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TENSILE TEST

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LAB


MEMD221

Semester: Sem 1 2017/2018

Day : Tuesday Date : 18/7/2017

Due date: 25/7/2016

Name and SID: Muhammad Amir Yasin (DM94152)


Rayyan bin Abdul Rahman (DM(94151)

Section : 01T Group : 2

Lab Instructor: En. Muhammad Hanif Bin Abdul Karim

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CONTENTS
Content Pages

Summary/Abstract 3

Objective 3

Theory 4

Equipment/Description of experimental apparatus 5-7

Procedure 8

Data and observation 9 - 13

Analysis and results 14 - 16

Discussions 17

Conclusions 18

References 19

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SUMMARY

This experiment is known as Tensile Test (Universal Tester). To figure out the
mechanical features of the materials, the stress-strain relationship of the materials need to be
validated first.

The equipment used is WP 300 and the specimens are Aluminium and Brass. The
equipments abilities are first understood and the specimens details are jotted. A few formulas
such as the modulus of elasticity, engineering stress, engineering strain and elongation at fracture
are introduced here.

Strength has several definitions depending on the material type and application.
Normally, pure materials will have lower strength compared to those undergo manufacturing
process such as heat treatment, annealing, alloying and hardening. Before choosing a material
based on its published or measured strength it is important to understand the manner in which
strength is defined and how it is measured.

For metals the most common measure of strength is the yield strength. For most material
it is more convenient to measure the failure strength, the stress at the point where the stress strain
curve becomes obviously non-linear.

The relationship of stress and strain for a particular material can be related using a stress-
strain curve. By using the curve, different data can be obtained such as ultimate tensile strength,
yield strength and fracture stress. Modulus of elasticity also can be calculated by taking the slope
of linear region of the stress-strain curve. This is to determine the highest stress at which all
deformation strains are recoverable. Typically, it is called the practical limit where maximum
stress a component can withstand and still function as designed. It is vital to know the values in
order to make sure such material can withstand enough tensile strength within a given stress.

OBJECTIVE

1) To determine the stress-strain relationship for two types of materials and to obtain
approximate values for the elongation at fracture, tensile strength (UTS), yield strength
(offset at 0.2%) and Modulus of Elasticity.
2) To understand the principles of tensile testing.
3) To determine the stress-strain relationship for two types of material.

3
THEORY
a) Fundamental Principles of the Tensile Test

b) Fundamental Principles of Stress-Strain Diagram

Poissons Ration
x
Poissons ration is defined as
z
Where x = the strain perpendicular to the tensile axis
z = the longitudinal strain

If a load is static or changed relatively slowly with time and is applied uniformly over a
cross section /surface of a member, the mechanical behavior may be ascertained by a simple
stress strain test. These tests are most commonly conducted for metals at room temperature.
There are three principal ways in which the load may be applied: tension, compression and
shear. Tension is one of the most common mechanical stress-strain tests. The stress-strain
diagram shows the different behavior of the individual materials particularly clearly. Each
material has a characteristic pattern of stress and strain. A standard specimen is deformed,
usually to fracture with a gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxially along the
long axis of a specimen. Most of the tension tests for metals are conducted according to the
ASTM Standard E 8 and E 8M, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic
Materials.

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EQUIPMENT
Equipment/Description of experimental apparatus:
Technical Description of the Equipment

The WP 300 material testing device is a robust unit that specifically designed for technical
instruction. It is also one of the classical materials testing device in materials science. A wide
range of different tests requiring tensile or compressive force is allowed due to its flexible
design. Due to its clear, simple layout, the unity is perfectly suited for both for demonstrations
and students experiments. Its compact dimensions and relatively low weight allow mobile use
and erection on all common laboratory benches.

Basic

In its basic form, the unit does not require any


external connections. The test force is
generated via a manually actuated hydraulic
system and displayed via a large, easily
legible display instrument with a trailing
pointer. Elongation of the samples is recorded
via a dial gauge. All accessories are fixed to
the cross members. This means that the test
unit can be quickly and easily refitted for
various tests.

The basic unit essentially consists of the


following elements:
machine base (1) with handgrip (11)
support with cross-head (2)
load frame with upper (3) and lower
cross-member (4)
hydraulic system consisting of a main
cylinder (5) and a master cylinder with
hand wheel (6)
force display (7)
elongation display via a dial gauge (8)
gripping heads (9) with sample (10)

5
Machine Base

The rigid machine base made of cast iron forms


the foundation. It ensures stability of the test
unit in connection with 4 rubbers feat. The
hydraulics and the frame is supported by the
machine base.

Support

Fixed support of the test unit is formed by the posts (1)


and cross-head (2). The various fixed sample receptacles
are fastened to the cross-head. The mobile load frame is
also mounted on it low-friction linear ball bearings.

