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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Concrete is one of the most commonly used materials for construction. Aside from

the fact that it can be cast into just about any shape, it has good compressive strength.

It is available just about anywhere and is relatively cheap compared to any other materials

such as steel. Concrete is composed of cement powder coarse and fine aggregates,

normally sand and crushed rock and water. It can be either mixed manually or by a large

mixing plant.

Buildings, roads, bridges and other similar structures are usually made of concrete.

Concrete is a universal building material. Factors that make it famous are so pronounced

that it has been used for a long time now. Concrete while plastic, can be deposited into

forms or molds in any practical shape. They are, fire resistant, weather resistant and one

of the most economical modern construction material easily available in the market.

These are just few of the advantages this type of material has to offer (Ronald L. Orale,

2008).

In any case, production of concrete has a problem. Already recognized through its

use in countless architectural eyesores, from tower blocks to car parks, concretes

environmental credentials are also now coming under inspection. The material is used so

widely that world cement production now contributes 5 percent of annual global Carbon

Dioxide (CO2) production. And the problem looks set to get worse: already produced in

over 2 billion tonne quantities per year. By 2050, concrete use is predicted to reach four
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times the 1990 level. One solution to this problem is the development of concrete

additives. It could produce a stronger, more workable material that will result to the

reduction of the amount of cement required and the resulting CO2 emissions (Chemistry

World, 2008).

The uncollected garbage remaining in the streets, the unfortunate incidents

resulting in the death of many people in the Payatas landfill, the closure of the soild waste

landfills which were used as the disposal sites for the garbage of Metro Manila, the

additional payments that household, homeowners associations, subdivisions, and

industries have to shoulder in the disposal of their wastes, increased information and

education campaigns, and the passage of Republic Act No. 9003, also known as the

Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, increased the awareness if the people

of the need for better implementation of solid waste management strategies such as

waste minimization and segregation. (Silverio, 2002)

The fast growing rate of development in the country and other parts of the world

has negative effects on the environment. Aside from the pollution it releases to the earth

and its atmosphere, it also needs energy to provide power to establishments and homes.

Building structures are associated with development and because of this, the utilization

rate of common construction materials have become so rapid that the depletion of the

said resources is very apparent. The task is thrown to developers/researchers to find new

construction materials that would slow down the rate of depletion especially those which

are considered non-renewable (Ronald L. Orale, 2008).


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The Earth today is facing complex environmental problems. This being a social

concern, calls for a strong unified action among citizens in the world to respond with

fervent commitment and demonstrate their social responsibility towards the preservation

and conservation of the countrys natural resources (Lilian I Durango-Balbon, 2005). As

the world population grows, the amount and type of waste being generated also

increases. Many of the waste produced today would remain in the environment for

hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years. The creation of non-decaying waste materials,

combined with a growing consumer population, has resulted in a waste disposal crisis.

One solution in this crisis lies in recycling waste into useful products. Research into new

and innovative uses of waste materials is continually advancing. Many highway agencies,

private organizations and individuals have completed or are in the process of completing

a wide variety of studies and research projects concerning the feasibility, environmental

suitability, and performance of using recycled products in highway construction. These

studies try to match societys need for safe and economic disposal of waste materials

with the highway industrys need for better and more cost-effective construction materials

(Robin L. Schroeder, 1994).

The researchers came across a study about chitin. It states that chitin is an

interesting material component with high potential as mechanical reinforcement in a

variety of nanomaterials - a material having particles of nanoscale dimensions. Chitin

nanofibers possess high mechanical potential and are comparable to many nonrenewable

fossil-based materials such as Kevlar, glass, aramid, or asbestos fibers because of the
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favourable crystal structure in terms of extended polymer chain conformation (Ngesa

Ezekiel Mushi, 2014).

Chitin is an important reinforcing component in load-bearing structures in many

organisms like insects and crustaceans such as shrimps (NE Mushi, 2014). And so it led

to the idea of using shrimp shell powder as an additive to concrete.

Shrimp shell contains chitinlinear polymer and the second most abundant natural

biopolymer on Earth. The polymer and its water soluble derivative, chitosan, are used in

only a few suitable areas of industrial chemistry, such as cosmetics, textiles, water

treatment and biomedicine (Ning Yan & Xi Chen, 2015).

Another aspect of shrimp shell is its abundance on the environment. Some 6

million to 8 million tonnes of waste crab, shrimp and lobster shells are produced globally

every year about 1.5 million tonnes in Southeast Asia alone (Food and Agriculture

Organization of the United Nations, 2014). Some of these are being discarded and are

disposed in landfills and even in oceans causing water pollution. Nowadays, it is important

to recycle these wastes in order to preserve the environment. Shrimp shell wastes will be

used as an admixture for concrete, since it is rich in chitin. Not only will it lessen the

wastes, it is also less expensive compared to the commercial additives. This study will

focus on the effects of the powdered shrimp shell on the properties of concrete.

