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101 l-1
102 1.1
103 I-1
104 I.1
LOS 1.2
106 14


201 2.1
202 2.1
203 2-6
204 2.0
203 2.a
206 2.10
207 2.10


301 3-l
302 3.1
303 3.2


401 +I
402 41
403 41
404 44
405 49
406 +10


501 5.1
502 3.2
. 303 5.3

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601 Gpbmd Enemy Pus~nnel 6.1

602 Enemy D-nb 64
603 Enemy Ma.?d 6.3


701 Cmenl 7.1

702 Rnordi(l 7.1
703 order Of B.tde 73
m4 Etlu.hOll 7.6
m5 Alulysis 7.3
m6 ltegntlWl 7.8
707 lntup~tahon 78


801 8-I
802 a1
003 a2
804 3.2


901 9.1
w2 9-l
903 9.2
904 Rcwn for &sign of Form md Scope 9.2
905 USCof the Form 9.2
906 DlsmbuhWl 9.2
907 9.3
908 93


1OQl General 10-L

1002 10.2
1003 10.2
1004 IO.10
1005 IO.14
1006 1045


1101 CCJleni


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1201 L2.1
1202 L2.2

1203 12.2
1204 12.3
1205 124
1206 12-l
1207 12-t

1301 GcncrJ 13-l
1302 Sta,dmg Openang Proccdwcs 13.2


c 1401




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FMFM 2.1


1601 4
1602 lb1
1603 161
1604 16-2
160s lb2
1606 lb2
1607 16.3
1608 16.3
1609 16-S
1610 163
1611 164
1612 16.4
1613 16.4
1614 16.4


1701 17.1
,702 17.2
L703 17.9
1704 17.28
1705 1749


A A.1
8 51
C Cl
0 Lhl c
E F.-l
F F.l
G Cl
H H.1
I I.1
1 J-1
K K.l
L L-l
\1 Ml
Y N.1
0 0.1

: 6:
R R.1
S s-1
T T-l
U u.l
v v.l .
W W.1

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Y Y-l
Y Y-i
z Z-1
AR A!%!

i AC
AF if-1


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FMFM 2.1



make sound deepions and 10 enable bun, with the as~,ancc

oi hla s,aff. ,o prepare luncly md rffccave plans for the con-
duct of ,be opmhcm. Tbii objeehve appbes no, only 10 the
commander Iandmg face. but also to the commlndem of
.wbardiia,e. adixcnL aad biir commands.


a, INFORMATION. Information is unwalua,cd matenat

of ever+ deacnpticw. buludiw, tia, derived from obYrw11~1.
102 IMPORTANCE rcmmunicr(lon reports. mm4 tmagery, and other soumr
which, when proceuud, may pmdu~c mtclligcna.
,n,eU,(rence ,s the foundation on whtcb the apn(lonaI


L The f,m, ob,ect,ve of inkll~noc funehonvla ti 10

kcqi the rommuldcr Informed reglrdin~ m. *ac,cnshca
,,f ,f,e obfectnc arca and the enemy si,uti.,n so thr, be cm

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(c) The dirrctios colkcltoo. produdton md

diuemLuho of m,eUiioc 10 olher lnlrcertcd commanders
(a) Stnagic mtclligena u k,eHigma rhid, k cosn,e, with d&e open,md Rqwem(l or tbe coin-
rquucd for tk formahoo of policy md m&my pk. a, mud.
.,ioai and ibutiotld kvek.
(2) Tk in,eigea of&r has ,bc followmg spec~lic