Support
Load Frame

The
Thepostsload(1)frame
and cross-head
consists (2)ofform
thefixed support
upper (1) ofand
the test
lower
unit. The various (2)
cross-member fixedand
sample receptacles
the guide are fastened
rod (3). The testtoforce
the is
cross-head.
transmittedThe mobile
from theload frame is also
hydraulic mounted
main on it low-
cylinder to the
friction linear ball bearings.
relevant sample by the load frame. The load frame is
slide-mounted in the cross-head of the support. Tensile
samples
Load Frameare clamped between the upper cross-member
and the cross-head, while the compressive samples are
clamped between the lower cross-member and the cross-
The
head.load frame consists of the upper (1) and lower cross-
member (2) and the guide rod (3). The load frame transmits the
testHydraulic
force from system
the hydraulic main cylinder to the relevant
sample. The force
The test load frame is slide-mounted
is generated in the cross-head
by hydraulic means. Aof
thepiston
support.inTensile samples
the master are clamped
cylinder between the
(2) actuated viaupper
the
cross-member
hand wheeland (1)theand
cross-head, whilst compressive
the threaded samples
spindle creates a
arehydrostatic
clamped between the lower
pressure, whichcross-member
induces the andtest
theforce
cross-
head.
in the main cylinder (3). The ratio of hydraulic
transmission is 2.77:1, while the mechanical
transmission ratio hand wheel / spindle is 503:1.
Excluding friction losses, this would correspond to
a manual force of 1 N per 1.3 kN test force. The
full stroke of the main cylinder of 45 mm requires
83 revolutions of the hand wheel.

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Force display & elongation measurement

The force measuring device operates according


to the manometer principle. It measures the
hydrostatic pressure in the hydraulic system. The
large display with a diameter of 160 mm
facilitates precise reading. A maximum pointer
stores the maximum force. The elongation is
measured via an adjustable mounted dial gauge.
The dial gauge indicates the relative
displacement between the upper cross member
and the cross-head.
Gripping heads

The gripping heads are designed for tensile


samples with an M10 threaded head. Beside, flat
compression pads can easily be inserted in the
cross-head and cross-member and are held by
nut.

Tensile sample

Round samples with an M10 threaded head in


accordance with DIN 50125 made of aluminium,
copper, brass and steel are supplied with the machine.

Tensile sample B6 x 30 DIN 50125

This is a short proportional test bar with a measuring


length of 30 mm and a diameter of 6 mm.

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PROCEDURE
Adjusting the dial gauge
The dial gauge is pushed upwards on the support bar until the tracer pin is touching the drive.
The rotating scale is set on the dial gauge to zero.
The maximum pointer is set on the force display to zero.

Experimental steps
1. The hand wheel is slowly and constantly loaded and rotated.
2. The force should applied and spread over a time interval of 5-10 minutes.
3. The force is applied in a slow and steady manner.
4. The dial gauge and the sample are observed.
5. The force is read from the display every 0.1 mm and the corresponding extension is noted
down. From 1 mm extension the reading interval can be extended to 0.2 mm.
6. When constriction began, the sample is monitored and noted. From this point on, the force
will no longer increase, but it is instead likely to decrease.
7. ATTENTION: Do not be shocked. A loud thud might be heard as the specimen fractures,
especially with some material.
8. The maximum test force is read from the maximum pointer and the reading is recorded.
9. The sample is removed from the gripping heads.
10. Twist back the hand wheel on the master cylinder as far as it will go and move the load frame
down.
11. The same procedures with the other specimen are repeated.

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DATA and OBSERVATION
A: Aluminium (silver sample)
Diameter = 6.00mm
L0 =62.00mm
LU =68.00mm

Elongation, L=LU-LO (mm) Force, F ( kN )


0 0
0.1 0.5
0.2 1.6
0.3 2.3
0.4 3.6
0.5 5.3
0.6 7.3

Table 1: Elongations and corresponding forces for Aluminium

B: Brass (gold sample)


Diameter = 6.00mm
L0 =62.00mm
LU =68.00mm

Elongation, L=LU-LO (mm) Force, F ( kN )

0 0

0.1 1.5

0.2 3.5

0.3 5.9

0.4 8.3

0.5 10.3

0.6 11.5

0.7 12.5

9
0.8 13.5

0.9 13.0
1.0 13.5

1.1 13.5

1.2 13.5

1.3 13.5

1.4 13.9

1.5 13.9

1.6 13.9

1.7 14.0

1.8 14

1.9 14
2.0 14

2.1 14

2.2 14

2.4 141
2.6 14.1
2.8 14.3
3.0 14.3
3.2 14.4
3.4 14.4
3.6 14.4

10
3.8 14.4
4.0 14.4
4.2 14.4
4.4 14.4
4.6 14.4
4.8 14.4
5.0 14.4
5.2 14.4
5.4 14.4
5.6 14.4
5.8 14.0

2.9Table 2: Elongations and corresponding forces for Brass

Figure 1

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In this experiment, necking occurred in both aluminium and brass sample before they eventually
fractured, but the necking in aluminium is more obvious due to being a more durable metal
compared to brass. Whereas for brass, the necking was not so obvious and fractured suddenly
after the maximum load is reached. For brittle material like brass, the rupture occurs without any
noticeable prior change in the rate of elongation.

