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Engineering Physics Lab

PHY 174|RSTU

EXPERIMENT LIST:

 S/N Experiment Name 1. Measurement of the length of a rod with a Vernier Callipers. 2. Measurement of the diameter of a circular object with a Screw Gauge and to determine its area of cross-section. 3. Determination of the thickness of a glass plate with a Spherometer. 4. Determination of the value of g, acceleration due to gravity by means of a compound pendulum. 5. Determination of the focal length of a convex lens by using a plane mirror and convex lens. 6. Determination of finding the resistance of the given wire using meter bridge and the specific resistance of its material.

Engineering Physics Lab

PHY 174|RSTU

Experiment No.: 01

Name of the Experiment: Measurement of the length of a rod with a Vernier Callipers.

Theory: Slide callipers is used for the measurement of the length of a rod, the external and internal diameters of a cylinder, the thickness of a lens etc. If M is the main scale reading, F is vernier scale reading, V is the vernier scale division, vernier constant is VC and instrumental error is ±e, L is the length of the rod then

Length of the rod = Main scale reading + Vernier scale reading ±Instrumental Error L = M + F (±e) L = M + V×VC (±e)

Required Apparatus:

 (i) A Slide calipers (ii) A rod
Diagram:
Fig.:A Slide calipers
Procedure:

(i) The value of the smallest division of main scale and total number of divisions of vernier scale

were determined to calculate Vernier Constant (V.C.).

(ii) Two jaws of slide calipers were placed in contact. If the vernier zero coincides with the main

scale zero there is no instrumental error. If they do not coincide there is an instrumental error. Then instrumental error had to be determined.

(iii) The movable jaw was drawn out and the rod was placed between the jaws so that the two

jaws touched the ends of the rod. Be careful to see that they were not pressed too hard or too loose. Then main scale reading (M) was taken just short of the vernier zero line.

(iv) At that moment vernier scale division (V) was counted between the vernier zero line and the

line which coincides with any of the main scale division. The product of this vernier scale division (V) and Vernier Constant (V.C.) gave the length of the fractional part (taking account of the zero error). It is the vernier scale reading (F) to get accurate value of the rod.

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(v) The sum of main scale reading (M) and vernier scale reading (F) gave the length of the rod (L).

(vi) At least three readings were taken and arranged those readings in tabular form.

Determination of Vernier Constant (V.C.): The ratio of the value of the smallest

division of main scale to total number of divisions in vernier scale is called Vernier Constant (V.C.).

The value of the smallest division of main scale, S= 1mm

Total number of divisions in vernier scale, n= 10

Vernier Constant (V.C.) =

Table (Length of the rod):

1

=

10

= 0.01 cm

 No. of Main Vernier Vernier Total Mean Instrument Corrected Observation Scale scale V.C. Scale Reading, length, al Error, length, Reading, division, cm Reading, M + F l (±e) L= l-(±e) M V F= V×V.C. (cm) cm cm cm cm cm 1 2 3 Calculations: + + Mean length of the rod, l = Instrumental Error, (±e) = 0 cm Corrected length of the rod, L = ------- cm 3 = ------ cm

Result: The length of the rod = ------- cm

Precautions:

(i) Vernier Constant should be calculated carefully.

(ii) It should be careful about whether there is instrumental error or not.

(iii) The rod should be placed between two jaws of slide calipers carefully so that they do not

touch the ends of the rod very hardly or loosely.

(iv) Parallax error should be avoided during taking reading.

Engineering Physics Lab

PHY 174|RSTU

Experiment No.: 02

Name of the Experiment: Measurement of the diameter of a circular object with a Screw Gauge and to determine its area of cross-section.

Theory: The screw gauge is very suitable for the measurement of small length such as the diameter of a wire. The least count of the screw gauge is the pitch divided by the number of divisions in circular scale. The diameter of the wire just fitting between the studs is equal to the linear scale reading plus circular scale reading. If L is the linear scale reading, F is circular scale reading, C is circular scale division, least count is LC and instrumental error is ±e, d is the diameter of a circular object then

Diameter of a circular object = Linear scale reading + Circular scale reading ±Instrumental Error d = L + F (±e) d = L + C×LC (±e) If area of cross-section of the circular object is A then = 2 Where r = Radius of the circular object

Required Apparatus:

(i) A screw gauge

(ii) A circular object

Diagram:
Fig.: Screw gauge
Procedure:

(i) The value of the smallest division of linear scale and total number of divisions of circular

scale were determined. When the screw is turned through one full rotation then the distance along the linear scale travelled by the circular scale is called pitch. Then least count (L.C.) was calculated by dividing pitch of the screw by total number of divisions in circular scale.