(c) Dwig ,be course of openwJ& kdig

force ui my mlkc, ad repoIl Lfomu,loon ma wdl be
,sed o, ,be production of stn,eg,c m,oi~ce.
Lk,cmun,ng tk m,e,gum nqwrcd for
(2) 6mLt Ikulgcce. Canbar ll&ge& u that plMnig ad ereeutlng the openhoo for
kotvkdge of ,be enemy. weaber. mod geeognplrul fu,ura the coMDuId as, whok. lndoded arc
,e.+ad by i corrrrmnder in ,hc plm,w,g uld rondue, of vl,eUiioc mqwrrmntr developd by
comba, opmtionr The degree oi so- .cbkved by the o&r ruff ofrioen md subordmr,e cum-
Lurdmg foI(+ nil be affected lo a krge degree by the cwnbu mmdcr.
b,,eSigc,,a I, develop md oaes
Recommdig ebxntul ekmen,a f I.
c COUNTERlNTELLICENCE. Ci,,m,e,m,eiligax k fomu~o ,o the mmmulder.
,ba, upcc, of ultdlipence nctwity wbmb Y devoted to de..
,mymg ,Jle effectivenur of uullcd forcrg i,&gena Pmpuiry plw. o&n. utd rcqucrts ,o
ac,,~ha ad ,o dx pmleellon of ifotm*ho agabwfespra- bighzr atd sdjxe, headqurkrs ,or ,he
nrdc, tiinduk agut& rubverdon, md b&dktioa or c&e&o of b,form.tion 10 lndodr ,u-
utilgirut.abotlg p, *quIBjtion ad mlba, rurvedkee.

105. RESPONSIBILITIES S,,p&isiig md coordb,rDng ulfomxa-

w &ctlonachnhes of the commmd.
a, COMMANDER Tk commstder u mrponsibk for uldodmg employmmt of airbamc, sur-
,be mtcIbgvu ud montc~tcliigcna acfivihcs oi hk corr fati, md rubsurface de,ec,,olcdkc,io
muld. dcnces or sysLe,s

h INTELLIGENCE OFFICER ~,qratig rpplklbk t,eUige~ re-

quucmets rccetnd from higher md
ad&, comma,ds vl,o the vliomuuo
colkc,lo effort of the aowld.

(b) The durctio. colkc,io. produc,,o, md

diimbutlm of u~klbgea u dineled by bigbe, headqua= . mmdiig lnf-,lo 10 the opuoRI
ten. officer (uckrr. biofogwl and dwnucd


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dr,e,,s (NBC) officer1 u to encmy~

employed nudeu wc*pom capabiitrs
and ,ermm and wealher mndrhons
employmen, 01 fncndiy and
cncmy nudcu xe*pau.

. .Sup,vumg and coocdmasnr: wrrlher

d.,a collection m trcu no, under
idendly ea,rol.

(d) Other InreUucwe. Proudme mtelbpma

mpu, ,o plans and orders which nom& are ,he purwew oi
other rtaii olfiars, ruper-w and coordiia,e intclbgrnu
aspec(s as rqw-ed m caarduwwn r,th cognun, staff
orReerr. Spufic responslbilrher lndudc m,elbgena aspects

. Tac,tcal coverand dccep(lon.


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FWFM 2-1

. Pknniig, directing. and arpmsing the

intcUigwloc tnmhw of the mullisncc 1:

c. COORDINATION. Other stiff offken are mspombk


(1) fnfomlmg the intelligma offiar, on I timely

bum of uui IePChW mqwmcntl fortnteliigmct.

(3) Coordination with mc lnteuigma officer to

cmwc that pluu and orders rcfka avatkbk. tntelligma and
inteiliice requlmmenP


L The inthoc offKcr c- th.1 hti inteiligma

ownnation md inteUigence activitea am thorowghly ante.
g&d. Tk pmduchon of intelJigenae. from tk dckrmm,
,e, drop* charti Imwyery, and 0th cmphk bon of ultcuiience rcqlremets to the Rnlll diimtrutim of
Aid& Specific mspwrbtlittes mclude dctcminmg thr inteulgao.. is carefully mtegrated to ensEc the tlmiy. XcY
mquwemnts for and suprvuing the procurement aad dis rate. demkd. and compkte promao,, of i,,bll&,er required
trtbution of map4 imageey. and mtclligena graphic ads; by the command. If a sin& step k deficknt, the mare tntel.
md omrdinrting nth the cqineer offar and the command- twence prous may fail. n&km of how weil dI the other
er (or offiar in charge) of tk untt usrgncd reproduction rtepd we cxccuted.
and/or stolqlc rqomMi W.
b. Integrated intetIignce u &kved when the qotmd.
ur. and naval intcllikena effort k prop& mordinated. The
rtq- mutual intcUisJcna support md cla coopnhon at
e.ch level of mmmlnd from uqh,hole t&z forc.~d,,,g
. Pkmmg and suprvtig the mtclliqma fom level throlqh comsponding commmda .t crd, subor-
mmmg of the command as a whok u) dmate k*el of both naval md Ianding force ckmmts.
coordii.tion With the opennow oft&r.

