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Q1. (a) What is Enzyme?

Briefly explain ONE example that employs biocatalyst in the


commercial production. (7 marks)

(b) Define the following terminologies:

(i) Environmental quotient (3 marks)

(ii) Flue gases (3 marks)

(c) What is the significance of catalysis in energy processing? (8 marks)

(d) State FOUR major parameters that could affect any chemical reaction. (4 marks)

Q2. (a) What is Catalysis? Sketch a complete energy profile for both catalysed and non-
catalysed chemical reactions. (6 marks)

(b) Define the following terminologies:

(i) E factor (environmental acceptability)


(ii) Environmental quotient EQ (2, 2 marks)

(c) 3C6H5CHOHCH3 + 2CrO3 + 3H2SO4

3C6H5COCH3 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 6H2O

The above stoichiometry equation shows the conventional oxidation of a secondary


alcohol. Calculate the Atom Efficiency of the final product for the above
chemical reaction.
(Atomic mass : C = 12, H = 1, O = 16, Cr = 52 and S = 32) (4 marks)

(d) Briefly explain THREE situations that would cause a catalyst system to be
unsuccessful in terms of the bonding between the catalysts and reacting molecules.
(6 marks)
Q3. (a) Answer the following questions based on the figure as shown below.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(i) Label (A), (B) and (C) as shown in the figure above. (3 marks)

(ii) Give the definition of (B). (2 marks)

(b) Why is kinetics an important consideration for catalysis? (5 marks)

(c) What are the strengths and limitations of XRD technique in catalysis (6 marks)

(d) Distinguish between secondary electron and backscattered electron in detail.


(9 marks)

Q4. (a) Illustrate the energy profile of an exothermic reaction that could distinguish
between catalytic and non-catalytic reactions. Compare both catalytic and non-
catalytic using the energy diagram. (5 marks)

(b) Compare the heterogeneous catalysis and homogeneous catalysis by giving a


suitable example on each type of catalysis. (10 marks)

(c) "A catalyst offers an alternative, energetically favorable mechanism to the non-
catalytic reaction, thus enabling processes to be carried out under industrially
feasible conditions of pressure and temperature".

Critically validate the above statement by giving a suitable example.


(10 marks)