(ii) Two studs of screw gauge were placed in contact. If the zero of circular scale coincides with

the zero of linear scale there is no instrumental error. If they do not coincide there is an

instrumental error. Then instrumental error had to be determined.

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PHY 174|RSTU

(iii) The movable stud was drawn out and the circular object was placed between the studs so

that they just touched the ends of the rod. Be careful to see that they were not pressed too hard or

too loose. Then linear scale reading (L) was taken at the left side of circular scale.

(iv) At that moment circular scale division (C) was counted between the zero line of circular

scale and the line which coincides with the main scale. The product of this circular scale division

(C) and least count (L.C.) gave the diameter of the fractional part (taking account of the zero

error). It is the circular scale reading (F) to get accurate value of the circular object.

(v) The sum of linear scale reading (L) and circular scale reading (F) gave the diameter of the circular object (d).

(vi) At least three readings were taken and arranged those readings in tabular form.

Determination of Least Count (L.C.):

The ratio of pitch of the screw to total number of divisions in circular scale is called Least Count (L.C.).

The value of the smallest division of linear scale = 1mm So pitch of the screw = 1mm Total number of divisions in circular scale = 100

Least Count (L.C.) =

itch of the screw

Total number of divisions in circular scale

1

=

100

= 0.01 mm

Table (Diameter of the circular object):

 No. of Linear Circular Circular Total Mean Instrumental Corrected Readings Scale scale L.C. Scale Reading, diameter, Error, diameter, Reading division, mm Reading, L + F (±e) d = -(±e) , C F= C×L.C. (mm) mm mm mm L mm mm 1. 2. 3.

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Calculations:

Mean diameter of the circular object, =

Instrumental Error, (±e) = 0 cm Corrected diameter of the circular object, d = ------- mm

Radius of the circular object, r =

Area of cross-section of the circular object, A = 2 = 3.14×(−−) 2 = ------- 2

+ +

3

= ------ mm

−−−

2 =

2

mm = ------- mm

Result: The area of cross-section of the circular object = ------- 2

Precautions:

(i) Least count should be calculated carefully. (ii) Instrumental or back-lash error is to be avoided by turning the screw in one direction.

(iii) The circular object should be placed between two studs of screw gauge carefully so that they

just touch the ends of the object.

(iv) Parallax error should be avoided during taking reading.

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PHY 174|RSTU

Experiment No.: 03

Name of the Experiment:

Spherometer.

Determination of the thickness of a glass plate with a

Theory: A spherometer is used for the measurement of the thickness of a glass plate or the radius of curvature of a spherical surface. The thickness of the plate is equal to the difference in readings of the spherometer when its central leg first touches the plane sheet on which the outer legs rest and then touches the upper surface of the plate. If L is the linear scale reading, F is circular scale reading, n is circular scale division, least count is LC and t is the thickness of the glass plate then Thickness of the glass plate = Linear scale reading + Circular scale reading t = L + F t = L + n×LC

Required Apparatus:

(i) A spherometer

(ii) A glass plate

Diagram:
Fig.: Spherometer
Procedure:

(i) The value of the smallest division of linear scale and total number of divisions of circular

scale were determined. When the screw is turned through one full rotation then the distance along the linear scale travelled by the circular scale is called pitch. Then least count (L.C.) was calculated by dividing pitch by total number of divisions in circular scale.

(ii) The spherometer was placed upon a glass plate and slowly turned the screw so that the tip of

the central leg just touched the surface of the glass. Be careful to see that they were not pressed too hard. Then linear scale reading (L) was taken nearest to the edge of the disc.

(iii) At that moment circular scale division (n) was counted. The product of this circular scale division (n) and least count (L.C.) gave the thickness of the fractional part (taking account of the zero error). It is the circular scale reading (F) to get accurate value of the glass plate.

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PHY 174|RSTU

(iv) The sum of linear scale reading (L) and circular scale reading (F) gave the thickness of the

glass plate (t).

(v) At least three readings were taken and arranged those readings in tabular form.

