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Construction of Cairo Metro Line 2 Proc. Instn Civ.

Engrs,
Civ. Engng, 1999,
A. Madkour, M. A. Hudson, BSc, CEng, MICE and A. Bellarosa 132, May/August,
103-117
A new 30 km underground railway line is being built in the heart of Cairo,
one of the worlds largest and fastest growing cities. Cairo Metro Line 2 will Paper 11668

link the pyramids of Giza on the west bank of the Nile to central and north- Written discussion closes
ern Cairo on the opposite bank when completed in 2001. This paper briefly 15 November 1999
describes the methodology used for construction of the 18 stations, tunnels
and workshop which make up this US$2 billion projectincluding the first Keywords: transport
ever tunnel under the Nile. A number of innovative solutions were devel- planning; rail & bus
oped to solve the problem of water leakage during construction. stations

Cairo is one of the largest cities in the Middle East trically powered vehicles with a catenary system.
and the population reflects Egypts ancient cultural To complete Line 1, these independent railways
heritage and diverse society. Egypt has been called were connected by cut-and-cover tunnels with
the mother of the world and has a recorded histo- underground station construction in the centre of
ry, over five millennia, of large public works pro- the city, and power was supplied to the vehicles by
jects. The pyramids are renowned as one of the a full catenary system.
seven wonders of the ancient world and varying The number of passengers using Line 1 has con-
forms of pyramid stretch along the west bank of the stantly increased and 1995 studies recorded that
Nile from Cairo as far as Nubia in northern Sudan. the Line 1 passenger count was 328 million passen-
Many other monuments from early periods of histo- gers a year with an estimated passenger count of
ry remain and artefacts continue to be found. 530 million passengers a year anticipated for the
Relatively more recent historical monuments in combined Line 1 and Line 2 operations by the year
Cairo include the churches on the route taken by 2000. Line 1 operational expenditure including
Mary, Joseph and Jesus on the flight to Egypt, the depreciation in 1994/95 was greater than revenue A. Madkour works
citadel of Saladin and the Khan El Khalili, an from Line 1 operations by a factor of approximately for the National
ancient souk which is still in use. two, resulting in a deficit which continues to be Authority for Tunnels
Greater Cairos population is rapidly increasing borne by the Egyptian Government. Ticket prices in Egypt
and is expected to exceed 239 million in the year today cost an average of 50 piastres for a single
2012. The present population is now estimated at 18 journey (0.10) and the main expenditure is for the
million and is densely packed into a city, forced by cost of depreciation of assets.
the surrounding topography to expand along the The newest line (Line 2) also lies along the citys
Nile River banks. Before completion of the Aswan north/south corridor but for the first time connects
dams, the Nile River cut high escarpments into the the east and west banks of the Nile in bored tunnel.
sandstone underlying the alluvial sands and these The successful tenderer for the underground
have acted as barriers to the expansion of the city. civil work construction for the first phase of Line 2
The urban transportation corridors therefore follow was a joint venture of French and local contractors
a north/south corridor in order to reach the cen- led by Campenon Bernard (SGE) France. However,
tres of highest population density. a separate local contract was provided for the civil
works for the at-grade and elevated sections in the Malcolm Hudson
Greater Cairos metro network was principally
first phase. The project consultant selected by the works for Parsons
planned to increase the mobility of the people of
client for the design review and construction ser- Brinkerhoff Europe
Cairo and, in addition, to improve population mobili-
ty. The metro was also planned to reduce the vices was a joint venture of international and local
growth in private car ownership. However, car consultants formed under the title of Greater Cairo
growth has rapidly exceeded earlier estimates in Metro Consultants (GCMC) and led by Parsons
parallel with the economic growth recently experi- Brinckerhoff, USA.
enced by Egypt. Construction of Line 2 commenced on 12 June
Construction of the first metro line was complet- 1993 and operational testing of the first section,
ed in the 1980s. This line upgraded two existing phase 1A, was scheduled to start 40 months later
suburban railway lines to metro standards. The city, and phase 1B in the following year. Phase 1A and
prior to 1980, had an existing north/south subur- phase 1B have both met these targets.
ban railway line to the north of the city and a simi- The next phase (phase 2A) of metro construction
lar line to the south separated by the city centre. on the west bank of the Nile is also complete. The Aldo Bellaros works
The north line was operated using diesel locomo- lessons learned on the first phase have been inte- for Estp/Chebap
tives while the south line was operated using elec- grated into the project management system to the Eiffage in France

103
MADKOUR, HUDSON
AND BELLAROSA

Kaliobia extent that completion of the phase was achieved


Workshop El Marg Cairo Airport well ahead of schedule.
Shubra The first train run on phase 2A was actually car-
El-Kheima ried out in early October 1998 for a visit to the pro-
ject by the prime minister and his cabinet, but this
Koleyet El-Zera'ah
was not part of the testing and trial running pro-
gramme for the project.
El-Mazalat
El-Khalafawi

