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MSc REM

Reservoir Evaluation and Management

Well Testing Best Practice

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Well Testing Best Practice, SPE93984, Madrid EUROPEC 2005

Well Testing Best Practice Guide

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Well Test Best Practice Guidelines

To Test? Or not test

Value of
Objectives? Alternatives?
information

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Well Test Objectives?

Reservoir Fluid Rock Initial Flow


Evaluation Properties Properties Pressure capacity

Careful well test design and operation

Reservoir Kv/kh Boundaries Dynamic Geology


Description Flow interval (inner&outer) response calibration

Well defined geological framework

Reservoir Fluid&rock Reservoir Dynamic Model Calib.


Management properties depletion boundaries &reserve

Systematic plan and continuous measurement

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Well Test Alternatives

Logs (include Interval Pressure


Fiber Wireline Testers Borehole
PLT) and Tests (e.g. MDT) Geochemistry
Optic and Samplers Seismic data
Cores

Cost
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To test or
Not to test?

Define clear
objectives

Reservoir Fluid Rock Initial Flow


Evaluation Properties Properties Pressure capacity

Reservoir Kv/kh Boundaries Dynamic Geology


Description Flow interval (inner&outer) response calibration

Logs (include
Fiber Wireline Testers Interval Pressure Borehole
PLT) and Geochemistry
Optic and Samplers Tests (e.g. MDT) Seismic data
Cores

No emissions policy

Dont test Test

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To test or
Not to test?

Define clear
objectives

Reservoir Fluid Rock Initial Flow


Evaluation Properties Properties Pressure capacity

Reservoir Kv/kh Boundaries Dynamic Geology


Description Flow interval (inner&outer) response calibration

Logs (include Interval Pressure


Fiber Wireline Testers Borehole
PLT) and Tests (e.g. MDT) Geochemistry
Optic and Samplers Seismic data
Cores

No emissions policy

Dont test Test

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To test or
Not to test?

Define clear
objectives

Reservoir Fluid Rock Initial Flow


Evaluation Properties Properties Pressure capacity

Reservoir Kv/kh Boundaries Dynamic Geology


Description Flow interval (inner&outer) response calibration

Logs (include Interval Pressure


Fiber Wireline Testers Borehole
PLT) and Tests (e.g. MDT) Geochemistry
Optic and Samplers Seismic data
Cores

No emissions policy

Dont test Test

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To test or
Not to test?

Define clear
objectives

Reservoir Fluid Rock Initial Flow


Evaluation Properties Properties Pressure capacity

Reservoir Kv/kh Boundaries Dynamic Geology


Description Flow interval (inner&outer) response calibration

Logs (include Interval Pressure


Fiber Wireline Testers Borehole
PLT) and Tests (e.g. MDT) Geochemistry
Optic and Samplers Seismic data
Cores

No emissions policy

Dont test Test

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Conclusions

Best Practice Guide A systematic approach


Design, operation, analysis and interpretation
Well test for Reservoir Evaluation
Exploration and appraisal
Well test for Reservoir Description
Appraisal and development
Well test for Reservoir Management
Production and management (test and monitoring)
Need to define clear objectives for testing
including to test or not?- value for information

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Role of Geology in Well Testing

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The Role of Geology in Well Test Analysis

Reservoir distribution and structure


Stratigraphy
Deterministic reservoir model
Reservoir heterogeneity
Layering (commingled Vs cross-flow)
Flow barrier and high perm lens
Impact of length scale on reservoir behaviour
Utah field trip and fluvial outcrops

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Missippi river
systems from
the satellite -
the river changes
its course often
Due to changes
of upstream
climates.

The sand and


mud has been
carried all the
way into the sea
to create new
delta areas.

Modern River
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A plan view of a modern river system

Modern River

Convex
Concave

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A Point-bar and Channel-fill from
Shallow Seismic Data

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A Point-bar and Channel-fill from
Shallow Seismic Data

Differential compaction
syncline

Channel fill Multiple


Point bar
Lateral accretion surfaces

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A Point-bar from Cove Harbour, South of
Edinburgh

The outcrop is about 10 metres thick and 50 metres long having


Darcy Permeability. The base of the rock has been well cemented,
while the sand body properties (porosity and permeability) in general,
are uniform.

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Permeability Profile of the Point-bar

Pier wall

Road level
0
Fining-up
-2 Sequence

Depth (m)
Uniform profile
-4
Single Flow Unit
-6 Well cemented base
-8

-10
.01 .1 1 10 100 1000
c l s f m vc Permeability (mD)

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Point bar migration (Lateral Accretion)

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Meandering Channel and Cross Sectional Profiles

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Point-Bar Deposit Due to Lateral Accretion

Lateral Accretion Surface

Lower k

Moderate k

High k

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Meander- loop
deposit resulted
from a highly
meandering
Channel

Parabolic
Profile

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MFS - Maximum Flooding Surface