Sample Calculation (Aluminum):

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Sample Calculation (Brass):

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ANALYSIS and RESULT
1) Aluminium:

Force vs. Elongation


10

6
Force, F ( kN )

0
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
-2
Elongation, L=LU-LO (mm)

Graph 1

2) Brass:

Force vs. Elongation


16
14
12
10
Force, F ( kN )

8
6
4
2
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-2
Elongation, L=LU-LO (mm)

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Graph 2

3) Aluminium:

Stress vs. Strain


0.4

0.35

0.3
Stress, (kN/mm2)

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Strain, (mm/mm)

Graph 3

4) Brass

Stress vs. Strain


0.6

0.5
Stress, (kN/mm2)

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
Strain, (mm/mm)

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Graph 4

Modulus of elasticity E= Stress,


Strain,

Tensile test is a test where a material is pulled and eventually breaks it to study the
mechanical properties of that specific material. The sample material will undergo plastic
deformation as the load is applied towards the material. When the load increases, the material
will deform to a point where it fails and fractured. The load that is applied from the start until the
point where the material fractures is recorded to be studied.
From the data recorded, it is proven that Aluminium elongates lesser before it fractures
compared to Brass. Aluminium fractures at 5.4mm elongation while brass fractures at 5.8mm
elongation. Brass can withstand higher load before fracture if compared to Aluminium, reaching
up to 14.7 kN before fracture while the maximum load Aluminium can take is up to 7.45kN.
The stress, strain as well as elongation are calculated using the data tabulated with
formula:
Stress, =
Strain, =
Elongation at Fracture, A = x 100%
The calculated values are then tabulated and graphs are drawn to determine the
mechanical properties of each material. From the values calculated and the graphs plotted, it is
observed that Brass has a higher percentage of elongation at fracture, which is 9.3548%
compared to Aluminium which is 8.7%. From this we can say that Brass is more ductile when
compared to Aluminium thus having a higher percentage of elongation at fracture.

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DISCCUSION
The aim of this experiment is to determine the stress-strain relationship for materials,
therefore to estimate the values for the Elongation at fracture, Tensile strength (UTS) and Yield
strength (offset at 0.2%). In the experiment, the sample materials used are Aluminium and Brass.
Based on the results obtained, graphs have been plotted to determine the relationship of stress
F
and strain of materials. We can use this formula , to calculate the stress of Aluminium
A0
LU L0
and Brass. As for strain, we apply this formula . After determining the stress and
L0
strain of each material, stress strain graph of each sample is drawn. Modulus of elasticity can be
found by measuring the slope of the graph. However this slope is taken at its elastic region where
there is an initial straight line portion. We call this region an elastic region where the load is
proportional to the elongation. As for the region beyond elastic region, or we see it as non-linear
portion of the graph, the material will start to deform permanently and is referred as plastic
deformation. As load continues to increase until a maximum value where the material will
fracture or rupture.

The large errors in E modulus may be caused by:-


- Manufacturing error, the specimens used may not be of homogeneous material. Therefore
the values obtained did not agree well with the actual theoretical values.
- Human error when reading the force value on the force measurement device and also
readings from the dial gauge, causing inaccuracy.
- The specimen may not be screwed tightly into the gripping heads i.e. insertion is not
uniform. This improper screwing may have affected the results as the force applied would
not spread uniformly throughout the specimen and concentrate only at the specimens
thread instead.

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CONCLUSION

The principle of tensile testing is clearly understood after conducting this experiment. Both
materials are subjected to elongation when load or force is applied upon them. Graphs of load
against elongation and stress-strain diagrams are drawn to clearly analyze the relationship by
using experimental results along with calculations. Hence the modulus of elasticity, E of
Aluminium and Brass are determined to be GPa and GPa respectively. As for the elongation of
fracture, Aluminium has an elongation of fracture of% while Brass having a higher elongation of
fracture at %. The objectives are achieved.

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REFFERENCE

Internet

1) Yield(engineering). 2015. https://en.wikepidea.org/wiki/Yield_(engineering)

2) Elastic modulus. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastic_modulus

3) Ultimate tensile strength. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_tensile_strength

4) Ductility. 2015. https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ductility

5) Youngs Modulus. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young%27s_modulus

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