St Thereza
Description of Line 2
Rodel Farag
Fig.1 shows the two existing north/south lines
Imbaba
Massara
with station locations and the proposed new Line 3
which connects the area of highest population den-
Mubarak
sity through the centre of the city to the airport in
Giza Sadat
Attaba the north. Line 2, the line now under partial opera-
Gezira Abdeen
Behoos
tion and construction, commences at grade as
Cairo University phase 1A in the north of Cairo at Shubra El Kheima
Giza Square Cairo and enters the underground section of the line
Giza Station north of Mazallat Station and continues under-
Giza Suburban ground, south to Mubarak Station in the city centre
(Fig.2). Phase 1A also includes the workshop.
The next section, phase 1B, is situated in the city
Line 1 (42.5 km) centre and is totally underground between the two
Line 2 (30.5 km)
interchange stations (Mubarak and Sadat Stations )
Proposed Line 3 (30.0 km)
completed during Line 1 construction.
Phase 2A connects from the existing Line 1 Sadat
Ri

Station and crosses under the Nile to Cairo


ve
rN

0 Scale of km 5 University on the west bank.


ile

The final phase of Line 2, phase 2B, includes an


elevated/at-grade section and connects south of
Cairo University and terminates near Giza. Table 1
shows general project route information.

Contract programme
The contract duration and phasing of completion
of the workshop buildings, from start of detailed
design to final handing over for operation, were
Helwan
based on train deliveries, storage requirements,

Fig. 1. System map

Fig. 2. Profile of Line 2


Shubra Koleyet Ismailia
El-Kheima El-Zeraah Canal
St Rod Abdeen Sadat
+20 Mazallat Khalafawi Theresa El Farag Masarra Mubarak Attaba (M Naguib) (East)

0
Phase 1A Phase 1B

Cut-and-cover tunnel
River Nile
Cairo
Sadat Gezira TBM University
+20 (West) (Opera) Dokki Behoos shaft Bored tunnel 0 Scale of km 2

0 Stations

Phase 2A

104
CAIRO METRO LINE 2

Table 1. Project information


Greater Cairo metro line 2 project information
International contractors works

Phase Start End Number Bored tunnel Cut and Phase total
station name station name of stations length: m cover tunnel length: km
U: underground length: m
A: at grade
E: elevated

1A Shoubra Mubarak 5U 3454 1270 8


El Kheima North

1B Mubarak South Sadat East 2U 2478 0 3

2A Sadat West Cairo 3U 3458 470 5


University 1A

2B Cairo Giza 2A 0 0 2.5


University Suburban 1E

Table 2. Contract information

Greater Cairo metro line 2 contract information

Phase Duration: months EWP: months Status

Workshop
Stage 1 27 0 In operation
Stage 2 36 0 In operation
Stage 3 48 0 In operation

Phase 1A 36 3 In operation

Phase 1B 48 3 In operation

Phase 2A 49 2 Completion achieved


12 months ahead

Phase 2B 35 2 In progress

EWP Experimental Working Period

training, testing and maintenance requirements in drainage pipes and a lower aquifer confined within
advance of the train trial running dates. the sand deposit beneath the silty clay/clayey silt
The contract durations for phases 1 and 2 are layer. Piezometric pressures in the confined aquifer
shown in Table 2. At the completion of each phase are generally about 34 m pressure head less than
a short experimental working period (EWP) was ground level and generally are affected by Nile
carried out to ensure integration of all systems River water levels.
including train running, safety of the line and also
to provide for a training period for operations staff. Construction methodology
The later phases of the project necessitated com- Safety
plex staging requirements at terminal stations The contractor was required under the terms of
where the operating line was extended to the new the contract to submit its overall health and safety
line. Wherever possible the operations complexity procedure for the works during the initial stage of
was minimized by commencing line operation on construction. The initial procedure included a work
short completed sections of the new phase in breakdown analysis and this was used to assess the
advance of its total length. types of work expected for each site and to identify,
for areas of risk, detailed procedures that needed to
Geology be submitted. It also proposed safety staffing levels
Line 2 soil profile consists of man-made fill, silty required for these areas and also for the whole of
clay/clayey silt, interbedded clay silt, and sand and the works. The safety staffing levels were also
alluvial sands. The soil profile under the main based on the anticipated numbers of workers per
branch of the Nile is shown in Fig. 3.1 The ground- month at each site including back-up sites, laborato-
water regime comprises a perched aquifer ries, batching plants and at the off-site production
recharged by leaking city water supply pipes and factories.