Presently, in the developed countries the concrete technology has reached on the

high level and has remarkably success in terms of the development of their additives for
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a better quality of concrete. However, in our country because of lack of information and

awareness about its uses and effects, additives are less recognized in the construction

industry. But because of the abundance of these waste since our country is composed

mostly of coastal areas, the industry might be interested in mixing it for better quality of

concrete.

Background of the Study

The researchers will be conducting this study because of the urgent need to recycle

dried shrimp shell powder in order to minimize if not totally eliminate wastes. Instead of

throwing or dumping these non-biodegradable wastes and burning them, these maybe

collected and be made into something more practical and beneficial.

The study is designed to give an alternative option in reducing solid waste by

reusing them for man's advantage. It likewise means to aid the innovative work of specific

aspect in the field of construction and set up a clearer way to the environment of the

technological side of a specific subject. With the expanding populace, the volume of solid

waste especially shrimp shell quickly increment. This is because of its need to give service

to the community that lacks information on the current technology. The review not simply

gives a thought of controlling the measure of solid waste additionally incorporates a

thought in the construction industry.

The most popular artificial material on Earth isnt steel, plastic, or aluminum its

concrete. Thousands of years ago, we used it to build civilizations, but then our

knowledge of how to make it was lost. When we think concrete, we usually picture white

pavements, swimming pools, and building foundations. Most of us arent aware of


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concretes fiery volcanic origin story, or that concrete is a $100 billion dollar industry. In

fact, its the most widely-used material on our planet after water. Ton for ton, humans

use more concrete today than steel, wood, plastics, and aluminum combined. Unlike

aluminum, steel or plastic, the word concrete doesnt refer to a single material. It can

be any number of substances that combine rocks or gravel with some kind of adhesive

material. Basically, concrete is just a bunch of rubble mixed with water and cement.

Together, these ingredients form rocky jello that can be poured into a mold and shaped

into whatever the heck you like. Liquid stone, its sometimes called. Theres evidence that

humans have been tinkering with concrete for thousands of years. But it was the Romans

who really mastered the craft, and they probably learned about it from volcanoes. Over

two thousand years ago, at the height of the Roman Empire, the port city of Pozzuoli was

a buzzing center of military activity and commerce. Every day, ships left Pozzuoli laden

with useful goods, including grains, iron, weapons, and pozzolana, an ashy volcanic sand

formed in the nearby supervolcano Campi Flegrei. Why were the Romans exporting

volcanic spew to the far corners of the known world? It so happens that this sand was

special. Mix it with water, and it would form a mortar strong enough to bind lumps of

rock together into an impenetrable, load-bearing material. By sheer luck, the Romans had

built a city atop a natural cement factory. Turns out, pozzolana is a mixture of silica oxides

and lime, two of the three key ingredients in cement (the third being water). It wasnt

until this year that a Stanford geochemist worked out how this unusual ash forms. The

deep interior of Campi Flegreis caldera is padded in limestone, a soft, crumbly rock

composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). As geothermally-heated water washes over the


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calderas limestone walls, it triggers a decarbonation reaction, releasing CO 2 gas and

leaving behind calcium hydroxide, otherwise known as hydrated lime. Heres the reaction

describing that process: CaCO3 (limestone) + heat + H2O > Ca (OH)2 + CO2. Circulating

geothermal fluids inside Campi Flegrei bring some of this lime closer to the surface, where

it combines with silica-rich ash to form an impenetrable, cement-like caprock. But

eventually, enough pressure builds up inside the volcano that this caprock bends and

breaks. When that happens, the same cement-forming ingredients spew skyward, as

pozzolana ash. Geochemist Tiziana Vanorio suspects the ancient Romans first watched

pozzolana hardening into cement in the seawater surrounding Campi Flegrei. They co-

opted the natural process, mixing in small chunks of pumice a porous volcanic rock

that forms when superheated magma is quickly cooled. And just like that, Roman

concrete was born. It became an iconic building material of the ancient world, and its

the reason many Roman structures, including the Colosseum and the Pantheon, have

survived to the present day. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the art of concrete-

making was all but forgotten. It gradually returned centuries later, but didnt become

widespread again until 1824, when Joseph Aspdin developed and patented Portland

cement. The main ingredient in Aspdins cement is Calcium silicates, formed by heating

