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Calculating Lineal and Angular Measurements

For

Roof Framing
By Al Birbeck

It is my intent to share Information with you on the Art of


Roof Framing.

I will do my best to explain each Procedure in simple


terms.

Its much easier than you think!

Please Visit my Web Site:


http://www.theroofframer.com
Contents:

Page
Roof Framers Math 3-6

Cosine Chart 7

Gable Roof 8 - 11

The Framing Square 12, 13

Hip Roof 14 - 19

Polygon Chart 20

Octagon 21 - 24

Ellipse 25 -27

Hip Roof Problem 28 - 32

Bow Window 34 - 38

Framing Stair Winders 39 - 43

Multiple Pitch Roofs 44 - 47

Concave Roof 50, 51

Page 2
Roof Framers
Math

Page 3
Tools Needed:
1. An open Mind
2.An inexpensive Scientific Calculator
3.Framing Square
4.Sharp Pencil

Trig. Functions:
Sine: Ratio of Rise to Rafter Length
5 13 = .384615385
Push INV or 2ndF and Sine Key.
22.619 deg. should be on Display.

Cosine: Ratio of Run to Rafter Length


12 13 = .923076923
Push INV or 2ndF and Cosine Key.
22.619 deg. should be on Display.

Tangent: Ratio of Rise to Run


5 12 = .416666667
Push the INV or 2ndF and Tangent Key
22.619 deg. should be on Display.

r Rise
a fte 5
R
1 3 67.38 90 - 22.62 = 67.38
22.62 90
Run 12

Note: These are the Trig. Functions of the Angle


Off the Horizontal. 22.619865

Page 4
Similar Triangles
Two Triangles are Similar if the three Angles of
One Triangle are equal, respectively, to the three
Angles of the other Triangle.
Any Triangle can be Enlarged or Reduced in Size
By Multiplying or Dividing every Leg of the
Triangle by the Same Number.

This will not change any of the Angles.

I can see lots of Triangles in the Polygons below.


You can lay-out Rafters for them easily by
Adding some dimensions for the Sides and a Pitch
for the Roof.

Page 5
Formulas:
To Find Sum of Angles In an Enclosure:
Number of Sides or Corners Minus 2 times 180
Degrees equals the sum of the Interior Angles.

Calculating Bevel of Hip or Valley Rafters:


Sine of Hip Slope Divided by Tangent of Corner
Angle Equals the Tangent of the Saw Setting.
Push Inv. Or 2nd F and Tangent Key.
The Degrees will be on Display if your Calculator
Is in Degree Mode.

The Corner Angles are the Angles on each side of


The Hip.
If you have a single pitch, the Corner Angles will
Be the same.
Corner Angles will be different, if you have a
Different Pitch on each side of the Hip.
Examples:
16/12 Pitch

29.36 4 9/12 67.5
16/12 .6

60 Pitch
45

Pitch
67.

45
5

16/12 Pitch

Calculating Length of Common and Hip


Rafters:
(Span of Building minus the thickness of the Ridge
Board) Divided by the Span of the Scale Equals a
Multiplier.

The Multiplier times any Dimension on your Scale


Will give you the Actual Dimension on the
Building.

Page 6
Cosine Chart
Rise per 12 Units of Common Cosine Hip Cosine
Common Run &
16.97056275 units of
Hip Run
1 .99654758 .998268397
2 .986393924 .993127066
3 .9701425 .984731928
4 .948683298 .973328527
5 .923076923 .95923292
6 .89442719 .942809042
7 .863778901 .924445459
8 .832050294 .904534034
9 .80 .883452209
10 .76822128 .86154979
11 .73715414 .839140322
12 .707106781 .816496581
13 .678280103 .793849442
14 .650791373 .771389216
15 .624695048 .749268649
16 .60 .727606875
17 .576683198 .706493771
18 .554700196 .685994341
19 .533992991 .666152858
20 .514495755 .646996639
21 .496138938 .628539361
22 .478852131 .610783918
23 .462566007 .593724835
24 .447213596 .577350269
Note: The number of Run of the Run of the Hip Rafter to the
Hip Run Units will Common Rafter to Ridge Board divided by the
change if working with the Ridge Board Cosine in this Column
Multiple Pitches and divided by the equals the Length of the
the Hip Cosine will Cosine in this Hip Rafter
change. Column equals
Length of the
Common Rafter

This is a Handy Chart.