105
MADKOUR, HUDSON
AND BELLAROSA

Fig. 3. Nile crossing:


section looking south Bed River Nile River Nile
protection East branch West branch

+20

yyyyyyyyyyy
@@@@@@@@@@@


,,,,,,,,,,,
y,@,,
yy


@@
+10 Gezira
Station

0 To Sadat Bored tunnel

@@@@@@@@@@@


,,,,,,,,,,,
yyyyyyyyyyyy,@
Station
Bored tunnel To Dokki
-10
Station

@@


,,
yy
-20

-30

@@


,,
yy
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Scale of m
Fill Clay Micaceous Silty Sand Sand Gravel

Specific authorities were defined for all staff on Only when the safety management were satisfied
the project and the safety officer was authorized to with the proposals were the procedures issued to
issue instructions to stop the works if any safety the client for approval. By using this system and
violations were observed. In addition, safety train- dramatically increasing site training, the accident
ing and reporting requirements were defined, site frequency subsequently reduced. Accident statistics
medical facilities including site ambulance provision for the project are shown in Fig. 4.
stated and the locations and telephone numbers of
hospitals and other emergency services given. A Environmental considerations
site safety manual was also developed and was Due to Cairos size and rapidly increasing popula-
issued in Arabic to each worker on first arrival on tion, severe problems are faced in provision of
the site. amenities for the population. Environmental consid-
After agreements of the overall procedure, specif- erations have, until only recently, been subservient
ic procedures were developed for activities such as to the achievement of economic growth. In the last
tunnelling, diaphragm walling, tower cranes, exca- 20 years, however, major projects providing
vation and strutting installation and removal. In improvements in water quality and sewerage treat-
addition, as the works progressed, new procedures ment have been carried out and larger sections of
were developed to accommodate changes in the the population now have these amenities.
working methods. In addition to restrictions on discharge of water
In the initial stages of the work, the incidence of from construction sites, with discharge of untreated
accidents was statistically significant and, regret- water to the Nile strictly prohibited, there are restric-
tably, the gravity rate increased. This is considered tions on heavy vehicle access to the greater Cairo
to have occured due to a lack of familiarity of the area. Dumping of waste such as building debris and
site labour force with the new methods adopted on excavation materials, however, is largely dependent
the project. The metro accident rates cannot, how- on private disposal services as the city services are
ever, be directly compared with accident rates in extremely limited.
other countries due to differences in working prac- Air pollution is, however, now attracting attention
tices in Egypt. and studies are proposed to identify sources and
As the project work load increased and the recommend solutions to improve the air quality in
gravity rate increased, attention to safety stan- Cairo. One action now being made is a reduction in
dards was reinforced by the contractor, the con- the number of petrol-powered vehicles on the
sultant and the client and maximum emphasis roads. This involves changing all taxis from petrol
was placed on ensuring that all activities were engines to natural gas with resultant lowering in
carried out in the safest possible manner. To this polluting emissions.
end the contractor ensured that, not only specific
health and safety procedures were prepared, but Works areas
also all site procedures and method statements The works areas provided to the contractor
were developed specifically on the basis of safe required closure of main city thoroughfares and
methods of working. The contractors safety man- diversion of traffic onto other routes. At each sta-
agement, to ensure that the risk of injur y to the tion site, wherever possible, the full width of the
work force was minimized, assessed the proce- street was closed to traffic and occupied by the con-
dures prior to issue. tractor. This allowed the contractor to complete the

106
CAIRO METRO LINE 2

Fig. 4. Line 2 accident


25 Work accidents
statistics
20

15
Rate

10 Average

5
By month

0
Jan-94

Apr-94

Jul-94

Oct-94

Jan-95

Apr-95

Jul-95

Oct-95

Jan-96

Apr-96

Jul-96

Oct-96

Jan-97

Apr-97

Jul-97

Oct-97

Jan-98

Apr-98
Months

30 Frequency rate

25

20
Frequency

15
Average
10

5 By month

0
Jan-94

Apr-94

Jul-94

Oct-94

Jan-95

Apr-95

Jul-95

Oct-95

Jan-96

Apr-96

Jul-96

Oct-96

Jan-97

Apr-97

Jul-97

Oct-97

Jan-98

Apr-98

Months

.45
Gravity rate
.40
.35
.30
.25 Average
Gravity

.20
.15
.10 By month
.05
.00
Jan-94
Mar-94
May-94
Jul-94
Sep-94
Nov-94
Jan-95
Mar-95
May-95
Jul-95
Sep-95
Nov-95
Jan-96
Mar-96
May-96
Jul-96
Sep-96
Nov-96
Jan-97
Mar-97
May-97
Jul-97
Sep-97
Nov-97
Jan-98
Mar-98

Months

station roof slab, avoiding the time and cost associ- Utilities
ated with provision of numerous variations in the In general, all utilities were diverted prior to con-
traffic pattern. Immediately after the roof slabs struction commencement; however, where large
were completed some limited traffic provision was utilities, such as 220 kV cables and large diameter
made along or across the site to improve the situa- sewers and water pipes, could not be diverted spe-
tion for the local residents. cial excavation techniques were used where these
As the civil works ended and the finishing works crossed the cut-and-cover tunnel works. At all sta-
commenced the works areas were gradually tions except Rod El Farag Station all major utilities
opened again to traffic, usually by provision, initial- over the main station boxes were diverted and
ly, of one full lane in each direction which reduced excavation was therefore unobstructed allowing
the period of total road closure. efficiency of construction.