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b. Tk a.swtan, c&f of staff. G-2 ~1 tk vltci~ner

of&r an tk dtvumn staff. His tcaponslbilitica a~ XI forth
m p.nppb 105. In satufyii tkv nrponsbdrtics. tk
ass&al, chiif of staff. G-2 wlu normally retam exwtthe
,tmct.o,,, and usign tvlo to wnoul componcn~ of the
rectton aa fallows:


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-- -
. .L.l
. . .-L-B


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I FMFM 2.1


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FMFM 2.1

. Conducts plams for tk mtelbgena

md cowtemtteUiDcce pomssmt ai
tnendly pnsowm of wu who have
been ntumd to irxndly control.

(b) Tk pnmuy clforla ot the sttli co,mt~~-

telliince ottiar UC dtrected toward pkuw md coordulat.
IM: comba, coutens~ec ophoN 4d eNung that
aswed or atshed cou~tcnntebyena tams are properly
amploycd. C.xmtennteibqcna p4amm,yut k mcorporatcd
mto al, Eotlgcncy operttlo pks to csure rifeehve em-
ployment of counlctculRcnoc u&a and ploprsecunhl or
pehoJ ekmentr Dutmg tniNg sxercues. RHYIICMLeL
bgcna pkuung u aecompbshed u early u @le. md it
pmr,dcs for the rabshc trammroiewnte~tcwc= -ta.

(d) The staff countenntelbgena of&r cmrdt-

at- tk actwtttea of tk asa@ed or attached mtmtentrUi.
gen~ teama a,,d the overall couttte~tclligmcc eiiort. He u
rccrponnbk for recommending to tk -LMt chief oi staff.
C.2 tk rn,smw~. task_ and rcsponvbiittca of tk umgncd or
rttxhed counte~lellbynce teams. Tk relahonrhtp between
the staff counte~tclligma oifmr md tbc team commander
I) stmlllr to that exemg khvcen a staff officer ad tk eom.
mlndcr of a subordmate umt. Tk ssatat &cl of SW G-2
r&s. d,mcts, cantrob. md suprvlscr the tama throtwb the
&if eounterintelbgefe oificzr. Tk team commander should
k p~rm,,ted to deploy tbs team m a manner best rueted to
aompkh his uvvfpwd mwion md tatkska

(c) In order to FMY~C that comprehenavc, ail-

source cou,crmtetgmLx Uttmlla ad IVII are aradabk
to me supported commander. tk staff wntennteUqeee
ofiia, sho,dd plscaa acces to computmcntcd inblJir.cacc

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(h) Repare intcU&nce mneda).

(c) Mabltam an appropriate intcui-


(b) F,uwtionsSBdambed in FMFM

2.3. SiJnds InW~ncaIEbcUants w.+?e 0~l-s
t,,,~ (U). and in .ccard~e ntb DOD Diictwc
S5200.17 (M.fh Spacid Secwity &wd. nd tbc
Navy ar&mmt tbcreto.



h The l,me~nr of tbe irirtnt cbtrf ofruff, ---
-- m#mNm
G2fatbcaiwnftti~areb&ullytbemmeas . u-1-

tha of t dtton c-2 Tk flmcu0M of the an.

ow capanmta are u foOors:

(1) sprier s--w BmncIb (sa PI.

