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History of Seoul Transportation

Story that has overcome mobility barriers

Dr. Sangbum Kim


University of Seoul
Contents

I. Introduction

II. First Phase

III. Second Phase

IV. Third Phase

V. Conclusion
Introduction
1. City Overview : Center of economics, politics and social activities / Capital city since 1394

Fast grown city


2. Seoul Traffics

A. Overview
1960~ 1970~ 1980~ 1990~ 2000~ 2010~

Population(thousand) 2,445 5,433 8,364 10,612 10,373 10,575

Population
9,113 8,863 13,774 17,532 17,132 17,473
Density(person/km2)

Road Length(km) 6,610 7,374 7,889 8,142

Share of Road(%) 15.15 18.32 21.01 22.02

Vehicle(thousand) 7 60 206 1,193 2,440 2,981

Bus 7,238 8,781 8,483 7,548

Bus Routes - 395 450 395 368


Bus 72.8 65.9 43.3 28.3 27.8
Subway 6.2 6.8 18.3 35.3 35.2
Modal share(%) Taxi 15.5 19.0 12.8 8.8 6.2
Auto 14.0 19.1 25.9
5.5 8.3
Other 11.1 8.5 4.9
Metro/Subway (km) 10 106 139 290 315
B. Change of Major Transit

C. Modal Share
3. Process of Development
First Phase : Rapid expansion(1950 1970s)
Second Phase : Compressed physical growth (1980 1990s)
Third Phase : Paradigm Shift toward smart city(2000s)

first Stage Second Stage Third Stage


10

Huge influx of population


8 Stagnant population
Population(million)

6 Insufficient Infrastructure Excessive urban demand Changes in direction


of city management
4

2
Expansion Compressed growth Smart city
0
1980 2000 Time
4. Dawn of modernization
Under colonial rule, many historic sites and treasures were destroyed
Korean war that lasted 3 years destroyed whole infrastructures and left nothing
First Phase : 1950 1970s
I. Challenges

Huge inflow of population(million) : 1(1953) 5.4(1970) 8.3(1980)


Insufficient infrastructures and lack of capability to deal with urban problems
II. Response
1. Urban Planning
City expansion : boundary was fixed in 1973
First urban plan(1966) : target year 1985 / population 5 million / one CBD and 6 sub-centers
Relocation of population : Center(CBD) Sub-centers

Center and sub-centers Before 1950s 1960s : development of north 1970s : development of south
2. Infrastructures
Subway : set up plan in 1965 / construction of line 1 : 1971 1974
Cover the stream to use it as urban highway and demolished shanty town
Transportation facilities : focused on bridge, tunnel and overpasses
Second Phase : 1980 1990s
I. Challenges : The worst period in traffic problems
Boom of my car and my house : dilemma in lack of mass transit, congestion and parking order
Political transformation : demonstration and strike became a daily incidents
II. Response

1. Major Infrastructures

Subway(line 1 8) : 300Km(16 billion us dollar)


- subsidy from central govt : 22% / debt : 30% / city govt : 48%

Urban highway : 300km(two rings and radiant roads)


Public Parking Lots : 1.6 million parking lots
2. Traffic Management System(TMS)

Seoul applied TMS to streets with help of foreign institution in late 1980s
Realign the lane and traffic signal / relocate the public facilities to maximize the traffic flow
D. Congestion Toll(Nov. 1996)
Area : 2 Tunnels in Namsan(Toll : 2,000 won)

E. Voluntary Policies
1) Weekly no driving day
Citizens designate no driving day voluntarily
Benefit : reduce 5% of vehicle tax / 50% discount of toll
2) Ban city employees from driving for commuting
4. Parking Policy

A. Challenges : vehicles and multi-housing project

B. Process of Response

1989. 11. : Parking Division was established in the city government


1990. 11. : Road Traffic Act was amended to extend authority of enforcing illegal parking
to local government(365 woman traffic wardens hired)
1991. 9. : Set up comprehensive parking plan / 1993. 1. : Established Special Fund
C. Major policies

1) Parking Cap

Introduced in 1997 with amending the city ordinance


Apply cap to highly developed areas (7 areas in 1997)
- Cap for parking lot : Allow max. 50% and min. 60% of the parking lot criteria set by Building Act

In 2009, 4 areas were added to apply the cap of parking lot

Areas subject to cap


2) Resident Parking Permit(1996)

Mismatch caused serious disorder in the communities


Allot and grant lots in alleys to residents

3) Wall demolition : started as a voluntary participation(2004)

Individual housing unit is usually fenced so that even house


owners couldnt park cars in their yards
Provide subsidy of up to 17.5 million won per household
- subsidy for construction and installing safety devices(CCTV)
4) Effort to extend parking space in residential area