Please
Double Check the Calculations.

Page 7
Gable Roof

20/ fter
16/16

Ra
16
Rise
/9 r
15 afte
R 9/9 Rise

12/9 Run 12/16 Run

Rise
36.869 1.00 53.13
Ra 5
1 .2
r
afte 666 fte
r
R 66
1.

Run 1.33333 Run .75

Span of Scale: 2.08333

Note: Carry out Your Decimals at least 5 Places


When You are Calculating for your Scale.

Be Sure to Check your Calculations:


Cosine x Rafter Length = Run to the Ridge
Sine x Rafter Length = The Rise

If Calculations dont add up--It is likely due to


the Decimal not being carried out Far enough.

Page 8
Gable Roof
Legend
Measurement Line
2"
.5 202
e 137
H.A.P. Ris

r
fte "

Ra .90"
Ra 9.20

171
fte
22

r
Ridge 1"
Run to Ridge Run to Ridge
137.52022 x 1.3333 =183.36" 137.52022 x .75 = 103.14"

288" Span of Building

The Run on each Pitch to Ridge Plus Ridge Thickness must = Span of Building.
(288" - 1" Ridge) = 286.5" Span of Scale 2.08333" =
137.52022 The Multiplier

137.52022 x 1.25 = 171.90" Length of Rafter 16/12 Pitch

137.52022 x 1.66667 = 229.20" Length of Rafter 9/12 Pitch

Page 9
Gable Roof
9/12 & 16/12 Pitch
22" Difference in Plate Elevation

20/ fter

16/16
Ra
16

Rise
/9 r
15 afte
R 9/9 Rise

12/9 Run
12/16 Run

Rise
1.00
Ra 5
1 .2

r
fte 666
fte

a
r

R 66
1.

Run 1.33333 Run .75

Span of Scale: 2.08333

Page 10
Gable Roof
Add H.A.P. To 123.44" to
. 44"
Calculate Rise to Top
e 123
Of Ridge Board. H.A.P. Ris

"
36

Ra
3 9
2.

fte
24

r1
er
aft

54
R

.3 "
36.869 =
"
336 53.13
.7
205
+ Run 164.5886" Run 92.58"
"
6.66 Ridge Board
3
1"

288" Span of Building

22" Difference in
22" 9 x 12 =Run 29.33" Plate Elevations

288" - 29.33 = 258.67"

258.67 - (Ridge Board) 1.5 = 257.17 Span to Proportion

257.17 2.08333 = 123.44179 Multiplier Also the Rise

The Run on each Pitch to Ridge Plus Ridge Thickness must = Span of Building.
29.33" + 164.5886" + 1 " + 92.58" = 287.9986" Span

.9986 x 16 = 15.997/16" Thats pretty close


To a 288" Total Span.
Page 11
The Framing Square

You can calculate Stair Stringers.


all the Numbers on
your Framing Always work with
Square with a little one edge of the
understanding of Framing Square at a
The Three Trig time (Inside or Out-
Functions that I side). If you dont,
have told you your Angles will be
about. off.

The Framing
Square is a very
handy Tool for
Marking your Raf-
ters and Laying out

Page 12
The Framing Square
Plumb Cut
Measurement Line
x

x
Pitch 6 9/16":12"
(6.5625)
Birds mouth
fter
Seat Cut
Ra
Example: 5Wall Run 12 Run = 0.4583333
Multiplier X 6.5625 = 3.0078

Hold 5 & 3 to Mark Birdsmouth

5
I always mark a parallel Line
About " in from the edge and this
Is where I Hold my Run & Rise

You need a Sharp Edge to Hold


Your Framing Square to.
x
Rise
x Run

n g er
S tri
air
St
Please dont forget to cut
The thickness of the Tread
Off bottom Riser

Page 13
Hip Roof

Rise 1.0
1 .3
5 = le

16/
0

333
1 .5
+ .7 Sca

3" o 12
o/c

/c
60. 2
6 4 9 .3 6
.7 5 "
.75 an of

.7 5
9/1

Run " o/
Sp

c
1 .3
333

.7 5
3 45
o/c

Run
60. 45
.7 5 "