Sequence
Boundary

HST - Highstand System Tract


TST - Transgressive System Tract
LST - Lowstand System Tract

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Stacked
Channel

Isolateded
Channel

Composite
Channel

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Fluvial Channel Systems

Increasing Sinuosity

Ribbon Channel
Anastomosing Channel

Meandering Channel

Cross Cutting Channels Single Point-Bar

Multistorey Channel
Layered Flood Plain

Massive Braid Plain

Reservoir Description Research Group at Heriot-Watt University

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Well Testing Models and Diagnostic

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Outline

Homogeneous reservoir
Uniform properties
Infinite out boundary condition
Heterogeneous reservoirs
Fluvial reservoirs
Fractured reservoir
Faulting and compartmentalisation
Reservoir with limited extent
Reservoir having support

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Reservoir with Infinite Extent

Diagnostic Plot Specialised Plot

Infinite Extent
q

Derivative Plateau
Semi-log Straight Line

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Channel and U-Shaped Reservoirs

Diagnostic Plot Specialised Plot

q
q

1/2 Slope
MTR
Square Root Straight Line

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Reservoir with Variable Thickness

Diagnostic Plot Diagnostic Plot

q
q

LTR LTR
SPGR 1/2 Slope
MTR 1/2 Slope
MTR
SPGR Negative Slope

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Double-/Double-k Behaviour

Analytical Transition
U shaped -
transient flow

V shaped - Real data -


SSS flow with WBS

Log - Log Plot Semi - Log Plot

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Injection Well Performance

P Injection Pressure

Damaged Injectivity k2h2

Improved Injectivity

k1h1

Injection Rate - q

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Injection Well Performance

Pressure increase
P(psi) due to injection Formation fracture pressure

Due to skin

Pressure fall-off

Due to rate
Uncertainty due to difference
of injected and insitu fluids

Testing Time (hours)

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Multi-Rate Test for Fracturing Pressure

P(psi) Multi-rate injection Formation fracture pressure

Pressure fall-off

Uncertainty due to difference


of injected and insitu fluids

Testing Time (hours)

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Well Near Fault or Faults

Diagnostic Plot Specialised Plot

q
q 2nd Semi-log Straight Line
q q m2

=90 m2 = ( 360o/ ) m1
=180 m1
MTR 2nd Plateau

1st Plateau
1st Semi-log Straight Line

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Reservoir Compartmentalisation

Diagnostic Plot Diagnostic Plot

q q

MTR
MTR 1/2 Slope
Unit Slope
BU Derivatives
BU Derivatives

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Reservoir with Closed Outer Boundary

Diagnostic Plot Specialised Plot

q q q q
DD Cartesian Plot

DD Derivatives
Unit Slope

PSS Flow

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Closed and Constant Pressure Boundaries

Diagnostic Plot Diagnostic Plot

q
q q q q
P
DD Derivatives =0
MTR t
MTR Unit Slope

BU Derivatives Both DD and BU Derivatives

P
= Cons tan t
t
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Fracture Intercepted with Well-bore

Diagnostic Plot Diagnostic Plot

q q

ETR MTR ETR MTR

1/2 Slope, Infinite Conductivity 1/4 Slope, Finite Conductivity

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Radial Composite Reservoir

Diagnostic Plot Diagnostic Plot

k2 k2
q q
k1 k1

k1, ETR k2 > k1 k2 < k1 k2, MTR

k2, MTR k1, ETR

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Summary and Conclusions

Half log cycle rule


End effect (due to: history, artifact)
Type curve matching (diagnostic only)
Non-unique Solution
Analysis uncertainty (kh and model)
Information, which could help
Integrated Interpretation
Analysis Vs interpretation

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Some Field Examples and precautions

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Outline

Linear flow in Channel reservoir


LTR analysis
Identify reservoir depletion
Time functioning
Constant pressure boundary
Time-lapse well testing
Summary

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Case1 DST Main BU Diagnostic Plot

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Case1 DST Main DD Diagnostic Plot

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Case1 Final BU Diagnostic Plot

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Reservoir Geometry Match

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The Test History Final Matching

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Radial composite behaviour

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Radial composite behaviour

Increasing of inner
region radius

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Outer boundary responses (BU)

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Outer boundary response (DD)

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Reserve from extended DD

Definition of isothermal
compressibility, where Ct
is defined as positive number,
while hydrocarbon volume
change per unit pressure is
defined negative.

Ct = - (1/V)*(V/P)|T

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Superposition and De-Superposition Methods

Zheng et al., SPE 64753


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Late time over correction due to time function

100

U n it S lo p e

10
M TR

1 /2 S lo p e

1
0 .00 1 0 .01 0 .1 1 10 100

L O G (E q u iv a len t T im e)

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Remove over correction due to time function

100

U n it S lo p e

10 M TR

1 /2 S lo p e

1
0 .00 1 0 .0 1 0 .1 1 10 100

L O G (E la p sed T im e)

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Outer boundary constant pressure response

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Summary and Conclusions

Half-Log cycle rule


End effect (due to: history, artifact)
Type curve matching (diagnostic only)
Non-unique Solution
Uncertainty analysis(kh and model)
Information from other disciplines
Integrated Interpretation
Analysis Vs interpretation

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