107
MADKOUR, HUDSON
AND BELLAROSA

Fig. 5. Workshop lay- To Metro main line (connects at Shubra El Kheima)


out 18
8
6 25 0 Scale of m 200
17
23 28
17 11
7

Connection
to Egyptian 24
Railways
16 12
17
20 19 3
1
22 28 13
Local contractor buildings 11
1. Office building 2
2. Office and technical building
3. Maneouvre cabin 14 27
4. Office and technical building 21
5. Training centre 14
6. Control and security offices 4
16
7. Maintenance dept workshop and storage 15
8. Maintenance dept office 15
9. Dangerous goods store
10. Water tank
11. Sewerage pump room 9 5
11

International contractor buildings 26


6
12. Siding track hall 18. Rectifier station 24. Turntable
13. Light repair workshop 19. Bogie storage slab 25. Local signal box
14. General overall workshop 20. Lathe pit/bogie changing hall 26. Test track inspection pit
15. Paint shop 21. Light repair workshop for 27. Lifting table
16. Lighting and power stations diesel locomotives 28. Sump chamber
17. Switch cabins 22. Train wash

Fig. 6. Workshop
panorama

Workshop tation requires that a shunting zone is located


The workshop was designed to accommodate 48 behind the first at-grade station. The layout of the
sets of eight car trains and, due to land constraints, workshop is shown in Figs 5 and 6 and clearly
was connected to the mainline by a single access shows the limited site area.
track. The workshop is surrounded by a densely Prior to the start of the main contracts, advance
populated mixed-use industrial/residential area, works were carried out to level the site and install
which severely constrains the layout and track con- fencing. Local contractors, which were supervised
nection of the workshop to the main line. This limi- by the National Authority for Tunnels (NAT), also

108
CAIRO METRO LINE 2

Fig. 7. Behoos Station


Roof plan Accesses/air shafts
long section

Cut-off walls

Long section

To Dokki To Cairo
University

0 Scale of m 25
Fig. 8. Behoos Station
cross section

carried out site formation, general earthing net-


works, utilities, roads and office buildings. The
Ground
main workshop maintenance buildings, track and +20.0
workshop equipment were carried out by the inter- Roof
national contractors.
The project consultants not only carried out Ticket
inspection of the international contractors works
but were also responsible for co-ordination between
the local and international contractors. Civil works
co-ordination commenced as soon as the works Technical
started and weekly co-ordination and progress
meetings were held with critical problems reviewed
at monthly site meetings chaired by NAT. Area occupied by tunnel
As the works progressed and the site interfaces
became more complex, working groups were set
up to review and release constraints caused by the Raft
ever-increasing volume of construction. Eventually
complex working and safety procedures were
adopted to allocate track areas and rooms in build-
ings for equipment installation, vehicle delivery and
testing, driver and personnel training, power
requirements and defects repair.

Stations
The primary function of the stations during the
civil works construction stage was to permit the
unobstructed passage of the tunnel boring machine
(TBM) through the stations. The main station Soft gel plug
boxes are generally rectangular in plan and were
standardized within the limits of the right of way. Toe level
-25.5
This standardization led to the use of the same con- 0 Scale of m 10
struction methods throughout the project and pro-
moted efficient use of construction resources.

109
MADKOUR, HUDSON
AND BELLAROSA

The station boxes have excavation depths vary- ered economic to improve the strength of the soil
ing from 1523 m and have accesses and airshafts and therefore reduce the depth of the walls.
attached to the main box. See Figs 7 and 8 for In addition to diaphragm walls, bentonite/cement
Behoos Station layout. The platform length is 144 slurry walls were constructed to divide the stations
m and is designed to accommodate an eight-car into smaller boxes to allow sectioning of the excava-
train. tion process. For more detailed explanations of the
The stations are designed to be fully watertight construction techniques adopted see references 3
and this specification required the use of reinforced and 4.
concrete diaphragm walls (of up to 12 m width) The station raft slab was designed to act as a sim-
incorporating CWS stop-end joints.2 Fig. 9 shows a ply supported beam/strut. Horizontal loads were
completed station at platform level (Attaba Station). transmitted into the walls in bearing, but vertical
The design of the diaphragm wall was based pri- ground water loads were directed into a line of cor-
marily on the loading applied during the construc- bels connected by couplers to the diaphragm wall.
tion stage. The depth of the diaphragm walls was The permanent structure construction sequence
also based on provision of a soft gel plug by injec- finally adopted was as follows
tion through tube-a-manchettes to limit water inflow
through the sand and avoid excavation instability. complete the roof slab
The soft gel plug was considered to impart no complete the ticket slab at the station ends
strength to the sand, therefore, the toe level of the complete the technical slab
diaphragm walls was controlled by the need to install two layers of strutting
maintain the maximum safe economic weight of cast the first stage raft slab
soil above the plug. complete the break in and break out slurry
The design of the diaphragm wall section was walls and grouting
also based on minimizing settlements caused by demolish the station concrete ends (tympan)
wall deflections where excavation was carried out for TBM transit.
Fig. 9. Attaba Station close to other structures. In a number of locations,
platform level hard gel plugs were provided where it was consid- TBM transit through the station however post-

