→∞ ^{u} ^{n} ^{.}
If a sequence {u _{n} } does not converge to any limit L, the sequence is said to diverge.
Page 52
5.1.2 Monotone Convergence Theorem
Theorem 1: Monotone Convergence Theorem
(i) If {u _{n} } is a monotonic increasing sequence of real numbers that is bounded above, then
{u _{n} } has a limit. Further, its limit α is the “least upper bound” of {u _{n} }.
(ii) If {u _{n} } is a monotonic decreasing sequence of real numbers that is bounded below,
then {u _{n} } has a limit. Further, its limit β is the “greatest lower bound” of {u _{n} }.
5.1.3 Properties of Convergent Sequences
The three theorems of this section are fundamental tools in analysing the behaviour of sequences.
The following theorem is often called the “squeezing theorem” (or the “pinching theorem”), because it
gives information on the limit of a sequence whose terms are “squeezed” between those of two other
sequences.
Theorem 3:
Suppose that {u _{n} }, {v _{n} } and {w _{n} } are sequences such that u _{n} ≤ v _{n} ≤ w _{n} for all n ∈ N. If
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} = lim
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} w _{n} = L for some L, then lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} v _{n} exists and also equals L.
Example:
Let u _{n} = ^{s}^{i}^{n} ^{n} . Find
Solution:
We will show lim
We have
n
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} (if it exists).
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} exists and equals 0.
for all n ∈ N. Also,
−
n 1 _{≤} sin n n
1
n ^{,}
^{≤}
lim
n→∞ ^{−}
1
_{n} =
lim
n→∞
1
_{n} = 0.
Therefore, by the Squeezing Theorem, lim _{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} exists and equals 0.
Another basic tool for analysing sequences is given in the following theorem, which allows us to use
techniques developed for studying limits of functions (l’Hˆopitals’s rule, for example) to give us information
about limits of sequences.
Page 53
Theorem 4:
Let f : R → R be a function.
If lim
_{x}_{→}_{∞} f (x) exists, then for n ∈ N, lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} f (n) exists, and lim
_{x}_{→}_{∞} f (x) = lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} f (n).
Example:
Let u _{n} =
^{n} _{+} _{1} , and hence f (x) =
n
^{2}
^{x} _{+} _{1} , for x ∈ R.
x
^{2}
_{x}_{→}_{∞} f (x) = lim
lim
x→∞
x
_{+} _{1} = 0 (by L’Hˆopital’s rule, or otherwise.)
x
^{2}
Now f (n) = u _{n} =
^{n} _{+} _{1} , and so by Theorem 4, lim
n
^{2}
_{n}_{→}_{∞} f (n) = 0.
Example:
In Exercise 2N, Question 4, L’Hˆopital’s rule should have been used to show that
x→∞ lim ^{1} ^{+} x x
1
= e.
It follows immediately from Theorem 4 that the sequence u _{n} : u _{n} = 1 + _{n} n converges with limit
e.
1
Exercise 5A
1. Write down an example of each of the follow ing:
(a) 
a monotonic sequence that does not converge. 

(b) 
a bounded sequence that does not con verge. 

(c) 
strictly monotonic increasing sequence which converges to 4. 

(d) 
a monotonic increasing sequence of in tegers that converges. 

(a) 2. Determine the values of r for which the 

sequence {r ^{n} } 
converges. 

