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18-290

Signals and Systems

Profs. Aswin Sankaranarayan and Byron Yu Fall 2013 (100 Points)

Problem Set 3 Solutions

1. (10 Pts) Consider the system y(t) = A cos(t + )x(t). Is the system linear or non-
linear? Is it time-invariant? (Hint: what happens to the system when x(t) = (t)?) If
not, when is this system time-invariant? Justify your answer.
Linearity:

homogeneity (scaling)

y(t) = A cos(t + )x(t) = [A cos(t + )x(t)] = y(t)

y(t) = A cos(t+)[x1 (t)+x2 (t)] = A cos(t+)x1 (t)+A cos(t+)x2 (t) = y1 (t)+y2 (t)

Time invariance:

let x(t) = (t)


0 A cos() t=0
y (t) = A cos(t + )(t) =
0 otherwise

let x(t) = (t t0 )

00 A cos(t0 + ) t = t0
y (t) = A cos(t + )(t t0 ) =
0 otherwise

y 0 (t) 6= y 00 (t) the system is not time invariant, however the system is time-invariant
when = 0

2. (40 pts) The following systems have inputs x(t) or x[n] and outputs y(t) or y[n]. For
each determine and explain if the system is (i) memoryless, (ii) stable, (iii) causal,
(iv) linear, and (v) time invariant.

(a) (5 pts) y(t) = x(t2 )

i. No, y( 14 ) = x( 16
1
)
ii. Yes, if x(t) < Mx t y(t) < Mx t
iii. No, y(2) = x(4)
iv. Yes, ax1 (t2 ) + bx2 (t2 ) = ay1 (t) + by2 (t)
2 Problem Set 3 Solutions

v. No, y(t 1) = x([t 1]2 ) = x(t2 2t 1) 6= x(t 1)

(b) (5 pts) y[n] = (x[n])2
i. Yes, y[n] only depends on x[n]
ii. Yes, if x[n] < Mx < n y[n] < Mx2 < n
iii. Yes, y[n] only depends on x[n]
iv. No, ay[n] = (ax[n])2 = a2 x[n]2 6= ax[n]2
v. Yes, y[n n0 ] = (x[n n0 ])2
(c) (5 pts) y[n] = n2 x[n]
i. Yes, y[n] only depends on x[n]
ii. No, y[n] as n
iii. Yes, there is no output before the input
iv. Yes, ay[n] = an2 x[n] = an2 x[n]
v. No, y[n n0 ] = (n n0 ))2 x[n n0 ] 6= x[n n0]
(d) (5 pts) y(t) = sin(5t)x(2t)
i. No, y(2) depends on x(4)
ii. Yes, if x(t) < Mx < t y(t) < Mx < t as 1 sin() 1
iii. No, y(2) depends on x(4)
iv. Yes, y1 (t) + y2 (t) = sin(5t)x(2t) + sin(5t)x(2t)
v. No, y(t 1) x(2(t 1)) = x(2t 2) 6= x(t 1)
d 2t
(e) (5 pts) y(t) = dt
[e x(t)]
No, x0 (t) is not memoryless as it depends on x(t t)
i.
No, there is no guarantee that x0 (t) is stable
ii.
iii.
Yes, y(t) depends only on the current/past input
iv.Yes, dtd is a linear operator [ dtd ax(t) = ax0 (t), dtd (x1 (t) + x2 (t)) = x01 (t) + x02 (t)]
v.No, dtd [e2(tt0 ) x(t t0 )] 6= dtd [e2t x(t t0 )]
(f) (5 pts) y[n] = x[n]
P
k= (n 2k + 1)
i.
Yes, y[n] depends only on x[n]
Yes, if x[n] < Mx < n y[n] < Mx < n
ii.
iii.
Yes, y[n] depends only on x[n]
iv.Yes, ax1 [n] + bx2 [n] = ay1 [n] + by2 [n]
v.No, let x[n] = [n], x2 [n] = [n 1]: y1 [n] = 0, y2 [n] = [n]
R t/2
(g) (5 pts) y(t) = x( )d
i. No, the integral depends on past values
R
ii. Yes, if x(t) < Mx < t y(t) = x(t)dt < GMx < for some G R
iii. Yes, y(t) depends only on previous values of x(t)
Problem Set 3 Solutions 3

iv. Yes, integration is linear

v. Yes, shifting x(t) shfits the integration which shifts y(t)
(h) (5 pts) y[n] = cos(2x[n + 1]) + x[n]
i. No, y[n] depends on x[n + 1]
ii. Yes, if 1 cos() 1 x[n] < Mx < n y[n] < Mx + 1 < n
iii. No, y[n] depends on x[n + 1]
iv. Yes, a[cos(2x1 [n + 1]) + x1 [n]] + b[cos(2x2 [n + 1]) + x2 [n]] = ay1 [n] + by2 [n]
v. Yes, cos(2x[n + 1 n0 ] + x[n n0 ] y[n n0 ]

