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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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- 10.1.1.115
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- Paper 11-An Authentication Protocol Based on Combined RFID-Biometric System
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- An Approach to Authenticate user’s Mobile device and to Preserve Privacy towards Location Proof(A2MP2LP)
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USING IRIS TEXTURES

Profile:

PAPER PRESENT BY : K.NAGA SANDHYA

R.SAILAJA

KANTEPUDI,SATTENAPALLI

UNIVERSITY : J.N.T.U.

E-MAIL : sphity_k@yahoo.co.in

sailu_ravula40@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:

biometrics are merged to achieve high security. This paper explores the realization of

cryptographic construction called fuzzy vault through iris biometric key. The proposed

algorithm aims at generating a secret encryption key from iris textures and data units for

locking and unlocking the vault. The algorithm has two phases: The first to extract binary

key from iris textures, and the second to generate fuzzy vault by using Lagrange

interpolating polynomial projections.

template minutiae sets. This correspondence is

INTRODUCTION:

correspondence, morphological operations [2]

Current cryptographic algorithms require their

can be used to extract the skeletons from iris

keys to be very long and random for higher

pseudo structures, with unique paths among the

security, that is, 128 bits for Advanced

end points and nodes.

Encryption Standards [1]. These keys are stored

Biometric based random key is generated

in smart cards and can be used during

and combined with biometric authentication

encryption/decryption procedures by using

mechanism called fuzzy vault as proposed by

proper authentication. There are two major

Jules and Sudan [3]. The advantages of

problems with these keys: One is their

cryptography and iris based authentication can

randomness. The randomness provided by

be utilized in such biometric systems.

current mathematical algorithms is not sufficient

1.BACKGROUND

to support the users for commercial applications.

The second is authentication. Most of the The scheme proposed by Juels and Sudan

authentication mechanisms use passwords to [3] can tolerate differences between locking and

release the correct decrypting key, but these unlocking the vault. This fuzziness comes from

mechanisms are unable to provide non- the variability of biometric data. Even though the

repudiation. Such limitations can be overcome same biometric entity is analyzed during

Positive biometric matching extracts data will vary due to acquisition characteristics,

secret key from the biometric templates. The noise etc. If the keys are not exactly the same,

performance of these algorithms depends on the the decryption operation will produce useless

correspondence between query minutiae sets and random data. Fuzzy vault scheme requires

alignment of biometric data at the time of 3. IMAGE ACQUISITION

enrolment with that of verification. This is a very We use the iris image data base from

difficult problem in case of other biometric CASIA Iris image Database [CAS03a] and

templates such as fingerprint when compared to MMU Iris Database [MMU04a]. CASIA Iris

Using multiple minutiae fixed location 756 iris image which were taken in two different

sets per iris, they first find the nodes of the time frames. Each of the iris images is 8-bit gray

pseudo structures, and use these as the elements scale with resolution 320X280. MMU data base

of the set A. As many chaff points as possible contributes a total number of 450 iris images

are added to form final point set. There is no which were captured by LG Iris Access®2200.

locations in the iris, that is from origin of the The eye image is acquired,

pupil traveling in clock wise direction. converted to gray scale and its contrast is

The algorithms are implemented using enhanced using histogram equalization [4].

Matlab for its ease in image manipulation and Algorithm based on thresholding and

2..PROPOSED METHOD eye image and to obtain region of interest.