202bPJi) F&m 2.2. Fu~tionll O,g.ntzatton of. Typicat
Aiift Wing Inteuttnea Dkki.nL

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FMFM 2.1

nd C.4, supe- pfocwmwnt md drtdktion of sonival. by the UACTF mmmmder. brscd upon mmmmcndanona of
ICPILYLOC. sod euape eqoipmenr hi G.2/S2.
(v) Supniw. cootdb,.tca. a,,d upporta tie LRqardka of the qeny or pe,soooe, who Je,rnmne
nco$namo tmbllnu prcsnm for alI flight paaocl. to P- ,,a size ad or&za,,, blue factors am conadcrrd. Hwv
&de reeogmhoo of dup. urclaft. equipmcnl md mstda. indude:

(7) si3na6 Intsllig6ae clod (wbe RooIddl. (se

par. 202b(4).)
. Rqouemcnu for specmbst teams
. Admmatrauon. whteh mduda d,e phvncal flow
of mcylqcs and conespoodmce tot. wnhm. md
a. Tk typical force &mcc support group mfclliwna out of the 6cc,mn.
section mosstsofooefticer(0202)a,,d one to hoeokkd

b. The mtelliincz offiar U n&y .o assist., to ,bc d Tkrr arc occasons when I func~on or t put of a
asiaant chief of staff, G-2/C-3. Hi rupoonibibha am set funehoo may k ooutted. I when two or mom foncmna am
forth m parwwb 105. Intelllgma functions of the FSSC hmdkd by a single lndtndud or slbscchca. In lwcr head-
&sMtat chief of staff, G-Z/C3 a basally the same aa quarters them may k sufRcunt penonnel to eparatcly staff
dwc of a dir&m ~s~taot chrf of staff. C.2. a s&echo exd~wely devoted , , pact,eulir loneho+ OT
subfncDon Conreraelv. ~rwnnei tbmtahms of l soaer
205, ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF kadqwters may meqowc that rcvcd fonchoos I subfunc-
A MARINE AIR-GROUND TASK FORCE UM k coo&dated m L SW& subsect,oo.


L When Fket .\lame Foras a,~ task rm,,i,.& toto a
Hatoe aqmood ttpk force. the rganuil~on md ~tze of the
m,eUiaecc secwo of the ar~roood hcadqoutcn of the
command ckment w!l vary. It 1s predbxtcd pan the tie of
tbc VACTF (IX.. Marme vnpbibiolg omt (NAti). Uacme
amphiburur brigade (MALO. or Grim anpbibious foroe
(MAF)). tk masmtudc and xop of Ihe protected pen-
tions. md the d&es of the mmmmder. Tk upabilihes 1
the ,WACTF kmiquartcn cxteod sod mmpkmenf the capa.
bilitie. of the headquarters of mi)or ekmentr of tk tuk
fora, butdo notduplicate tkm uodernomml circumstmocs. f. 4, the MAP kvel. the staff cuta~teUiincc officer
Staff xrv,cr.s to the comma&r. b&&g u,tcUi~a. arc ,,a,, momtor all cwterb,,elbgea act,v,ty mtiul the AiAF
ontnted principally towud outten which affect the come b,clodbt(. that of dctxkd countctmrc&ncc tams or sob
task torn. aw to mawe Lhat MAF countentethgeec obtecurn PZ
accompbskd. &crdingly. clox cwsdimuon of JI co-
b. The orgaomation sod sze of dw, intelligna ~choo te~telllqma acw~ues mltst k acmmpkhed ktwcm all
may have bea dctcrmhed by hiker he&wtem or tabkr staff ruutcnn,rU,~ee off&m rt all Icvrb of command.
t r,wuz.tm~~ esubliied UI me conhngcocy plao. I ccr,. CmmtumtcUlana turns asqcd to tk VAF arc nomullv
trin sitoaoos. tta r3amz.t, md sze will k detemwed mtamcd m a general sqpor, rok undrr da crntratlrcd

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- -/-
-- -m

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FMPM 2.1



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FMFM 2-1

F&rc 3.1. Combat lntelli~nct Cycle.


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I .

