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2 Production Optimization Using Nodal Analysis

--=---=---- SALES LINE


------=--GAS
SEPARATOR

II
AP4 =(Pusv-Posvff
A
I
APy= AP1 PR-Pwts LOSS IN POROUS MEDIUM
Pw1-Pwh AP2 Pwts-Pwt LOSS ACROSS COMPLETION
" "
AP3 PuR-PoR RESTRICTION
AP4 Pusv-Posv = SAFETY VALVE
A Ps "
Pwh -Pose "
SURFACE CHOKE
A P6 Posc-Psep IN FLOWLINE
AP7 Pw1-Pwh TOTAL LOSS IN TUBING
" " FLOWLINE
A Pa Pw1-Pwt

AP2 =(Pwts - Pwt)-----l I. I


AP1 =(PR-Pwrs)

Fig. 1-1. Possible pressure losses in complete system.

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS APPROACH At a particular time in the life of the well, there are
always two pressures that remain fixed and are not func
The systems analysis approach, often called NODAL TM

tions of flow rate. One of these pressures is the average


Analysis,* has been applied for many years to analyze
reservoir pressure PR, and the other is the system outlet
the performance of systems composed of interacting
pressure. The outlet pressure is usually the separator
components. Electrical circuits, complex pipeline net
pressure Psep, but if the well is controlled by a surface
works and centrifugal pumping systems are all analyzed
choke the fixed outlet pressure may be the wellhead
using this method. Its application to well producing sys
pressure Pwh
tems was first proposed by Gilbert 1 in 1954 and dis
Once the node is selected, the node pressure is cal
cussed by Nind2 in 1964 and Brown3 in 1978.
culated from both directions starting at the fixed pres
The procedure consists of selecting a division point or
sures.
node in the well and dividing the system at this point.
The locations of the most commonly used nodes are shown Inflow to the node:
in Fig. 1-2.
All of the components upstream of the node comprise /JR - /:,.p (upstream components) = Pnode

the inflow section, while the outflow section consists of


Outflow from the node:
all of the components downstream of the node. A rela
tionship between flow rate and pressure drop must be Psep + /:,.p (downstream components) = Pnode
available for each component in the system. The flow
rate through the system can be determined once the fol The pressure drop, /:,.p, in any component varies with
lowing requirements are satisfied: flow rate, q. Therefore, a plot of node pressure versus
flow rate will produce two curves, the intersection of
1. Flow into the node equals flow out of the node. which will give the conditions satisfying requirements 1
2. Only one pressure can exist at a node. and 2, given previously. The procedure is illustrated
graphically in Fig. 1-3. .!
The effect of a change in any of the components can
* "NODAL Analysis" is a trademark of Flopetrol Johnston, a di
vision of Schlumberger Technology Corporation, and is protected by be analyzed by recalculating the node pressure versus
U.S. Patent #4,442,710. flow rate using the new characteristics of the component