64

c
Run

" o/
1 .3 2 9 .3 6 .7 5

.7 5

5 = ale
1 .5 0
33 33" 16/
.7 5

c
o/c 12

.7 5 n o f S
16
Run

/12 45

+ .7
1 .3 S 45
333 pan of
c

Spa
" o/

.7 5
3+ S " o/
.75 cale
.7 5

c
=2
.0 8
333

Common Rafter 1.66666 Common Rafter 1.25


Legend:
Common Run 1.33333 Common Run .75

Hip Rafter 1.82763 Hip Rafter 1.457737

Hip Run 1.52979 Hip Run 1.06066

You can use either Span for the Divisor.


It Depends which way you want the Ridge to Run.

Corner Angles change


When working with Multiple Pitches.

Note: Carry out Your Decimals at least 5 Places or more.


Large Multipliers can produce Discrepancies.
Always Double Check your Calculations using Trig. Functions.

Page 14
Hip Roof

Span 144"
Ridge 186.08"

Run to this End Run to this


Of Ridge End Of Ridge
126.66" 71.25"

Length 384"
Length of Building 384" - 126.66" - 71.25" = 186.08" Ridge

Formula:
Span of the Building Minus the Ridge Divided by Span of
the Scale Equals a Multiplier. The Multiplier Times Any
Measurement on the Scale Equals that Measurement
On the Building.

(144 - 1.5) 1.5 = 95 The Multiplier

Measurements on Building
95 x 1.66666 = 158.3327 Common Rafter 95 x 1.25 = 118.75 Common Rafters
95 x 1.82763 = 173.62485 Hip Rafters 95 x 1.45773 =138.4851075 Hip Rafters
95 x 1.33333 = 126.66635 Common Run 95 x .75 =71.25 Common Run
95 x 1.0 = 95" Rise

Page 15
Bevel of Hips
Common Rafter 1.66666 Common Rafter 1.25

Common Run 1.33333


Common Run .75

Hip Rafter 1.82763 Hip Rafter 1.457737

Hip Run 1.52979 Hip Run 1.06066

e
44.
Be 2 Hi H ip Sid
is
17. vel p 5 h e
Be 107 Th
is S 4.4 el T
Hip Sid
vel Hip 3 ev is
Th ide B 5 h
is s .4 l T
34 eve

Span 144"
ide
B
Ridge 186.08"

34 ve
.4 l T
Be
ip
H s side

5 h
34 eve
0 7

H is S
.4 l T
i
B

1
17. el Th

ip id
5 hi
de
v Hip Si
Hi s S
Be . 2 This
p id
4
4 vel

e
Be
e

Length 384"

Length of Building 384" - 126.66" - 71.25" = 186.08" Ridge


Rise 1.0 Hip Rafter
1.82763 = .5471567 1.33333 .75
Sine of Hip Slope On West = 1.77777
Side of Building. Tangent 60.64 Corner Angle

Sine Hip Slope .5471567 Tangent 1.77777


= .307775699. .75 1.33333 =
Push Inv. & Tangent Key. .562501406.
17.107 Bevel of Hip. Tangent 29.36 Corner Angle

.Sine Hip Slope .5471567 Tangent .562501406


= 972720591.
Push Inv. & Tangent Key
44.2 Bevel of Hip

Page 16
Bevel of Hips

.75 .75 = 1.0


Tangent of 45 Corner Angle

Rise 1.0 Hip Rafter .685994799 1 = .685994799


1.457737 = .685994799 Push Inv. & Tangent Key.
Sine of Hip Slope On East 34.449 Degrees should be on
Side of Building. Display. Bevel of Hip on Each Side

Page 17
Legend
Common Rafter 1.66666 Measurement Lines Common Rafter 1.25

Common Run 1.33333 On Scale


Common Run .75

Hip Rafter 1.82763 Hip Rafter 1.457737

Hip Run 1.52979 Hip Run 1.06066

45

.3 6


29
64 45
60.

60.
64


45
29.