(b) 
If {r ^{n} } converges, ﬁnd the limit. 
3. Determine whether or not the following se quences converge. If they do, ﬁnd their lim its.
(a)
(b)
(c)
2n − 1
n
(−1) ^{n}
n
n ^{2} − 2n + 3
^{n}
+ 1
2
ln(n + 1)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
^{l}^{n} ^{n}
n
^{2}
n
n
2
e
2
^{n}
n
^{} e ^{−}^{n} sin n ^{} {1 − cos(n + 1)π}
4. Write down an expression for the n ^{t}^{h} term
for each of the following sequences. Find the limit of the sequences which converge.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
2
2 ^{,} 3 ^{,} 3
1
4
4 ^{,} 5
,
.
.
.
1,
0,
1 1
1
1 − ^{1}
, 1 − ^{2}
, 1 −
3 ,
^{l}^{n} ^{2}
2
_{,}
2
3
ln 3 _{,} ln 4
3
4
,
.
.
4
.
.
.
.
1,
2
3
4
2 ^{2} − 1 ^{2} ^{,} 3 ^{2} − 2 ^{2} ^{,} _{4} ^{2} _{−} _{3} ^{2} ^{,}
1
2 3
.
2 − ^{1}
, 3 − ^{1}
, 4 −
1 ,
2
3
4
.
.
continued next page
Page 54
5. We wish to prove that a sequence can have only one limit. Let {u _{n} } be a sequence.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Write down the deﬁnition that
L =
lim
n→∞ ^{u} ^{n} ^{.}
Suppose that L _{1} = lim
L
Write down the deﬁnition that
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} and
1
= L.
L _{1} =
lim
n→∞ ^{u} ^{n} ^{.}
Note that if _{1} and _{2} are any positive real numbers, there exist n _{0} , m _{0} ∈ N
5.2 INTRODUCTION TO SERIES
5.2.1 Sequences of Partial Sums
for which L − u _{n}  < _{1} if n > n _{0} , and L _{1} − u _{n}  < _{2} if n > m _{0} .
Rewrite (c) in the particular case when _{1} = _{2} L _{1} − L and _{2} = _{2} L _{1} − L.
Use the triangle inequality and (d) to show that if L _{1} − L = 0, then L _{1} − L < L _{1} − L. This is clearly false. Thus, L _{1} − L = 0 and L _{1} = L.
Hence, limits of convergent sequences are unique.
(d)
(e)
1
1
Deﬁnition 5:
Let {u _{n} } be a sequence. We deﬁne a “new” sequence {s _{n} }, called the sequence of partial
sums of {u _{n} }, by the rule that s _{n} =
n
i=1
u _{i} , for each n ∈ N.
If we list the terms of {s _{n} }, we see that
s _{1} = u _{1} ,
s _{2} = u _{1} + u _{2} ,
s _{3} = u _{1} + u _{2} + u _{3} ,
s _{n} = u _{1} + u _{2} + ··· + u _{n} =
n
i=1
u _{i} ,
etc.
The sequence {s _{n} } of partial sums is called a series or an inﬁnite series.
If lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} s _{n} = S exists, then we have
S =
lim
n→∞
n
i=1
u _{i} ,
and this is usually abbreviated to read
S =
∞
i=1
u _{i} ,
and the limit S is usually called the sum of the series.
Note:
The notation
∞
u _{n} is used both for the sequence of partial sums itself, and for the limit of the sequence
n=1
of partial sums (when it exists).
If lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} s _{n} = S, we say that
∞
u _{n} is a convergent series.
n=1
If lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} s _{n} does not exist, then we say that
∞
n=1
u _{n} is a divergent series.
Notation:
Sometimes a summation commences at an index other than n = 1. If it starts with n = 0, for example,
as in
∞
n=0
u _{n} , then the ﬁrst term corresponds to n = 0, the second to n = 1, etc. (unless we speciﬁcally
refer to a “zeroth” term of the series).
Care must be taken in these instances when ﬁnding {s _{n} }, the sum to n terms:
s _{n} =
n−1
i=0
u _{i} ,
rather than
s _{n} =
n
i=1
u _{i} .
Page 55
Example:
Determine if
n=1 2
∞
^{3} n
converges. If it does, ﬁnd its sum.
Solution:
At this stage, we have only the deﬁnition of a series available as a tool. We will form {s _{n} }, and try to
compute lim
First,
,
n→∞ ^{s} ^{n} ^{.}
s _{1} =
2
_{3} ^{,}
s _{2} = ^{2} _{3} +
2
3 2
2
3
^{+} _{3} 2 + ··· +
2
2
3 n
,
.
.
.
s _{n} =
.
Note that
^{2} _{3} s _{n} =
3 _{2} +