110
CAIRO METRO LINE 2

poned the full completion of the raft (second stage


Three groutholes drilled
raft concrete), platform structure, columns, walls into diaphragm wall
and ticket slab. +20.6
The Line 1 interchange stations, Mubarak and Roof slab
GWL
Sadat, were constructed without provision for TBM
transit and the Line 1 station boxes provided only
sufficient space for platform, train and permanent
equipment clearances. To complete the TBM drives
and to allow for removal of the TBMs, short
lengths of extension boxes were constructed on Nine casings installed through
each end of Mubarak and Sadat Stations by the station for well points
diaphragm walling together with plug and jet grout- +11.4
ed/injected box connections. Technical slab

In general, TBM progress was maintained


throughout the tunnel drives but the station excava-
+6.9 First strut level
tion depths were such that the plug and the TBM
connection works occasionally suffered localized
leakage that necessitated repair works, and this Second strut level
+4.0
caused some delay to the TBM progress.
Grout pipes Concrete cover
Typical water leakage problems experienced during
excavation. Raft slab
-1.0
During injection of the gel plugs, the contractor 120m3 of sand/
controlled grout take by sophisticated computer- cement backfill
based control systems. Records of volumes and
pressures retained on the computers were com-
pared with design volumes and pressures in every
sleeve of the tube-a-manchettes. After completion of
the injection a pumping test was undertaken to
assess the final permeability of the soil.
Occasionally there were a number of defects and
these may have been caused by the following. -17.7

Inclination of the grout holes caused by devia- Possible leakage hole


tion in drilling verticality resulting in localized
areas of low grout absorption. -24.2
Incomplete cutting of the tube-a-manchettes. A
high-pressure water jet was used to cut the
tube-a-manchette below the excavation level.
The ability of the water jet to cut the pipes was
dependent on the diameter of the nozzle of the
jet and continued use of the tool gradually
degraded the nozzle. During soil removal, the slab to permit installation of relief wells and stand- Fig. 10. Dokki Station
excavation equipment pulled out the tubes. If pipes (Fig 10). leak repairs
the tubes were incompletely cut, the grout tube The contractor then carried out a number of
could be pulled out for most of its length level experiments by alternating pumping from different
causing a flow path through the plug. wells and monitoring drawdown. The location of
Plug defects, which could not be explained by the leakage path was subsequently assessed to be
the above theories. immediately adjacent to the toe of the diaphragm
wall. A new well was drilled and luckily this well
At Dokki Station during excavation to the raft intersected with the leakage point and instantly all
level of the central box a sudden inflow of water inflow around the leakage area ceased.
was observed which quickly exceeded the capacity In addition to monitoring of existing piezometers
of the pumping wells in the box. Immediately, the inside and outside the box, a number of new
contractor commenced backfilling above the leak- piezometers outside the box were also installed.
age area and installed relief pipes and surface These provided more detailed information on
pumps to pump water away from the leakage zone. ground water levels in the area of dewatering. The
Over the two days following the leak, several layers primary concern was that consolidation settlement
of soil surrounded by reinforced concrete were could rapidly occur if the zone of dewatering extend-
placed around the leakage area to provide mass ed to outside the box. In addition to the installation
back onto the excavation. The concrete surround and testing of the new wells inside the box, the con-
was provided with a series of holes through the top tractor, in parallel, completed the raft slab around

111
MADKOUR, HUDSON
AND BELLAROSA

the leakage area, which helped to control the leak-


Struts
age by adding permanent loading onto the soil.

Cut-and-cover tunnels
The cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in
the same manner as the stations and to the same
watertightness criteria except that the diaphragm
wall retaining structure was used only for tempo-
rary ground support. Inside the diaphragm walls an
arched tunnel structure of cast in-situ reinforced
concrete was placed against and surrounded by a
waterproofing membrane (Fig 11). In the transition
zone between the at-grade and covered tunnel the
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Diaphragm walling Plug injection Excavation/strutting permanent retaining structure was the diaphragm
Pump testing Waterproofing wall connected directly to the raft and roof slabs of
Base slab
the tunnel. Again to assist excavation and improve
watertightness control, slurry walls were construct-
ed to divide the tunnels into sections.