Determination of Least Count (L.C.):

Pitch of the screw =0.5 mm Total number of divisions in circular scale = 100

Least Count (L.C.) =

=

Table (Thickness of glass plate):

itch of the screw

Total number of divisions in circular scale

0.5

100

= 0.005 mm

 No. of Linear Circular Circular Total Reading, Mean Thickness, Readings Scale scale L.C. Scale thickness, t Reading, division, mm Reading, L + F mm L n F= n×L.C. (mm) mm mm mm 1 2 3

Calculations:

Mean thickness of the glass plate, = Thickness of the glass plate, t = ------- mm

+ +

3

= ------ mm

Result: The thickness of the glass plate = ------- mm

Precautions:

(i) Least count should be calculated carefully. (ii) Back-lash error is to be avoided by turning the screw in one direction.

(iii) The spherometer should be placed upon the glass plate carefully so that the tip of the central

leg just touches the surface of the glass plate.

(iv) Parallax error should be avoided during taking reading.

Engineering Physics Lab

PHY 174|RSTU

Experiment No.: 04

Name of the Experiment: Determination of the value of g, acceleration due to gravity by means of a compound pendulum.

Theory: The rate of increase of velocity per unit of time of a freely falling object under the influence of the earth's gravity is called acceleration due to gravity. When l is length of the string with hook, r is the radius of the bar then the effective length of a compound pendulum, L = l + r. If acceleration due to gravity is g, time period of oscillation is T then from the equation of pendulum is

T= 2

Or,

So,

T 2 = 4 2

g = 4 2 2 ------------(1)

T

From eq. (1) acceleration due to gravity by means of a compound pendulum can be easily determined.

Required Apparatus:

(i) A compound pendulum

 (ii) String (iii) Stand (iv) Metre scale (v) Slide calipers (vi) Stop watch
Diagram:
l
L=l+r
r
Fig.: Compound pendulum
Procedure:

(i) At first diameter of the bar was measured with the help of Slide calipers. Radius was obtained by dividing the diameter by 2. Then mean radius was gotten by taking at least three readings.

(ii) Compound pendulum arrangement was made by suspending the bar from a stand by string.

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(iii) Measured radius and length of the string with hook measured by metre scale was added to

get the effective length of a compound pendulum (L).

(iv) When the compound pendulum was at stationary position then a chalk mark was put at one

side and the bar was drawn with force at the opposite side. The bar began to oscillate. Time for 10 oscillations was measured with stop watch by counting 10 oscillations when the bar passed the chalk mark in the same direction. Dividing that time by 10 time period was calculated.

(v) By changing the length of string (l), effective length (L) was changed and for various L, Time period (T) was determined from above method.

(vi) At least three readings were taken and arranged those readings in tabular form. Mean

determined. By putting this value in eq. (1), g was calculated.

Determination of Vernier Constant (V.C.):

T 2 was

The value of the smallest division of main scale, S= 1mm Total number of divisions in vernier scale, n= 10

Vernier Constant (V.C.) =

1

=

10

= 0.01 cm

The value of the smallest division of stop watch = ----- sec

Table 1 (Radius of the bar):

 No. of Main Vernier Vernier Diameter, Radius, Mean Readings Scale scale V.C. Scale d=M + F r1 = radius Reading, division, cm Reading, cm r M V F= V×V.C. cm cm cm cm 1 2 3

Table 2 (Determination of

):

 No. of Length Radius of Effective Time for Time Mean Readings of the bar, length, 10 period, the string r L=l+r oscillations, T= with cm cm t hook, sec sec cm/ l cm cm/ 1 2 3

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Calculations:

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 4 2 2 = ------ cm/ 2

T

Result: The acceleration due to gravity = ----------- m/ 2

Precautions:

(i) The amplitude of oscillations should not be more than 5 degree.

(ii) As g depends on T, number of oscillations should be counted properly. Otherwise, value of T

would be wrong.

 (iii) The support should be rigid and should not move when the pendulum oscillates. (iv) Vernier Constant of slide calipers should be calculated carefully. (v) It should be careful about whether there is instrumental error or not. (vi) The bar should be placed between two jaws of slide calipers carefully so that they do not

touch the ends of the bar very hardly or loosely. (vii) Parallax error should be avoided during taking reading.

Engineering Physics Lab

PHY 174|RSTU

Experiment No.: 05

Name of the Experiment: Determination of the focal length of a convex lens by using a plane mirror and convex lens.

Theory:

Mount the convex lens and an object needle on their respective uprights. place the upright carrying the object needle in front of the lens on an optical bench. Adjust a plane mirror at the back of the lens, such that its plane is vertical and perpendicular to the axis of the lens. Move the needle forward and backward and adjust its position to get real and inverted image of the needle formed by the lens, after reflection from the plane mirror.