36

45
Saw Settings
60.64 Side Cut of Jacks 45 Side Cut of Jacks
At the Green Hips At the Purple Hips

60.64 Side Cut of Green Hips 45 Side Cut of Purple Hips


At the Ridge At the Ridge

29.36 Side Cut of Jacks


At the Green Hips

Note: Hold the Rise


& Run on your Framing
Square.

Mark the Rise for your Plumb Cut.


Mark the Run for Your Seat Cut.

Page 18
Rise 1.0
Run
5 = le

16/
0
1 .3
1 .5
+ .7 Sca

3 12
60. 29.
.75 an of

64 36
/12

Run
Sp

Run
1 .3
9

3 45

.7 5

Run
60. 45
64
Run

.7 5
29. .7 5
Run 36 Run
1 .3 16/
3 12
.7 5

16/
Run
12 45
Sp 45
1.3 an of
.7 5
3+ Run
S
.75 cale .7 5
=2
.0 8

You can use either Span for the Divisor.


It Depends which way you want the Ridge to Run.

Common Rafter 1.66666 Hip Rafter 1.82763 Common Rafter 1.25 Hip Rafter 1.457737

Common Run 1.33333 Hip Run 1.52979 Common Run .75 Hip Run 1.06066

Difference in Length of Difference in Length of


Jacks @ 16" on Center Jacks @ 16" on Center
Cut against the Green Cut against the Purple
Hips on the West End Hips on the North, East and
South End.
16" .75 x 1.6666 = 35.55"
16" .75 x 1.25 = 26.66"
Difference in Length of
Jacks @ 16" on Center
Cut against the Green
Hips on the South and
North End.
16" 1.33333 x 1.25 = 15"
Page 19
Polygon Chart
No. Of Sides Saw Settings in No. Of Units on Hip or
Degrees for Side Center per 12 Valley Run per
cuts of Hips & Units of Run per 12 Units of
Jacks Common Rafter Common Run

4 45 12 16.97056275

5 36 8.71851033 14.8328157

6 30 6.9282032 13.85640646

7 25.7142857 5.7788954 13.31899517

8 22.5 4.970562748 12.988706040

9 20 4.3676428 12.770133269

10 18 3.899036 12.61754669

11 16.363636 3.5235178 12.5066054

12 15 3.2153903 12.423314

13 13.8461538 2.957734 12.3591339

14 12.8571428 2.738921 12.3086022

15 12 2.5506787 12.2680871

16 11.25 2.3869484 12.2350938

17 10.58823529 2.2431887 12.207862

18 10 2.1159237 12.18511934

19 9.4736842 2.0024458 12.165927

20 9 1.90061328 12.14958

36 5 1.0498639 12.045838

Note: At the 180 degrees di- Tangent of saw 1.90061328


Point of Contact vided by the settings x 12 = squared + 12
of Hips & Jacks, number of sides these numbers squared =
Make Plumb Cut = Saw Settings. used for Plate 147.6123308.
First & Hold At the Eaves, layout. Square Root of
Bed of Portable Hold Bed of Saw 147.6123308 =
Saw on Cut On Wide part of 12.14958
Material for Hips.
Edge.
Page 20
Octagon
This is a Scale for an Octagon with a
9/12 Pitch

Install Hip Rafters First.

Rise
9
gth
Len
m on
8
13
Com
2
.8 0
th er

15
ng aft
15
Le ip R
H

40
Ru

u n 60
R 70
on

ip 88
1 2 mm

H .9
2
Co

In c 1
hes
4.97 O/C
056 In c
h
4.97 es O/C
Len 056
g
9.94 th of S
112 i
54 de

Use of Saw Setting in Polygon Chart


At the Point of Contact of Hips & Jacks, Make the Plumb Cut
First & Hold Bed of Portable Saw on the Cut Edge.

The Hip Rafter Tail can be cut with the Bed of Saw on the
Wide part of the Rafter Material.

Page 21
Octagon
Length of Side + (2 x 4.97) 9.941 = the Multiplier.
The Multiplier x 15.802 = the Length of Hips.

in.
1 .5
Hip

1.5 in.
Jacks .7 5
Length of Side 17
.8 1
12 in. O.H.

4.97 in. 17
On Center .8 1
.8117
16 in.
16.75 in.

15.938 in.