Bored tunnels
The tunnel lining comprises seven segments and
a key, with the key introduced longitudinally to com-
plete the ring. This therefore required an overlength
on the TBM shoving jacks of 05 m. The lining is
tapered with a nominal segment length of 15 m and

Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 6


Strut removal Strut removal Waterproofing Fig. 11. Cut-and-cover construction method
Waterproofing Waterproofing Backfill
Walls Roof Strut removal
Fig. 12. Completed tunnel Attaba to Abdeen

112
CAIRO METRO LINE 2

Fig. 13. TBM at


Behoos Station raft

Fig. 14. TBM break


out at St Theresa
Station

113
MADKOUR, HUDSON
AND BELLAROSA

to install the tunnel lining to the alignments mini-


Slurry mum horizontal curve radius of 201 m. Surface
wall box
ground settlement volumes were observed to aver-
age in the region of 0510 % of face volume and
the automatic continuous tail void grouting system
was very successful in controlling surface settle-
Station Station ment. The depths of the settlement troughs were
normally observed to be in the range of 1520 mm
at ground level.
TBM The length of the TBM and the back up trailers
break
out Jet grout Jet grout was approximately 60 m and occupied over 40% of
the station raft slab. This effectively restricted the
completion of the station civil works at raft level
until after the TBM had completely exited the sta-
tion. Fig. 13 shows the TBM inside Behoos Station.
The tolerance requirements of the specification
Hard gel for tunnel driving were 75 mm for alignment plus
Soft gel Soft gel
50 mm for erection. The as-built survey information
compared against the installation records for the
lining showed that the tunnel linings were built to
tolerance, but responded to the continuous auto-
Initial break-in/out concept Revised break-in/out concept
matic tail void grouting by ovaling at installation.
This vertical ovaling was reduced by squat caused
by ground loads developing on the lining. This con-
Fig. 15. Breakout width of 04 m, with internal dia. of 835 m. Joint tradicts the usual design assumption that the lining
details waterproofing is provided by an elastomeric gasket squats immediately after build.
supplemented by a hydrophilic seal. Fig. 12 shows Two TBMs were provided to achieve the phase 1
the completed tunnel with walkway/20kV cable programme targets. The machines, however, per-
channels and also shows a connection to one of the formed well beyond expectation6 and this resulted
off-line rectifier stations. in the need to expedite the station construction pro-
TBM choice5 was based on the ability of a ben- grammes to avoid disruption to the TBM progress.
tonite slurry shield to excavate the coarse granular On the basis of the driving rates achieved on
material observed during the site investigation. In phase 1, it was considered possible for phase 2A to
addition, choice was based on drive a single TBM from the cut-and-cover works
through the three underground stations. The tun-
previous experience of similar ground condi- nels under the Nile to connect to the interchange
tions station at Sadat are complete and the TBM has
the need to closely control settlement again performed exceptionally well and transited
continuous grouting of tunnel segments. through all three stations ahead of schedule.

Slurry treatment plants were provided at the sur- Breakout methods


face for the slurry returned from the excavation Fig. 14 shows the top of the TBM cutter head
and for preparation of the fresh bentonite used for emerging after completion of the ground water bal-
the excavation system. The plants were designed to ance breakout at St Theresa Station. The ground
separate soil particles from the bentonite supplied water balance method avoids a hydraulic gradient
for face support by three stages through the soil and was used where there was
either insufficient space to construct a standard
screening of particles breakout or difficulties with provision of the pro-
cyclone separation posed standard breakout. However flooding of the
concentration by use of a coagulation agent and stations did cause delay to other works in the sta-
pressing of the cake produced from the first tion and the ground treatment design was altered
two stages through a filter. for subsequent breakouts to minimize disruption.
Early breakout construction methods provided a
Bentonite density at delivery to the TBM was stabi- plug of jet grouted soil,3 essentially as an unrein-
lized at 11 t/m3 and was adjusted depending on the forced retaining structure in front of the station end
anticipated ground conditions. In general, bentonite walls. These end walls (tympans) were removed to
consumption was 30 m3 per 1 m3 of excavated soil permit the TBM to bore through the jet grout and
but, where the TBM progressed through areas of jet enter the station. It became clear during early execu-
grout, the bentonite became rapidly contaminated tion of these breakouts that jet grout alone could not
resulting in continuous replacement of bentonite and be relied upon for ground water control as small dis-
subsequent problems with slurry disposal. continuities of untreated soil were encountered
The TBMs were articulated and were designed between the jet columns starting at depths of 1520m