Insufficient parking space in residential areas is still pending issue


Development of underground space : school / park / road
5. Tragic Accidents : opportunity to establish safety institution and regulation

Bridge collapse (94. 10) : 32 dead / 17 injured collapse of department store(95. 6) : 502 dead
Third Phase : 2000s
I. Challenges

urban sprawl continues : many satellite cities / longer commuting / influx of vehicles
population structures : growth stagnated / entered into aged society (aged rate : 11.4)
confronted new issues : climate change / pollution(fine dust)

+26.9%

+85.1%
II. Bus Reform Trend of modal share of mass Transits

80%

1. Background 70%
67%
64.30%

60%
A. changing business condition 50.60%
50%
38.60%
Bus was a industry that laid golden egg until 1990s 40% 34.70% Bus
29.40%
25.60% Subway
Since middle of 1990s, modal share has been shifted 30%
16.60%
20%
10%
B. Reality that Bus industry faced around 2002 10%
7%

No. of company : 103(1990s) 58(2002) 0%


1978 1983 1988 1993 2002

No. of passengers per day(million) : 9.55(1995) 7.23(2002)


Persons that bus carries a day
Profit of industry : 39 company out of 58 showed deficit
year 1976 1990 2002

persons 1,131 791 514


2. Major projects

A. Bus Management System : private public


Government : Authority of oversight for operation, of routes designing
Bus company : Operation and maintenance

B. BMS system : monitoring of bus operations(collect and distribute information)


C. Introduce BRT system
D. Bus Route : introduced main-feeder system
Ho
12 Corridors 119.3km Firm
me
Trunk Metro, Bus
[Fast and convenience]
Hub Hub

Feeder Bus
[Time and spatial resolving service]

After Seoul Transfer Center

Inter-regional Lines Trunk Lines Feeder Lines Circular Lines


E. Integrated fare system

Free transfer between bus-bus and bus-subway(maximum 5 times)


Created T-money card system : handles 30 million transactions a day
Build KSCC : operates system, settles fares, and issues T-Money card
Adopted by foreign cities : Wellington, Aukland, Kuala Lumpur and Ulan Bator

F. Transfer Centers : 4 (80,000 per day / transfer time : 12min. 3min.)

Cheongnyangni
Seoul Station Station

Yeouido

Guro-digital station
3. Achievement : stable and integrated mass transit system(estimated benefit : 1.4 billion dollars)

Citizens satisfaction
Increase in fare revenues
(Bus)

To be achieved : subsidy(200million US $ 300million US $) / efficiency problems


III. Intelligent Transportation System(ITS)

1. History

First ITS ITS 2.0


1998 : Implement in Nam-San area(10.6km) 2008 : Install Bus Information Terminals (BIT)
2000 : Traffic management system in expressway 2009 : Mobile Service

1998 2008

2004 2013

ITS 1.0 ITS 3.0


2004 : Open TOPIS / Smart Cart System 2013 : Open integrated control center
2005 : Unmanned Surveillance System 2014 : Share the TOPIS Platform (ITS Solution)
2. TOPIS : Center for 24 hour monitoring

35,000 Vehicles

CCTV 832

Citizen Reports

Road traffic, Transit, Disaster & Emergency

3600
Data
controllers
Control
Integration Monitoring & Operating
& analysis

VDS/CCTV/AVI Incident & Traffic Signal Transportation


Bus OBE/Taxi GPS Disaster Information Card Data

33 Lane control systems


Police agency
Meteorological
13 Lamp metering
Admin
3. BIS Service

44% of all bus stops (2,612)

98% 96%

7,800 devices
BMS & Transportation Citizens
Accuracy of BIS
card devices satisfaction
Bus Information Terminal
Smart Transportation in Seoul Intelligent
Experiences and Polices
Transport System(ITS)

4. Automatic charging system

1) Searching vehicle owner 2) Charging penalty 3) Sending Mail

Post office

Take 2-3 days to deliver the fine bill to vehicle owner (Non automatic system : 10~15 days)
Smart Transportation in Seoul Intelligent
Experiences and Polices
Transport System(ITS)

5. TOPIS 3.0 : Traffic Forecast

Traffic forecasting
Incident
1)Traffic forecasting within 1hr.