16.75 minus .8117 = 15.938. 15.938 divided by


4.97056275 times 15 = 48.098". Length of 1st. Jack to long side of
Cut.

2nd. Jack: 48.098 + 48.28 in.


3rd. Jack 48.098 +48.28 + 48.28 etc.
This includes the Over Hang so you have to step back 12 inches on
the Level with your Framing Square to Mark the Birds Mouth.

Page 22
Octagon
The Measurement
Line for Commons & Hips is the Point where the Rafter
makes contact with the Outer Edge of the Plate and is Par-
allel with the Rafter and runs the Full Length.

The H.A.P. (Height Above the Plate) must be the Same at


the Point of Contact at the Plate for Hips and Jacks.

You should be able to stretch a String Parallel with the


Sides on the
Backs of two Hip Rafters without a bend in the String.

H.A.P.

e
n t Lin
me
as u re
Me

H.A.P.

H.B.P. H.B.P. Is important


If you are going to
Have a Cathedral
Ceiling!

Page 23
Octagon

48 15 = 3.2
3.2 x 4.97 =15.9058

96"
15.9058"

Plywood
e in
Cut l
48"

Page 24
Ellipse

Roof: 9/12 Pitch

Page 25
90 4 = 22 1/2
Rise 9.0"
Cut Line
22.5 Cosine
.923879 x 12.0 =
11.086" Run12.0"
Rise
8.485
4.59

8.3149"
22.5 deg. Run 11.086"
45.0 deg.
67.5 deg Rise
6.36"
Run 8.48"
Rise
Run 3.44"
4.59"

8.485 12.0 = .70708 45 Sine (.70710678) x


.70708 x 9 = 6.36 Rise 12 = 8.485" Run

Rise
9.0

Run 12.0

Page 26
Cut out
for Pipe

Roof
Decking

Round Pipe going through the


Roof is a good example
of an Ellipse.

Page 27
Hip Roof Problem:
Common Rafter Tails cut square

Compound Angle for Hip Rafter Tails?

Page 28
00
13. mon 5.00
m
Co Rise
22.62 deg.
12.00
Common Run

H.A.P.
10.73 in.
22.62 deg.

67.38 deg.
22.62 de
12.1875
Plumb Cut

en t Plumb Cut
rem
g.

asu 12.1875 In
Me
e Minus 10.73 in.
Lin
= H.B.P. 1.457
12 in. O.H.

Flip Upside Down

12 in. OH.

12 in. O.H.
12.1875
Plumb Cut

Plumb Cut
12.1875 In t
men
Minus 10.73 in.
easure
= H.B.P. 1.457 M
e
Lin
22.62
deg.

67.38 deg.

H.A.P.
22.62 deg.
10.73 in.

Page 29
Make a sketch to use for Calculat- With Tangent on Display, push
ing the Slope of the Hip to Match Inv. Or 2ndF and Tangent Key.
the 67.38 deg. Slope of the Com-
mons and Jacks. The Commons and 40.74 Deg. Should be on Display if
Jacks are cut square on the end. your Calculator is in Degree Mode.
This is the Saw setting for this
Use your Scientific Calculator. Put Problem.
67.38 deg. On display and push
Tangent key. Put 14.10 deg. On Display in your
2.39999 x 1.00 = 2.3999 Rise Calculator.
Push Tangent Key.
1 squared + 2.3999 squared = 0.251182638 should be on Display.
6.75952.
Square root of 6.75952 is 2.599. 0.251182638 X 12 =3.014191662.
Common Length .014191662 X 16 = 0.2/16

1.4142 squared +2.3999 squared = Using your Framing Square, Hold


7.75948. 12 & 3 on a line parallel with your
Square Root of 7.75948 is 2.785. Rafter.
Hip Length
Mark 3 and you will have the lay-
The Tangent of 45 deg. Corner An- out for your Hip Rafter Tail
gle is 1.00.

Use this Formula: Sine of Hip Slope


divided by Tangent of Corner Angle
= the Tangent of saw setting for An-
gle of Cut.

Page 30
This is the END of the Hip Rafter Tail.
You are looking at it Upside Down.

The Hip & Common Run Lines are on


The Level.
This Hip has been Beveled.