114
CAIRO METRO LINE 2

below ground level. Where these extended to the toe Fig. 16. Part section
of the column or connected to the outside of the treat- through tunnel lining
Excavated surface
ed mass, leakage paths caused erosion and cavities at circumferential
with the danger of soil collapse to the surface. joint
After some trial and error the final solution adopt-
ed was an unreinforced cement/bentonite slurry
walled box with an impermeable chemically grouted Tail void grout
hard gel base plug beneath the ground treatment, Hydrophylic seal
but still provided with a jet grout mass (Fig 15).
Elastomeric gasket

Quality control
The civil works specifications were based on
European and Egyptian standards. The quantities
of materials used were significant: almost 1500 km
of drilling for grout injection, 350 000 m2 of
diaphragm walls and 300 000 m3 of concrete. The
Segment
completed works including watertightness require- Waterproof concrete
ments, despite the speed of construction, complied
Groove
with the specification requirements. for Inner face
The bored tunnels, in every instance, complied caulking of lining
with the specification and there were no leaks or
dampness observed on the tunnel linings and
joints. Details of the lining joint showing the instal- at the raft/diaphragm wall connections.
lation of the Phoenix gasket and hydrophilic seal
are shown in Fig 16. At the time of completion of the phase 1 stations
Leakage, though small, was observed in the sta- the leakage was significantly reduced and the volume
tions during excavation but the extent of leakage could not be accurately measured as other sources of
was controlled by injecting either a hydrophilic water (i.e. washing) in the stations were in excess of
acrylic resin grout into the joints in the diaphragm the volumes which could be attributed to structure
wall structure or by structural repair. The locations leaks. In any event, the contract called for only two
of points of leakage were predominantly criteria for watertightness for the stations.
The first criterion, class 1, is for the diaphragm
leaks at the diaphragm wall joints walls and structure and this required the structure
around the tunnel linings at the station connec- to be completely dry; that is, no trace of moisture.
tions The second, class 2, is for diaphragm wall joints

Table 3. Bored tunnel statistics


Phase 1 (Six Day Work Week)

Progress Segment damage


Location
Best Average Average Average month Per cent damaged/
Length: m week: m week: m month: m including delays: m total segments per drive

Khalifawi to St Theresa 795 100 49 213 213 46


St Theresa to Rod El Farag 743 150 71 306 248 33
Rod El Farag to Massarra 888 135 58 240 148 26
Massarra to Mubarak 998 168 82 388 360 23
Mubarak to Attaba 740 205 125 543 291 12
Attaba to Abdeen 986 138 81 350 350 30
Abdeen to Sadat 683 170 117 422 422 05

Phase 2A (Five Day Work Week)

Progress Segment damage


Location
Best Average Average Average month Per cent damaged/
Length: m week: m week: m month: m including delays: m total segments per drive

TBM Shaft to Behoos 468 135 936 456 456 228


Behoos to Dokki 1093 176 1333 576 323 053
Dokki to Gezira 1089 194 1089 471 450 Not available
Gezira to Sadat 858 197* 1397 605 605 22

115
MADKOUR, HUDSON
AND BELLAROSA

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997


that could be visually damp but no trace of water

Sept

Sept

Sept

Sept
May

May

May

May
Nov

Nov

Nov

Nov
Aug

Dec

Aug

Dec

Aug

Dec

Aug

Dec
Mar

Mar

Mar

Mar
Feb

Feb

Feb

Feb
Jun

Jun

Jun
Oct

Jan

Oct

Jan

Oct

Jan

Oct

Jan
Apr

Apr

Apr

Apr
Jul

Jul

Jul
absorption was permitted on blotting paper laid on
Phase 1A 1

Cut and cover/portal


2 the damp area.
3
4
Ismailia canal crossing 5
6 Construction programmes
7
Hand mined tunnel 8 Stations and tunnels
9
10 The phase 1 station construction programme in
Mazallat station 11
12 Fig. 17 shows the TBM duration and the track
13
14 access dates for each section of the works. A typi-
Cut and cover Maz-Kha 15
16 cal station construction programme (Behoos
17
El Khalafawi 18 Station) is shown in Fig. 18, which is part of the
19
20 phase 2A works. The civil construction of this sta-
21
22 tion was controlled by the TBM progress and the
23
St Theresa station 24 finishes were controlled by the speed of equipment
25
26 installation.
27
28
29
30
Bored tunnels
Rod el farag station 31
32
The statistics for the tunnel construction are
33
34
shown in Table 3. The weekly rates given are based
35
36
on days worked/calendar days x length achieved.
Masarra station 37
38
The driving rates between the Line 2 stations were
39
40
variable and the delayed rates were assessed on
41
42
days lost, usually awaiting availability of the station
Mubarak north station 43
44
raft for TBM entry.
45
Phase 1B 46