When the tip of the image in the plane mirror coincides with the tip of the optical needle, i.e., focus of the lens. The distance between the optical needle and the lens gives the focal length of the lens. The rays proceeding from the object at the principal focus after refraction through the lens are rendered parallel. These parallel rays are reflected from the plane mirror and after refraction through the lens, meet at the focus.

Required Apparatus:

(i) Optical bench

 (ii) Plane mirror (iii) Object pin (iv) Meter scale (v) Holders

Diagram:

Procedure:

1) Arrange the plane mirror, convex lens and object pin with help of holder on the optical bench as shown in the figure and align them properly with the help of a meter scale.

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2) Fix the position of the plane mirror at one end of the optical bench. Now put the convex lens at 20cm distance from the plane mirror and locate the position of image behind the convex lens in a way to have no parallax between the image and object pin.

3) Record the position of the plane mirror, convex lens and the object pin. Keep the distance between the plane mirror and convex lens as 30cm, 40cm… for other set of the readings

4) The distance between the convex lens and object pin is the focal length of the convex lens.

5) Take three different observations and find the mean focal length of the convex lens.

Observations:

 1. Range of meter scale cm 2. Least count of meter scale cm
 S/N Position of Position of Position of Focal length Mean focal mirror convex lens object pin (cm) length (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Calculation:

Mean Focal length of the given Convex lens

Result:

Focal length of the given Convex lens

cm.

cm.

Precautions:

i. The plane mirror, convex lens and object should be aligned properly.

ii. Parallax has to be removed between object and image before taking the reading.

iii. Midpoint of the mirror, optical centre of the convex lens and the top of the object pin should be at the same vertical height.

Engineering Physics Lab

PHY 174|RSTU

Experiment No.: 06

Name of the Experiment: To find the resistance of the given wire using meter bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material.

Theory:

A meter bridge is the practical application of Wheatstone bridge arrangement as shown in figure below. The four resistances are connected to each other as shown and if the bridge is in balanced

state, i.e.,

P R

Q =

X

. Then, there is no deflection in the galvanometer (G),

We can use this relation to find the unknown resistance of the given material of wire. The unknown resistance 'X' can be found by Meter bridge which uses the principle of Wheatstone bridge. The unknown resistance 'X' of the given wire is obtained by relation:

X = R(100 − )

And specific resistance of the material of a given a wire is obtained by

. 2

ρ =

where d = diameter of the wire and L = length of wire.

Required Apparatus:

 (i) meter bridge (ii) galvanometer (iii) one-way key (iv) a resistance box (v) a battery jockey (vi) unknown resistance wire about 1 meter long (vii) screw gauge (viii) connecting wires

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Diagram:

Procedure:

Clean the connecting wires using sand paper and make the connection as shown in figure.

Take out some suitable resistance 'R' form the resistance box (R. B.).

Touch the jockey at point A; see that there is a deflection in the galvanometer on one side, then touch the jockey on the point C of the wire, the deflection in the galvanometer should be on the other side. If it is so, your connections are correct.

Now find the position of null point where deflection in galvanometer becomes zero.

Note length AB (l) BC will be (100 - l).

Repeat the above procedure for different values of 'R'. The value of this resistance 'R’ taken out from R. B. should be such that the null point is in between 30 cm and 70 cm in the meter bridge wire.

Note the point where the galvanometer shows 0 deflections, this is called the balance point.

Measure the length of the given wire using ordinary scale and the radius of the wire using screw gauge.

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Observations:

Table for unknown resistance (X):

S/N

Ω

Balancing length (l)

cm

X = R(100 − )

Ω

1.

2.

3.

Table for diameter of the wire (d):

L.C of screw gauge = Zero correction =

cm

S/N

PSR

HSR

Corrected HSR

Total (PSR+HSR x l.c)

Mean diameter (d)

mm

1.

2.

3.

Calculation:

Mean Focal length of the given Convex lens

Radius of the given wire (r) = d/2=

Length of the given wire (l) =

mm =

cm =

Specific resistance of the material of given wire, ρ =

=

cm.

. 2

x 10 -2

x 10 -3

m.

Ω-m

m.

Result:

 (a) The resistance of the given wire = Ohm. (b) The specific resistance of the given wire = Ohm-m

Precautions:

 (i) Clean the connecting wires and the connecting points of metre bridge properly with sand paper. (ii) All connections should be neat and tight.

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 (iii) Balance point should lie between 30 cm and 70 cm. (iv) Do not keep the jockey and the wire in contact for a long time. (v) Hold the jockey perpendicular to the wire of metre bridge. (vi) Check in that, the wire under experiment is uniformly thick throughout.