Page 31
17.
6
Hip 9
/Va
5.00 lley
Rise
16.416 deg.
16.97056275
Hip Run
H.A.P.
10.73 in.
16.416 deg.

59.49 deg.
Plumb Cut
16.416 deg.
11.73 in.

14

t
men
.10

easure H.B.P
M
de

.996 in.
Line
g.

16.97 in. O.H. On 45 degree angle from the wall


Gives you a 12 in. O.H. Perpendicular to the wall.

Flip Upside Down

16.97 in. O.H. On 45 degree angle from the wall


Gives you a 12 in. O.H. Perpendicular to the wall.

t
14

men
sure
Plumb Cut
11.73 in.
16.416 deg
.1

H.B.P Mea
0

.996 in. Line


de
g.

59.49 deg.
H.A.P. 16.416 deg.
10.73 in.

Page 32
Notes

Page 33
Bow Window
Roof Framing
7 Panel

Page 34
7 Panels

Tip: (Number of Corners in any Enclosure - 2) x 180


degrees = the Sum of the Interior Angles.
Example: Visualize a Bow Window as being a Portion of a Gazebo
with 36 Sides.
(36 - 2) x 180 Degrees = 6120 Degrees (Sum of Interior Angles)
6120 Divides by 36 = 170 Degrees (Sum of Interior Angles at each
Corner.

These are the Saw Settings for Side Cuts of Jacks


Against their Respective Ledgers.

30 20 10
Panel 1 Panel 2 Panel 3 Panel 4
60 90
75

90

85
85
90 5

90
90 85
90 Corner
10 90
Offset Angle Angle

25 Side Cut 15 Side Cut 5 Side Cut


This Hip at the This Hip at the This Hip at the
Ledger Ledger Ledger

The Length of the Leg Opposite any Angle in a Triangle Divided by


the Sine of that Angle will give you a Multiplier.

The Multiplier Times the Sine of each of the other Angles will give
you the Length of the Leg Opposite each Angle.

This Works on any Triangle.

Page 35
1st. Panel of 7

r 16

th
ge Rise

Hip Leng
ed

20.0275
L
2
410
4
.8
28

Ledger Run 24

n R 12
20

un
.7 8
4
In c
hes mo

un
21 on
ip R
m
.8 3 Ce
Co

4P nte 8H
ane r
l
045
12.

1 .0
4
on 98 inc
Cen he
ter s

16 28.44102 = .554706123 (Sine of Ledger Slope) off


The Horizontal.
Push the 2nd F& Sine Key and 33.69047 degrees will
Be on Display.
Bevel of Ledger: Sine ( .554706123 ) divided Tangent of
Corner Angle (30 Deg. (.577350269) ) = .960779188.
With .960779188 on Display, Push 2nd F & Tangent Key.
43.854 Degrees is the Saw Setting for the Bevel of this
Ledger.

Use Framing Square: Mark 16 for Plumb & 24 for Seat Cut.

30
deg
. 25 deg.
60 deg.
90 - 30 = 60 deg. 90 - 65 = 25 deg.
Ledger Side cut at Eaves Side cut for Miter to Second Ledger.
Page 36
2nd. Panel of 7
Total Rise

.6179 31.6 ip Length


25.28

89
22 .3 6
ger

Total H
ed

45
L Ledger Rise 9.28

Ledger Run 20.353

1 9 .7

Partial Hip 11
347

6.9877 Hip Run


4
275
gth 20.0

8
Bevel of Ledger: Sine of Ledger

l
Partia
Slope ( 0.414861705 ) Divided by 20
Degree Tangent .363970234 =
Hip Len

1.139823168. Push2nd &Tangent


Key. 48.738 Degrees should be on
Display.