2
2
_{3} 3 + ··· +
3 _{n} +
2
3 ^{} n+1
2
.
Therefore,
2
s _{n} − _{3} s _{n} =
2
3 ^{−}
_{3} n+1 ,
2
and so
1 − _{3} s _{n} =
2
2
3
− _{2}
3 n+1
.
Thus
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} s _{n}
=
n→∞ lim ^{2} ^{−} ^{3}
3 n+1 ^{}
2
n→∞
=
= 2.
2 − 3 lim
3 ^{} n+1
2
That is,
∞
n=1
2
3 n
converges, with sum 2.
Exercise 5B
1. Find an explicit expression for the n ^{t}^{h} partial sum of the series
1 −
2 +
1
1
2 ^{−}
3 +
1
1
3 ^{−} 4
1
+ ··· +
1
_{n} _{+} _{1} + ··· .
1
n ^{−}
Hence ﬁnd the sum of the series
1
1
1
1
n · (n + 1) ^{+} ^{·}^{·}^{·}^{.}
2. Using a technique similar to that in ques tion 1, determine whether or not the follow
1 · 2 ^{+} 2 · 3 ^{+}
_{3} _{·} _{4} + ··· +
ing series converges:
ln ^{1} _{2} + ln ^{2} _{3} + ln _{4} + · · · + ln _{n} _{+} _{1} + ···.
3
n
5.2.2 Some Special Series
(i) Geometric Series
A series of the form
∞
n=0
r ^{n} , r ∈ R, is called a geometric series (the summation may start at
an index other than 0).
The n ^{t}^{h} term in the corresponding sequence of partial sums {s _{n} } is given by
s _{n} = 1 + r + r ^{2} +
+
r ^{n}^{−}^{1} .
By the procedure used in the last example, s _{n} can be written as _{s} n _{=} 1 − r ^{n}
1 − r ^{.} We conclude that if r  < 1, then the geometric series is convergent with sum
s =
lim
n→∞ ^{s} ^{n} ^{=}
1
1 − r ^{,}
and that if r ≥ 1, then the geometric series is divergent.
Page 56
(ii) pSeries
A series of the form
∞
n=1
1
_{p} , p ∈ R is called a pseries.
n
The pseries obtained by letting p = 1 is called the harmonic series, and has the form
∞
1
n ^{.}
n=1
It will be shown using the integral test (Section 5.3.3) that a pseries converges for p > 1, and
diverges for p ≤ 1.
5.2.3 The n ^{t}^{h} Term Test
The deﬁnition of convergence is diﬃcult to apply when the partial sums {s _{n} } do not have a simple form.
For this reason, we will develop indirect tests for convergence. The ﬁrst such test states that a necessary
condition for
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} = 0.
∞
n=1
u _{n} to converge is that
lim
Theorem 5:
If
∞
n=1
The n ^{t}^{h} Term Test
u _{n} converges, then lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} = 0.
Consequences of the n ^{t}^{h} Term Test
Let
∞
n=1
(i)
u _{n} be an inﬁnite series.
If lim
n→∞ ^{u} ^{n}
= 0, then
∞
n=1
u _{n} diverges.
(ii)
If
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} = 0, then
lim
∞
n=1
u _{n} may either converge or diverge; that is, in this case, the n ^{t}^{h} term
test gives no information about the convergence or divergence of
∞
n=1
u _{n} .
5.2.4 Properties of Convergent Series
Page 57
Proof:
(i)
Let
s _{n} =
n
i=1
u _{i} ,
let S _{n} = ^{} _{i}_{=}_{1} ^{n} cu _{i}
Then for each n ∈ N,
S _{n}
=
=
i=1
= c
= cs _{n} .
cu _{1} + cu _{2} +
n
cu _{i}
n
i=1
u i
and let
+ cu _{n}
Using the properties listed in section 5.1.3, lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} S _{n}
=
=
=
s =
lim
n→∞ ^{s} ^{n} ^{.}
lim
n→∞ ^{c}^{s} ^{n}
c lim
n→∞ ^{s} ^{n}
cs.
Using a similar argument, we obtain the result that
.
if
∞
n=1
u _{n} diverges, and c
= 0, then
∞
n=1
c u _{n} diverges
Exercise 5C
1.
Determine, giving reasons, whether the fol lowing series converge or diverge. Find the sum, if it exists.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
∞
n=1
1
5 n
n=1 2 − 1
∞
^{3} n−1
∞
n=1 3
2
_{3} n + 2
∞
n=1 4
3
n
1
2
_{n}
2.
(e)
(f)
(g)
∞
n=1
∞
n=1
∞
k=1
n
n
+ 2
1
10n
k ^{2}
k
+ 1
Express the following repeating decimals as rational numbers by summing a geometric se ries.
(a)
(b)
0.22222
3.013013013
5.3 SERIES OF POSITIVE TERMS
5.3.1 Test 1: Comparison Test
Page 58
Proof:
∞ 