3. (20 pts) Determine if each of the following systems is invertible. If it is, construct the
inverse system, otherwise show how the system is not invertible.

(b) (4 pts) y[n] = x[5n]

x = y, x = y y sees every 5th element of x Not invertible

Let x[n] = 1 y[n] = e Not invertible

Pn
(d) (4 pts) y[n] = k= x[k]
Pn1
x[n] = y[n] k= x[k] = y[n] y[n 1] Invertible

x[n] = csc[ 2 n]y[n], however x[n] = when n = , 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, Not

invertible

4. (10 Pts) A linear time-invariant system is given the input x[n] = [n] and the output
is found to be y[n] = 5(u[n] u[n 5]).

(a) (3 pts) What is the output of the system when the input is 2[n + 2]?

If x[n] = 2[n + 2] LTI System y2 [n] = 2y[n + 2]

4 Problem Set 3 Solutions

(b) (7 pts) Find the input x[n] that would produce the output:

1 n = +3, 3
2 n = +2, 2

y[n] =

3 n = 1, 0, +1
0 otherwise

y3 [n] = 15 [y[n + 3] + y[n + 2] + y[n + 1]] LTI System x[n] = 51 [[n + 3] + [n +

2] + [n + 1]]

5. (20 Pts) Consider a system H with input x[n] and output y[n] related by

y[n] = h[x[n] + x[n + 1]]

Determine if the system is linear and time-invariant under the following conditions,
and explain why.

y[n] = (1)(x[n]+x[n+1]) = (1)x[n] (1)x[n+1]

Linear: No, ay1 [n]+by2 [n] = (1)ax1 [n]++ax1 [n+1] +(1)bx2 [n]+bx2 [n+1] 6= a(1)x1 [n]++x1 [n+1] +
b(1)x2 [n]bx2 [n+1]
Time Invariant: Yes, y[n n0 ] = (1)x[nn0 ]+x[n+1n0 ] = h[x[n n0 ] + x[n +
1 n0 ]]
(b) (4 pts) h[n] = 3n

y[n] = 3[x[n] + x[n + 1]]

Linear: Yes, ay1 [n] + by2 [n] = 3a(x1 [n] + x1 [n + 1]) + 3b(x2 [n] + x2 [n + 1])
Time Invariant: Yes, y[n n0 ] = 3(x[n n0 ] + x[n + 1 n0 ])
(c) (4 pts) h[n] = e2n

y[n] = e2(x[n]+x[n+1])
Linear: No, ay1 [n]+by2 [n] = e2a(x1 [n]+x1 [n+1])2b(x2 [n]+x2 [n+1]) 6= ae2(x1 [n]+x1 [n+1]) +
be2(x2 [n]+x2 [n+1])
Time Invariant: Yes, y[n n0 ] = e2(x[nn0 ]+x[n+1n0 ])
1
(d) (4 pts) h[n] = n

1
y[n] = x[n]+x[n+1]
1 a
Linear: No, ay1 [n] + by2 [n] = ax1 [n]+ax1 [n+1]+bx2 [n]+bx2 [n+1]
6= x1 [n]+x1 [n+1]
+
b
x2 [n]+x2 [n+1]
1
Time Invariant: Yes, y[n n0 ] = x[nn0 ]+x[n+1n0 ]
Problem Set 3 Solutions 5

y[n] = (x[n] + x[n + 1])2 = x[n]2 + 2x[n]x[n + 1] + x[n + 1]2

Linear: No, ay1 [n] + by2 [n] = a(x1 [n] + x1 [n + 1])2 + b(x2 [n] + x2 [n + 1])2 6=
a(x1 [n]2 + x1 [n + 1]2 ) + b(x2 [n]2 + x2 [n + 1]2 )
Time Invariant: Yes, y[n n0 ] = (x[n n0 ] + x[n + 1 n0 ])2