limestone and silica-rich clays in an oven to roughly 1,100F. Just as Campi Flegrei had

been doing for thousands of years. Today, Portland cement is quite literally the glue that

holds the world together, forming the basis of concrete, mortar, stucco and grout. The

main post-Roman Empire innovation was the addition of aluminum and iron oxides, which

add strength and allow the calcium silicates to form at lower temperatures. But concrete
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isnt just cement. In modern times, weve discovered a plethora of additives that can be

useful depending on whether youre trying to build a highway overpass, a dam, a

reservoir, a runway, a boat, or a building. There are additives that increase concretes

electrical conductivity, strength, ductility, and resistance to acid corrosion. There are

chemical retardants that slow concretes hydration, accelerators that speed it up, and

plasticizers that increase its workability (Gizmodo, 2016).

An additive is a substance added in another in small portions to improve desired

qualities or suppress undesired properties. Concrete additives can either be liquid or

powdered additives. They are added to the mixture in small quantities to increase the

durability of the concrete, to fix concrete behavior and to control setting or hardening.

Concrete additives have various functions depending on what the contractor wants to

achieve. There are two main types of concrete additives which are chemical and mineral.

Chemical additives reduce the cost of construction, modify properties of hardened

concrete, ensure quality of concrete during mixing/transporting/placing/curing, and

overcome certain emergencies during concrete operations. Mineral additives make

mixtures more economical, reduce permeability, increase strength, and influence other

concrete properties. Mineral admixtures affect the nature of the hardened concrete

through hydraulic or pozzolanic activity. Pozzolans are cementitious materials and include

natural pozzolans (such as the volcanic ash used in Roman concrete), fly ash and silica

fume. They can be used with Portland cement, or blended cement either individually or

in combinations (Construction Review Online, 2014).


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One cause of water pollution is the dumping of food wastes in landfills and the

ocean. Biodegradable wastes comprise about half (52.31%) of MSW although primary

data suggest that figures can range from 30% to as much as 78%. Typical bio-waste

consists of kitchen or food waste and yard or garden waste. From the available

information, it could be estimated that 86.2% of compostable waste comes from food

scraps (National Solid Waste Management Status Report, 2008 2014). Waste

mismanagement has serious environmental effects making the passage of the Republic

Act (RA) 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 a landmark

environmental legislation in the Philippines. The law was crafted in response to the

looming garbage problems in the country. RA 9003 declares the policy of the state in

adopting a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program

that ensures the protection of public health and the environment and the proper

segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through

the formulation and adoption of best environmental practices. Moreover, it illustrates the

potentials and benefits of recycling not only in addressing waste management problems

but also in alleviating poverty (Albert P. Aquino, Jamaica Angelica P. Deriquito, and Meliza

A. Festejo, 2013).

In developing countries, waste shells are often just dumped in landfill or the sea.

Yet shells harbour useful chemicals protein, calcium carbonate and chitin, a polymer

similar to cellulose, but which contains nitrogen (Ning Yan & Xi Chen, 2015). In this study,

the researchers will use these shrimp shell wastes as an additive to concrete since it is

abundant in chitin.
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Statement of the Problem

The main focus of this research is to study the effects of dried powder shrimp

shells on the properties of concrete.

Particularly, the study will seek to answer the following problems:

1. What are the mechanical properties of the control group in terms of its:

a. Setting time,

b. consistency,

c. compressive strength, and

d. Flexural strength?

2. What are the mechanical properties of the experimental group in terms of its:

a. Setting time,

b. consistency,

c. compressive strength, and

d. Flexural strength?

3. Is there a significant difference of the mechanical properties between the

control group and experimental group?

4. What is the cost benefit analysis?

Null Hypothesis

This study will test the null hypothesis:

There is no significant difference between the control group and experimental

group in terms of consistency, slump, compressive strength and flexural strength.


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Conceptual Framework

Inputs
Search and Design Concentration
that will improve concrete's
compressive strength
Gathering of Materials

Inputs

-Search and Design Concentration


that will improve concrete's


Process
compressive strength
-Gathering of Materials
Testing the water content by
slump test.
esign Concentration
Comparative Analysisthat will
of Normal
improve concrete's
Concrete compressive
to the Design Concrete
strength
Mix
-Gathering of Materials

Inputs

-Search and Design Concentration


that will improve concrete's
Outputs
compressive strength
-Gathering of Materials
Economical - Improved, Eco-
Friendly Concrete and has Greater
Compressive Strength
esign Concentration that will
Application of Design Mix in
improve concrete's compressive
construction
strength
-Gathering of Materials

-More efficient and Economical


way of building reinforced
concrete structure

Inputs

-Search and Design Concentration


that will improve concrete's
compressive strength
-Gathering of Materials
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Significance of the Study

The importance of this research study benefits the following individuals or sectors:

Construction Industry. This study will serve as an input for the engineers and

contractors for as the mechanical properties of the experimental group that might help

them make their structures have greater strength. It can also provide them a cheap

concrete admixture alternative.