(i) 
Let 
c _{n} be a known convergent series, and let {S _{n} } be the sequence of partial sums for this 

n=1 

series. 

We note ﬁrst of all that {S _{n} } is a strictly increasing monotonic sequence which converges. 

Thus {S _{n} } is bounded 

∞ 

We now let {s _{n} } be the sequence of partial sums for 

u _{n} . We note that {s _{n} } is a strictly 

n=1 

increasing monotonic sequence. Thus, by the Monotone Convergence Theorem, {s _{n} } will converge 

provided that it is bounded. 

For simplicity, we will let n _{0} = 1 in the statement of Test 1. 

Then we have s _{1} = u _{1} ≤ 
c _{1} = S _{1} , 

s _{2} = u _{1} + u _{2} ≤ 
c _{1} + c _{2} = S _{2} , 

. 
. 
. 

s _{n} = s _{n}_{−}_{1} + u _{n} ≤ 
S _{n}_{−}_{1} + c _{n} = S _{n} . 

But {S _{n} } bounded implies {s _{n} } bounded. 

∞ 

Thus, {s _{n} } converges, that is, 
u _{n} converges. 

n=1 

∞ 
∞ 
∞ 

(ii) 
If 
u _{n} converges, then by (i), 

d _{n} converges. But we are given that 

d _{n} diverges. 