The proposed method involves

Initially the pupil boundary and limbic boundary

mainly two phases – one is feature extraction

were found to fix the iris area. Many algorithms

and the other is polynomial projection to

are available today to fix these boundaries. But

generate vault. A random key combined with

one of the easiest and simple algorithms is by

lock/unlock data both of 128 bit are extracted

using morphological operations. By using bit

from iris textures and are projected on to a

plane method, we can find the pupil boundary.

polynomial with cyclic redundancy code for

The LSB bit plane is used to determine the

error checking. To these projections, chaff points

pupillary boundary [9]. Similarly the limbic

are added and scrambled to obtain vault.

boundary can be obtained by calculating

standard deviation windows in vertical and The pixels within each row along the

horizontal directions. The resulting standard angular direction are positioned into an

deviation windows are thresholded in order to appropriate square with LXL window size. L

produce a binary image. A single row or column may be of any size in binary sequence, 16, 32,

vector is obtained by eroding and dilating the ….128 bits. If the size of each row is 16, then

windows. These vectors determine limbic each row can be used to generate 16 bit words of

(a) (b)

2.3), area opening to remove structures in

Fig. 1 Iris a)after localization b)after

according to its size resulting image with

normalization

structures disposed in layers (fig3.4) and

5. FEATURE EXTRACTION

thresholding is applied to obtain binary image

The feature extraction involves two

(fig 2.5).

stages - one to extract 128 bit secret code from

. The gray level value of I(x,y,h) for all Fig. 2.1-2.6 Iris textures after Opening –

pixels in the iris template is normalized as, Closing operations

I(x,y,h)=I(x,y,h) * L/H, Where the L is window

1. Find the darkest point of image in

Fig.3 Iris pseudo structures designated as the threshold value (t)

The image is submitted to normalization for identification of black holes.

that takes, as reference, an image containing 3. Determine the number of black holes

pseudo structures (fig 3). For appropriate and their coordinates according to the

representation of structures, thinning is used so predefined threshold. Calculate the

that every structure presents itself as an center of mass of these black holes.

agglomerate of pixels. 4. Ex and Ey denotes the x, y

To have a single path between nodes and coordinates of center which satisfy

end points, redundant pixels are removed using 3 I(x,y)<t.

x 3 masks run over them [5]. When the Ex ={Σx=0 to w-1 Σy=0 to H-1 X }/WH

foreground and background pixels in mask Ey ={Σx=0 to w-1 Σy=0 to H-1 Y }/WH

exactly match with the pixels in the image, the Where W and H are the sum of detected

pixel to be modified is the image pixel coordinates x,y and t is the threshold value.

underneath the origin of mask The radius can be calculated from the

6. FIXING THE CENTER & X/Y COORDINATES

given area( total number of black holes in the

Black hole search method [8] is used to

pupil, where radius =√area/∏.From the center of

detect the center of pupil. The center of mass

the pupil, the x,y coordinates of every node is

refers to the balance point (x, y) of the object

found and used to form lock/unlock data as

where there is equal mass in all directions. Both

shown in fig .4

the inner and outer boundaries can be taken as

Y1

calculating its center of mass.

are as follows:

Fig. 4: Iris showing x|y coordinates Another set of random points d1, d2, ….,are

Fig 5: Nodes and End Points Union of these two sets, G ∪ C, and degree of

The x and y coordinates of nodes(8 bits

transmitted.

each) are used as [x|y] to obtain 16 bit

code is of 128 bit size and 16 bit CRC for error Let u*1, u*2, …. be the points from query

check. A total of 144 bits are used to generate a features used for polynomial reconstruction. If

polynomial of 9(144/16) coefficients with degree u*i , i=1,2,…N is equal to values of vault V, then

p(u) = c8u8 + c7u7 +…….+ c0 . is added to the list of points used. For decoding

The 144 bit code is divided into non overlapping D degree polynomial, (D+1) unique projections

16 bit segments and each segment is declared as are needed. Thus C(k,D+1) combinations are

a specific coefficient. Normally MSB bits are needed to construct a polynomial, where k<=N.

used to represent higher degree coefficients and After constructing the polynomial, the

LSB bits for lower degree coefficients. The same coefficients are mapped back to the decoded

mapping is also used during decoding. secret code. For checking errors the polynomial

Genuine set G is found by projecting the is divided with CRC primitive polynomial. A

polynomial p using N iris template features u1, u2, zero remainder means no errors. The first 128

…… Thus G ={ [u1, p(u1)], [u2, p(u2)],….}. Chaff bits in secret code leads to actual information If

set C is found by randomly assuming M points the query list overlaps with template list, then the

c1, c2, ….which do not overlap with u1, u2, ….. information transmitted is correct.