115 - 90 = 25

115 Ledger Run 20.353 75


5
ength 20.027

20 70
6.9877 Hip Run

1 9 .7
5 347
4 5
un

8
Partial Hip L

l
Partia
on R

90
m
Com

85
12

12.04 Hip Run


58

1 9 .7
l
Partia

347
1 .0 4 4
98 i
n. O
n ce
nter Pan
el 2
1 .8 3 4
47
1 .0 4
98 i
Ledger side cuts n. O
n ce
25 nter
15
Use these Saw Settings to Join the Ledgers together after Plumb Cut is Marked using
Framing Square. Hold 20.35 & 9.28. Mark 9.28 Inches.
Page 37
3rd. Panel 4th. Panel
5 is Saw
Setting on this
End of this Ledger Ledger 17.954

1 9 .0 5 is Saw Setting

4.288
ngth

Rise
er Le On each End of
Ledg

Hip Length 37.01


Ledger Run 18.516 This Ledger.

25.28 Rise
25.28 Rise

18.516
.645

15 is also the
Hip Length 31

Saw Setting for Side Cut


At the Ledger for this Hip. Bevel Ledger: 16/12 =
1.33. Push Inv. Tangent
Bevel Ledger: Sine of Ledger
Slope (.225684211) divided by 53.13 will be on Display.
10 deg. Tangent (.176326981) = The Saw Setting for Bevel
1.27991876) Push 2ndF & Tan. Of this Ledger if Bed of
Key (51.99 deg. Should be on Saw is placed on Wide Part
display. Use 38 Deg. & cut on Of Ledger.
Edge. 36.87 deg. Can
Be used if you Run your Saw
On the Narrow Edge of the
15 is Saw Material.
Setting on this
End of Ledger
85

10


90 85 95
5 Cosine x Hip Run
= Common Run 22.1765

5 Sine Total Hip Run


x
Run 19.0 Hip 22.26129 5
33
Inches o 62189 = 1.6588
n Center
5 Sine x Hip
Run 22.26129
18.516 = 1.940 Inches
on Center
90 17.954
90 8585 90
90 85
21.834
4 Pane
l
21.8344 Panel

Page 38
Framing
Stair Winders

Page 39
36 inches
10"

36 deg.

18 deg.

36 inches

A 10" Pathway 12" from interior wall is a


good starting point.

thway
10" Pa
81

9 9
3 1 .9
6"

Page 40
Outside Stringer:
55.96 X 18 deg. Tangent = 18.18 in.

55.96 X 36 deg. Tangent = 40.65 in. Minus


18.18 = 22.47 in.

55.96 minus 40.65 = 15.31 in.

in.
1 8 .1 8

18 deg. Cut
7 in.
2 2 .4

36 deg.
1 in.
1 5 .3

6.48

36 deg 8 .0 4
5 5 .9

.
On Ris Cut
er 5 .4 3
6 in
.

18 deg. Cut
On Riser

6 in.
5 5 .9

Page 41
18 deg. Cut on Riser

6.94" Risers
36 deg. Cut
on this Riser

45 deg. Cut 10" Cut out for Tread


18.18"
here
22.47"
15.31"

6.94" Riser
6.94" Riser

5.815" Bottom Riser

55.96"

2 x 12 stringers
You can use your biscuit
joiner to add enough mate-
rial so you can Layout Risers
and Tread cut-out.

Cut Off thickness of Tread


from bottom of Stringer.

Page 42
45 deg. Cut Optional. This is a
90 deg. Corner & can be cut
Square. Remember to deduct
the thickness of the material
from one side.

15.31"

22.47" 6.94" Riser

18.18" 36 deg.
6.94" Riser
18 deg.
5.815" Bottom Riser

55.96"

I would recommend using a third Stringer in the Middle.

Starting at the Central Point, The Tangent of 18 deg. X the


Distance to either side of the Stringer will give you the Cut-
out for Tread.

The Tangent of 36 deg. X that Same Distance minus the pre-


ceding Tread will give you the Cut-out for the next Tread.

The Tangent of 45 deg. X that Same Distance will give you


the Point where the Two Stringers meet.

Page 43
Multiple Pitch
Roofs

Always Remember The Measurement


Line for Commons , Hips & Valleys

You can put Multiple Pitches together by


Reducing the Rise to One Unit.

Divide Each Leg of each Pitch by


its own Rise.