Mubarak south extension


47
48
Trackwork
49 The trackwork contract programme was based
50
Attaba station 51 on continuity of access from one end of the project
52
53 and, as the track installation progressed, the com-
54
55 pleted tracks and the track access was to be shared
56
57 with follow-on contractors for cable pulling, equip-
58
Abdeen station 59 ment delivery and installation. Fig. 19 shows a sec-
60
61 tion of concreted double track with rubber boots
62
63 cast-in prior to third rail installation.
64
Sadat east extension 65 On phase 1A, as the date of track access
66
67 approached, several sections of the civil work
68
were not complete due to complex technical diffi-
Civil works Track access Arrangements TBM culties associated usually with utility, works areas
or water problems. Continuous access was there-
Fig. 17. Phase 1 as-built programme fore not available from the at-grade end of the
works for material delivery. A decision was there-
Fig. 18. Phase 2A Lot 47: Behoos Station as-built programme fore made to allow the trackwork contractor to
access isolated sections of the track via the station
1996 1997 1998 roof slabs for delivery of rail lengths, sleepers and
Sept

Sept
May

May
Nov

Nov
Aug

Dec

Aug

Dec
Mar

Mar

Mar
Feb

Feb

Feb
Jun

Jun
Jan

Oct

Jan

Oct

Jan
Apr

Apr

equipment. The civil contractor was therefore


Jul

Jul

Diaphragm walls 1 required to interface its works with track access at


the same location.
Injection of plug 2
As the trackwork progressed, follow-on contrac-
Excavation 3
tors accessed the works and, as the works neared
Roof slab 4 the operation period, access for daytime track con-
creting was usually shared with nighttime power
Technical slab 5
cable pulling in the same sections of track.
Strutting 6
The dates for access to the works to commence
Raft slab 7 track construction (Fig. 17) show the extent of dis-
Ticket slab 8
continuous working required to maintain the track
installation schedule in accordance with the project
TBM Break out 9
programme.
TBM Break in 10

Access /Airshafts 11
Conclusion
The successful completion of the first phase of
Architectural works 12
Line 2 was due, in large measure, to decisive pro-
13 ject management by the National Authority of

116
CAIRO METRO LINE 2

Table 4. List of contractors and consultants


Greater Cairo contractors and consultants
Consultants team Civil contractors team Track contractors team

Parsons Brinckerhoff (USA) lead Campenon Bernard SGE (France)lead Cogifer Entreprise (France)lead
Electrowatt (Switzerland) Arab Contractors (Egypt) Orascom (Egypt)
Sabbour Associates (Egypt) Dumez-GTM (France)
Spie Batignolles T.P. (France)
Bouygues (France)
Dragages Et Travaux Publics (France)
Eiffage (France)
GTM International (France)
Soletanche Bachy (France)
Intertectra-BTP (France)

Fig. 19. Double track


awaiting third rail

Tunnels, the contractors and the consultant. The References


management of the works by the team and the 1. RICHARDS D. P., RAMOND P., EZZELDINE O.
extensive co-ordination and planning efforts neces- Proceedings of the first bored tunnel crossing
sary to bring one of the largest public works pro- of the Nile River. Proceedings of the ITA
jects in Egypt to a successful conclusion were Conference, Sao Paulo, Brazil 1998.
2. DUPEUBLE P. CWS system provides load bearing
assisted by the amicable working relationships
and watertight joints between diaphragm wall
which developed and were fundamental to the suc- panels. Ground Engineering Magazine,
cessful completion of the project. September 1985.
3. CAMPO D. W., RICHARDS D. P., COUDRY M. A review
Acknowledgement of the grouting on Line 2 of the Cairo Metro.
Members of the contractors and consultants Proceedings of the Rapid Excavation and
groups engaged on Cairo Metro Line 2 works Tunnelling Conference, Las Vegas, USA, June 1997.
are shown in Table 4. The authors wish to 4. RICHARDS D. P., BURCHELL A. J., CAMPO D. W.,
express their thanks to D. Campo, D. Richards, RAMOND P. Review of break-in and breakout con-
J. Pearson, Y. Mizzi, P. Ramond, D. Rossignol cepts for tunnel boring shields in saturated soft
ground. Proceedings of the ITA Conference, North
and A. Sicre for their contributions to this paper
American Tunneling 96, Washington, DC., USA.
and Yves Hadjaj for the use of his excellent pho- 5. HERRENKNECHT M., MAIDL B. Transferring the
tographs. European experience using Mixshields for the
employment in Cairo. Proceedings of the
Dedication Conference on Tunnelling and Ground
This paper is dedicated to the memory of Conditions, Cairo, 1994. Please post/fax/e-mail
Bernard Chartroux who was responsible for the 6. RICHARDS D.P., RAMOND P., HERRENKNECHT M. your discussion contri-
civil works for Khalifawi, St Theresa and Behoos Slurry shield tunnels on the Cairo Metro. bution (up to 500
Stations. Proceedings of the Rapid Excavation and words) to the editor by
Tunnelling Conference, Las Vegas, USA. June 1997. 15 November 1999.

117