9..EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: The 144 bits are converted to polynomial p(u) as

Data Base: CASIA iris data base, i)Image

p(u)=1804u8+16384u7+52868u6+59549u5+14256

type: Gray ii)Image Size of Database: 756

u4+3167u3+40820u2+3160u1+10280

images iii) Class Information: The images are

The indices of x and y coordinates of nodes are

from 108 eyes of 80 subjects iv)Sensor: A digital

used for projections.

optical sensor. Each image is of 320 x 280 pixel

The co-ordinates of nodes in fig (5) are

size and of 96 dpi resolution in both horizontal

fig-5(a) (13,0), (23,15),

and vertical directions with a depth of 8 bits. The

fig-5(b) (12,18),(29,5),

indices of nodes are converted to 8-bit range. Pre

fig-5(c ) (14,17),(20,18),

alignment of template and query data sets are not

fig-5(d) (16,13)

needed since both are acquired from a fixed

Using these indices, genuine points are generated

position in iris and traveling in same direction,

to which chaff points are added later to form

clockwise, for example.

vault. The ratio of chaff points and original

The secret key is generated from the iris

points is taken as 10:1 so that the combinations

template

are large in giving high security. During

0000011100001100

decoding 20 query points are selected on the

0111110101011011

average. Out of 100 iris templates, 82 are

1100111010000100

successful in unlocking the vault. Hence False

1110100010011101

Rejection Rate (FRR) of the system is 0.18 that

0011011110110000

is genuine acceptance ratio is 82% which is

0000110001011111

considerably higher than by other biometric

1001111101110100

templates.

0000110001011000

Features

polynomial u16+ u15+ u2+1 is Biometric FRR

used

Finger print Minutiae 79%

0010100000101000 Iris texture Nodes 82%

The vault has 220 points, hence there are a total Press,1994.

15 Int’l. Symp.Inf. Theory,A Lapidoth and

of C(220,9) = 2.8 x 10 combinations with 9 E.Teletar,Eds.,pp.408,2002.

elements. Only C(20,9) = 167960 of these are []4 R.C.Gonzalez amd R.E.Woods, Digital Image Processing,

Addison-Wesley, 3rd

ed.,1992.

used to open the vault. Therefore, it takes [5] Joaquim De Mira Jr, Joceli Mayer, “Image Feature

Extraction for application of Biometric Identification of Iris –

C(220,9)/C(20,9) = 1.67 x 1010 evaluations for A Morphological Approach”. proc IEEE Int’l Symp on

Computer Graphics and Image processing, SIBGRAPI’03

an attacker to open the vault. [6] Umut Uludag, and Anil K.Jain, “ Fuzzy Finger

Print Vault”, Proc. Workshop: Biometrics: Challenges Arising

from Theory to practice, pp.13-16, 2004,W.H.Press

10. CONCLUSION

[7] S.A.Teukolsky,

Fuzzy vault, constructed for iris W.T.Vetterling, and B.P.Flannery,

Numerical

Recipes in C,2.Ed.,

templates, is superior to that of other biometric Cambridge University press,1992.

templates. When compared with other Ewe “An efficient One

Dimensional Fractal

Analysis for Iris Recognition”

biometrics, iris provides stable structures WSCG’2005, January 31-

Feb4,2005,Plzen,Czech Republic.

Characterizing Key Local Variations”, IEEE trans., Image

Processing-2004

histogram processing is needed for contrast

[10] Robert Ives, Delores Etter, Yingzi Du, “Iris

Pattern Extraction using Bit Planes and Standard Deviations”,

enhancement of iris after acquiring. Also pre IEEE conference on Signals, systems and computers, 2004.

11. REFERENCES:

standard(AES),2001.http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips

97/fips-197.pdf

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