Department of Environmental and Natural resources. This study will give

them reference and essential information that could help them create policies to mitigate

disposal of shrimp shell wastes.

Researchers. They can get essential methodological and conceptual ideas from

this research study. The research design and the instruments that were used in this

research can be utilized in the future research.

People. Since the study does not focused mainly on the integrity of the structures

but also the environment. The study will help make awareness to the people about the

disposal of waste that could be recycled.

Environment. The study will benefit the environment because it will eliminate

the shell wastes being disposed on landfills and oceans.

Scope & Delimitation of the Study

The study focused on the effect of dried shrimp shell powder in concrete mixture.

This will be conducted in Leyte specifically at Eastern Visayas State University Material
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Testing Laboratory (EVSU-MTL) and Department of Public Works and Highways Regional

Office 8 (DPWH RO8)

Specifically, it focused on the test of compressive strength of concrete samples.

The usual materials that will be used in making concrete samples are cement, sand,

gravel, and water and for the experimental group, dried shrimp shells will be added on

the mixture.

The cured samples will be tested for compressive strength using the Universal

Testing Machine (UTM). The compressive strengths of the standard specifications and

the different samples at the same curing period will be compared. The cost of standard,

controlled and experimental concrete samples will also be compared.

The scope of the research study is delimited to 5 experimental groups based on

proportion. The amount of admixture will have a ratio shrimp shell to total weight of dried

mortar ratio of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, & 10%. It will have three different setting time: 7, 14,

& 28 days.

Definition of Terms

In order to give the reader a clear understanding, the following terms are defined

conceptually and operationally as used in the study.

Aggregates. Granular material used in construction. Aggregate may be natural,

manufactured or recycled.

ASTM Specification. It is a compilation of standard specification of different

construction materials.
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Bending. It is the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force

or moment is applied to the element causing the element to bend.

By weight basis. This is one method of measuring materials used in concrete

mixture. Materials are weighed based on the ratio required.

Cement. A powdery substance, usually of burned lime and clay, that when mixed

with water, sand, and gravel produces mortar or concrete (Websters Illustrated

Contemporary Dictionary, 1992).

Cement/Water Ratio. The ratio between the amount of water and the mount

of cement present in the concrete.

Chitin. It is a white, hard, inelastic nitrogenous polysaccharide found in the

exoskeleton as well as in the internal structure of invertebrates.

Compression Test. It is a test that will determine the compressive strength of

the concrete sample.

Compressive Strength. In this study, this refers to the maximum amount of

compressive axial force that will be presented by load per unit area that concrete samples

withstand without failure.

Concrete. A mixture of water, sand, stone, and a binder (usually Portland cement)

which hardens to a stone like mass.

Concrete Sample. This will be the product after mixing the aggregates, cement,

and sand. In this study, two concrete samples will be produced, the controlled concrete

mixture and experimental concrete mixture.


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Consistency. Ease of flow or workability of concrete, measured by slump test or

Kelly ball test.

Controlled Concrete Sample. In this study, this refers to the concrete mixture

that is being used conventionally in construction.

Curing. It is the maintenance of proper condition of moisture and temperature

during initial set to develop required strength and reduce shrinkage in products containing

Portland Cement (Rebecca E. Mendiola, 2007).

Experimental Concrete Sample. In this study, this refers to the concrete

mixture added by dried shrimp shell powder.

Final Time of Setting. The required for mortar mixture to harden to a certain

degree. In this study, this will be determined using a Vicat Needle. It is the corresponding

time in which the 1mm needle does not sink visibly into the mortar mixture.

Initial Time of Setting. The time before the mortar mixture ceases to be fluid

and plastic. In this study, this will determined using a Vicat Needle. It is the corresponding

time in which the penetration of 1mm needle is 25mm or less.

MTL. The term refers to Material Testing Laboratory. The preparation, mixing and

curing of concrete samples will be held in this laboratory.

Properties. Refers to the mechanical properties of concrete.

Slump. The decrease in height of wet concrete when a supporting mold is

removed. It is a measure of consistency of freshly mixed concrete.


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UTM. This refers to Universal Testing Machine that is used in testing the

compressive and tensile strength of any construction materials such as wood, concrete,

and steel. In this study, compressive strength of concrete is tested.