n=1 
n=1 
n=1 
Thus, we have a contradiction, so
∞
n=1
Example:
Does
∞
n=1
Solution:
STEP 1:
n
_{+} _{1} converge or diverge?
n
^{2}
We apply the n ^{t}^{h} term test.
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n}
=
lim
n→∞
u _{n} must diverge.
1
n +
1
n
=
0.
Thus, the n ^{t}^{h} term test gives no information about the convergence of
STEP 2:
Determine the approximate behaviour of
∞
u _{n} =
^{1}
1 n=1
≈
n +
1
n
n ^{.}
u _{n} .
∞
n=1
n
n ^{2} + 1 ^{.}
Thus, we would guess that the series “behaves like” the harmonic series, which is
a known divergent series. We now wish to prove that our guess is correct.
STEP 3:
Use Test 1 (the Comparison Test).
1
Since n + _{n} ≤ n + 1, we have
1
n + 1 ^{≤} n +
1
1
n
= u _{n} .
But
∞
n=1
1
_{n} _{+} _{1} is the harmonic series, less one term, and therefore diverges.
1
If we let d _{n} = _{n} _{+} _{1} , then d _{n} ≤ u _{n} , and by the Comparison Test,
∞
n=1
u _{n} diverges.
Page 59
Remarks:
(1)
(2)
1
If the more obvious inequality n ≤ n + _{n} was tried in Step 3, divergence could not be concluded
from the Comparison Test: we would have
u _{n} =
^{1}
n +
1
n
≤
1
_{n}
= d _{n} ,
and the Comparison Test would fail to apply.
1
In Step 3, we could instead have used the inequality n + _{n} ≤ n + n = 2n.
5.3.2 Test 2: Comparison Ratio Test
Proof: (Parts (i) and (ii) when L > 0.)
Let lim
n→∞
u n
c n
= L. ¿From Deﬁnition 4, for each > 0, there is n _{0} ∈ N such that
u
n
c n
− L _{} < whenever
n > n _{0} .
If we let = ^{L} , then there is n _{0} ∈ N such that
2
Thus, whenever n > n _{0} ,
u
n
c
n
− L ^{<} ^{L}
2
whenever n > n _{0} .
− ^{L} + L
2
<
^{u}
c
^{n}
n
<
L + ^{L} ,
2
giving
^{L}
2
^{<}
^{u}
c
^{n}
n
_{<}
3L
_{2} ,
But we know that
∞
c _{n}
n=1
is convergent, which implies that
Therefore, by the Comparison Test,
∞
n=1
u _{n} converges.
and therefore
^{L}
2
c
_{n}
<
∞
n=1
3L
_{2} c _{n} is convergent.
If we now change the c _{n} ’s to d _{n} ’s and apply the same procedure, we have ^{L} d _{n} < u _{n} .
2
Therefore, by the Comparison Test,
∞
u _{n} diverges.
n=1
u _{n}
<
^{3}^{L}
_{2}
c _{n} .
Page 510
Example:
Does
∞
n=1
Solution:
n
_{+} _{1} converge or diverge?
n
^{2}
For Step 1 and Step 2, see the example in section 5.3.1.
STEP 3:
Use the Comparison Ratio Test.
Since we have decided that the series u _{n} =
^{1}
n +
1
n
1
we let d _{n} = _{n} in the Comparison Ratio Test.
Now,
lim
n→∞
u n
d
n
=
= 1.
lim
n→∞
n
n +
1
n
Hence, by part (ii) of the Comparison Ratio Test,
“behaves like” the harmonic series,
∞
n=1
u _{n} diverges.
Exercise 5D
1.
Giving reasons, determine whether each of the following series converges or diverges:
4
2
3
5
_{4} _{·} _{6} + ···
(a)
1 · 3 ^{+} 2 · 4 ^{+} 3 · 5 ^{+}
(b)
(c)
(d)
∞
n=1
∞
n=1
∞
n=1
sin ^{2} n
2
^{n}
_{e}
−n
5
^{n}
2n + 1 3n ^{2} + 1
2.
Let
∞
n=1
u _{n} be a convergent series of positive
terms, and
∞
n=1
v _{n} a divergent series. Prove
or disprove the following statements.
3.
(a)
(b)
(c)
∞
n=1
∞
n=1
∞
n=1
(u _{n} + v _{n} ) is a divergent series.
2
u _{n} is a convergent series.
2
v _{n} is a convergent series.
Prove part (i) of the Comparison Ratio Test if L = 0.
5.3.3 Test 3: The Integral Test