Page 44
Multiple Pitch
16/12 House
9/12 Dormer
Rise

Ra /16 =
16/16=

20
fte
1.0

r 1 .2 5
6 Rise Rise 1.0
r 66
fte = 1. 9/9 = 1.0 66

Ra
a .6


R /9

fte
r1

.13
15 fte

r 1
36

53
Ra
.86

.2 5

Common Run 12/9 = Common Run Common Run Common Run 12/16 =
1.333 1.333 .75 .75
Valley Slope
1 .8
27
6R
Rise 1.0 aft
er
33.17
1.529 Run

Meas
urem
ent L
ine
er
aft
H.A.P
o f lley R d H.B .
n a r .P.
Ru jor V Boa
a e
M Rid ouse
g
To the H
Of

Rise
1.0 Rise
1.0
Dorm Act
u
1.333 er Run Rid al Run
ge B
Va 5 2 9

143 to
.25 oard
1.
lle 7

Rise
1 .2 5 o n

inch
yR

1.0
Comm

es
un

Dorm
er Run Run
Do r S 1.333 .7 5
mer cale Dorm
Spa er Ru
n 2. n 1.3
666 33
Page 45
Dormer Slope House Slope
Rise

Ra /16 =
20
16/16=

fte
r 1 .2 5
1.0
6 Rise
r 66
afte = 1. 9/9


R /9

.13
= 1.0
15
36

53
.8
6

Common Run 12/9 = 1.333 Common Run 12/16 =.75

Valley Slope
1 .8
27
66 6R
Ra

.6 Rise 1.0 aft


fte

ter 1 Rise 1.0 er


r 1

f
Ra
.2 5

33.17
Common Run Common Run 1.529 Run
1.333 .75

You should now be able to see that for every


2.666 Units of Dormer Span, You will Use Up .75 Units of
House Run and 1.529 Units of the Major Valley Run.

The Actual Dormer Span Minus the Ridge Board divided


by (Span 2.666) of the Scale = The Multiplier.

The Multiplier x any of the Red Numbers will give you


the Actual Measurements on the Building.

The Major Valley and the House Commons have to be


Calculated Separately.

Page 46
Ridg
Meas e Bo
urem ard
ent L
ine
r H.A.P
Rafte H.B .
f y
n o alle rd .P.
Ru jor V Boa
Ma Ridge ouse
To the H
Of D orm
Va 1.333 er Run
Rise
lley

1.0
Rise
1
.75

.8 2

1.0 Act
76

u
on Rid al Run
1.25 ge B
Va 5 2 9

to
Comm
143
.25 oard
1.
lle 7

Rise
inch
yR

1.0 Co es
mm
un

Dorm on
60.64
er Ra
Run er ft Run
1.33 1.6 .7 5
Do r 3
Scal Dor 66
mer e mer
Spa Run
n 2. 1.333
666

Run of House to the Ridge Board ( 143.25 .75 ) = ( 191 )


Multiplier
191 x 1.8276 = 349.07" Length of Major Valley Rafter.

Difference in Length of Jacks @ 16" o.c. For 16/12 Pitch:


16 1.33 = 12.03 The Multiplier.
12.03 x 1.25 = 15.03"

Difference in Length of Jacks @ 16" o.c. For 9/12 Pitch:


16 .75 = 21.33 The Multiplier.
21.33 x 1.66 = 35.55"

Note: These Calculations are not on your Framing Square.


Page 47
Notes

Page 48
Notes

Page 49
Concave Roof
Framing

Rise 48"
16/12 Pitch

H.A.P.

H.B.P
"
20
t
en
ne em
"

Li asur
20

e
rM
fte

Nails
Ra
"
20

Run: 36"
Adjust to
the size of
Fascia.
"

Common Rafter
20

2 x 12
12" o.h.

H.A.P.
18.75 11.42 inches
Plumb cut
Common Rafter 5 inch seat cut

H.B.P.
7.33 inches

Page 50
Concave Roof
Framing

Rise 48"

H.A.P.
Hip Rafters
2 x 12

H.B.P
3"
. 32
23

3"
. 32
23
Nails
"
3 23
2 3. Run 50.91"

3"
. 32
23
Adjust to the size of Fascia

Calculate the Length of All the Rafters & Mark


The Measurement Line on all of them.
Then Lay Out the Curve.

The Red Vertical Lines


From the Measurement Line on all the Rafters
Must be the Same
So The Backs of the Rafters will be at the Same
Elevation for a given Point.

Page 51
Notes