2) Traffic prediction within 30days


Weather
3) Traffic Forecasting in normal condition
Speed &
volume 4) Traffic Forecasting in accident situation
Traffic forecasting Service on web
Road work (Urban expressway)

2015 Urban Expressway


The accuracy rate of traffic
2016 Arterial road forecasting (urban expressway)
Smart Transportation in Seoul Intelligent
Experiences and Polices
Transport System(ITS)

6. Share the ITS solutions

Center Platform FTMS Platform


ITS Project Consulting
Center Operating System Integrated Urban expressway traffic Management
Consultation on ITS
Surveillance & Response System implementation, operation with
System
Seoul TOPIS official Friendship
Partner(LG CNS, SK)

Bus Platform ATMS Platform

Bus Information System Technical support Advance Traffic Management System


Bus Management System Traffic Signal Operating System
Installation & Operation of TOPIS Platform

Policy development for various areas


including ITS, BRT, Parking, TSM,
UR Platform Public Transport Operations, etc. Big Data Platform

Unmanned Regulation System Traffic Forecasting System Analysis


Automatic Penalty Charging System System for building Transport policy
Congestion cost
10
IV. Road Policy 7
8

6
1. Road Expansion 5
5
Road ratio : 8.7%(60s) 13.6%(80s) 22.1%(2000s)
Consequence : More supply more side effects
-
2002 2005 2009 2010
2. Paradigm shift to road diet

A. Background
Policy change : more traffic demand from urban sprawl
Environmental : sustainability issue / Aging society / Increasing tourist

B. Pilot project : Restoration of Cheung-gye stream (6km, 2003 - 2005)


3. Road Diet
A. Projects done

Transit mall Demolished overpass

Convert into plaza


B. Achievement : Eliminated obstacles for walking

C. Benefit : increasing safety, vitality and amenity

Traffic accidents Satisfaction Sales Land Price

70%
29
34.5%()

58%()
19

12%
4. Toward the Walkable City

A. Comprehensive plan initiated : January 8, 2016

Target(2016 2020)
Walk road / vehicle road : 8% 15%
Modal share of walk : 16% 20%
Modal share of vehicle within 5km : 15% less than 10%

Tasks to complete : 8 area / 35 projects (435 million dollar)


Created logo : Lets walk, Seoul
B. Downtown renewal

Area : place of 2.7million people moving in every day


More space for pedestrians / tight control on vehicles
Develop new walking courses for tour


Pilot projects 4
/ 4 / 4~5
4
/ 4 / 4~6
2
4
6
4~5
4
4
4
2
2~3
3~4


218

C. 25 Districts joined walkable city project

27 1

3
5

115
21
13 7 55

11
18
5
16


7 82


59 21 8
40 71

41 12 116
26 49
2016 projects for walking

local representative streets(3 street)


44
27 33 7
road diet(22 streets, 7,512m)
2 77 20
pedestrian preferred areas(20 places)
10
improve walkable environment (6 places) 30

barrier free streets(2 streets) 63
trails for walking(157)

trails around ancient wall(18.6)
V. Infrastructures

1. Subway Construction

Service area required(catchment area) : 41% 60%


LRT plan : 8 lines / 73.7km
Extend Metro-lines : connecting Seoul with satellite cities

Legend

Catchment Ratio to
500m
_Project

Catchme Ratio to area within Seoul


Radius
7 nt area whole area built-up built-up

area area
4

100m 9.9 1.6% 6.5 1.8%

200m 38.2 6.3% 27.3 7.6%
6


300m 83.2 13.7% 61.2 16.9%

5
7
500m 202.3 33.4% 148.0 41.0%


2. New road

Way of implement : PPP and underground way


Gangnam circular highway(open on July 3, 2016)
- Length : 22.9km(PPP in 12.4km section)
- Cost : 2.5 billion dollar(private : 1.5billion / budget : 1billion)
3. Convenient Service

A. Night time bus service(Owl bus)


Introduced : September 2013
Operation : 8 routes(from 00:00 05:00)

B. Bus stop renovation


project is carried by PPP : shelters / arrival information
Conclusion
1. What is city for

Engine of economic prosperity and center of innovation


Urbanization does not bring prosperity in itself

Mobility matters
All the benefit of cities come ultimately from reduced transport costs for goods, people and ideas.
The cost of moving people and ideas appear to be as important as ever.(E. Glaeser)

Correlation between per-capita GDP and urbanization Urbanization and per-capita GDP in two continents

David E. Bloom, PGDA Working Paper No. 30, 2000


2. Korean economy and Urbanization(1970 - 2010)

GDP growth took off when urbanization exceeded 50% (Correlation is 0.887)
Seoul city had played important role in the nation modernization

Urbanization 25000 100


per-capita GDP
39.1%(1960) 50.1%(1970) 88.3%(2000) 91.58% urbanization
20000 80

Real GDP : increased 16 times


15000 60

Economic concentration indicators in 2010


10000 40

area population GRDP industries


5000 20
Seoul
0.6% 20.2% 22.9% 21.8%
city
Capital 11.8 0 0
49.8% 47.8% 47.1%
region % 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
3. Where do you stand?

Its time to think about importance of your cities and your roles

To achieve citys prosperity together, we should cooperate

Thank you