An outline of the proof will be given in lectures. A more formal proof is included in Exercise 5E.
Page 511
Example:
Does
∞
n=1
n
_{+} _{1} converge or diverge?
n
^{2}
Solution:
We know from previous examples that this series diverges. In order to apply the integral test, we must
construct a function f (x) to be associated with the series.
STEP 1:
STEP 2:
Let f (x) =
^{x} _{+} _{1} . If we let u _{n} =
x
^{2}
^{n} _{+} _{1} , then for each n ∈ N, f (n) = u _{n} .
n
^{2}
Is f (x) continuous, positive and decreasing on [1, ∞)?
f(x) =
x
^{2}
^{x} _{+} _{1}
=⇒
f ^{} (x) =
^{−}^{x} ^{2} ^{+} ^{1}
(x ^{2} + 1) ^{2} ^{.}
Since x and x ^{2} + 1 are continous on [1, ∞), f is continous on [1, ∞).
If x > 1, then f (x) > 0.
Finally, f ^{} (x) < 0 if x > 1.
So f (x) is positive for x ∈ [1, ∞).
So f (x) is decreasing for x ∈ [1, ∞).
Thus, f is continuous, positive and decreasing on [1, ∞).
STEP 3:
Does ∞ f (x) dx converge or diverge?
1
∞
1
x dx x ^{2} +
_{1} =
=
=
b→∞ b
lim
1
x dx x ^{2} + 1
b→∞
lim
1
_{2} ln(x ^{2} + 1) b
1
lim
b→∞
1
_{2} ln(b ^{2} + 1) − _{2} ln 2.
1
_{b}_{→}_{∞} ln(b ^{2} + 1) does not exist. Thus, ∞
1
But lim
x dx
_{x} ^{2} _{+} _{1} diverges.
Hence, by the Integral Test,
∞
n=1
n
^{2}
n _{+} _{1} diverges.
Exercise 5E
1. Use the integral test to examine the following series for convergence:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
1
1
1
· 2 ^{+} 2 · 3 ^{+} 3 · 4 ^{+}
1
1
_{4} _{·} _{5} + ···
1 +
1 1
^{√} 2 ^{+} ^{√} 3 ^{+}
1
√ 4 + ···
1 +
1
^{1}
1
_{2} 3/2 ^{+} _{3} 3/2 ^{+}
1
_{4} _{3}_{/}_{2} + ···
1 1
1
ln 2 ^{+} 3 ln 3 ^{+} 4 ln 4 ^{+} 5 ln 5 ^{+} ^{·}^{·}^{·}
2
^{1}
1
^{√} 1 ^{2} + 1 ^{+} ^{√} 2 ^{2} + 1 ^{+}
1
√ 3 _{2} + 1 + ···
2. By considering the following examples, show that the Comparison Ratio Test fails if
Let d _{n} =
1
_{n} and use
∞
n=1
d
n
lim
n→∞
d
n
u
n
= 0.
as a “known divergent series”.
(a)
(b)
1
If u _{n} = _{n} _{l}_{n} _{n} , show that
lim
n→∞
u
n
d
n
^{} By Question 1,
∞
n=1
u _{n} diverges. ^{}
1
If u _{n} = _{n} _{3}_{/}_{2} , show that
lim
n→∞
u
n
d
n
=
0.
= 0.
^{} By Question 1,
∞
n=1
u _{n} converges. ^{}
Parts (a) and (b) show that
lim
n→∞
u
n
d
n
does not imply that
∞
u _{n} diverges.
= 0
n=1
continued next page
Page 512
3. Let f be continuous, and nonincreasing on [1, ∞).
If we let F (x) = x f (t) dt, then by the
(a)
i
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, F is continuous on [i, x] and diﬀerentiable on (i, x).
By applying the Mean Value Theorem to F on [i, x], show that there is α ∈ (i, x) for which
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(x − i)f (α) = F (x).
If we let x = i + 1 in (a), we have
^{} i+1
i
f (x) dx = f (α _{i} ),
where i < α _{i} < i + 1.
Since f is a nonincreasing function, we have for each i ∈ N,
u _{i} = f(i) ≥ f(α _{i} ) ≥ f (i + 1) = u _{i}_{+}_{1} .
Using (b) and (c), we have, for each i ∈
^{N}^{,} u i ≥ i+1
f (x) dx ≥ u _{i}_{+}_{1} .
i
Show that
n
i=1
u _{i}
≥
= ^{} n+1
1
n
i=1
^{} i+1
i
f (x) dx
f (x) dx
≥
n+1
i=1
u _{i} − u _{1} .
(f) Show how the LHS of (e) can be used to show that
if
∞
u _{i} converges,
i=1
then ∞ f (x) dx converges, and
1
if ∞ f (x) dx diverges,
1
then
∞
u _{i}
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