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(5) Tk tmc la betwren the nquea, for and rcaip, ktdiience mm&an of ,k commai. Tk commander
oft&nwm #nayk exkswe. ts nspoabk for fomdamr EEli He IV. ,I he
dares. mques, r,a,f uff,ara ,o recummendEEI,.
Howww. k mu, pemonallyappporrtkm md d,nc,
(6) Rcqua,s for prc.Ddry lcmuyl~ec to w~por,
Ihe cUee,m elfor, lus, k submaed. That fequca mus, meu pr0&,,0.
k ,ucly ,o ICdlbk coordbl~Uc. Wl,h odler apntlonal
~c,w,ier .


mr determnes ,k r,eIligce nquremmti from ,xo pnna-
pal .o,,raa-bale mqurcmene uld -tilt ckmnu of

(1) Butt Rquuemenu. The m-&r mlut have direcovemd commnca w,,h ,k word decm,mc
aU pnlne, ,,eUwce on ,he werlhcr. ,enwn. ad hydrop- Tk qwfifymg qucsw vaws watheachEEL but cc.
r&y xtthvl ,k oh,echre area. and the enemy fwar vtddin md IN WHAT STRFZNGTK L, 16no, ecc~vrv to uk
or adjacent , 1, iha, mzy atfcct fk vnphikoua operation. 9 uf thesequcahorufor eachEEL only tbosz,ha, are
Beachesad hrbeopler Imdbw - recwe spccmlem& padwnt It ts no, ecasa,y for c.& EEI to have a
,,a. Also. he needsu,,c,&ecc conocmmg,he peopk who I3.c stalemen, d,mcang spreul a,,e(lon I, IS urcludcd
m Ihe obwtirc ama, ,o mdudc poUtid cccmamw.and wa- mly w,h lhuv EEls 1h.t hare cer,l~n wpzctr rcqu,r.
lo& cond,,,onsmd vlentilic and lechnical dcvekpnmta ~16 apcial a,,chon. Otk-. cdkc,,o rxecncwr
I add,,,orr he needsmtelbgcncaon the plul, ud ammrl bfe could k aled ,,.a dnahng mm o, ,he,r cee,m
da a affect friendly opentmos in ,he objectivearea. De- efforts to a pu,ndu am, *ha,, ha, is warnnred bv
tied outlines of ,k brne mtelliiec requ,mnmD for the situtia.
amph,biws operatl~~ pnd countcrycmlb operaknm are
dmw 111appendixedA uld B nspctirrly. Tkle outlina ye . Every tachcll s,,w,m poseadi,,me, pmbkms md
,o szrw oniy as guidesfor the lntelligenec officer. For some gmeraily pomtsup spwrfic gapl UI dcsucdinklligencc.
per*,Io& u-,Qusporwa uy be odued, whik odter For lhk reason. there I no atandd Ita, or hard md
upenhotu may genera,ea need for rdditiorul itemr Tk tlsk fast ndc for dckrmmmg EElr Tk eom-der ,ay
of ,k u,,elbgmec of,ietr u ,o determine tk pe,,me, ,,ema a& hmuelf cer,u, q~~3t.o~ w& as: Q
fha, m-1 k aswertd ad Loagn a pnonty of efforl based
on the u,uatio. . What encmv capabibty wil mm, ~nouslv
affect the accompluhme,of mv OUSYU~

(a) Conmmderf EEL Tk basic amphiiou~

ln,eU,,xee requnmne~ a, all eehelms of the lvldw fora.
a,= exten~re. and a, my we tm there M bkely ,o k . What u ,k next probable ,aet,cal deewon
pps u1dx dewed hnowkdge of ,hc enany. werthcr. ,e-. reqmmdof me?
and hydrography. Tksc gaps differ in rchtrrc impatlna
ax,ti~ to hme md c,rcwns,uxe. The cntiulgap~ Y) mkl- . What additional u,f-ho CTrrqucd lo
,i,zct am deswatd crxntial clemsnb of infomucioh precludemy kmgsurpased?
They UC defusedas those cnticai i_ of inf-uon re.
&b,% d,e enemy md hs enviroomen, e&d by Uu cam
mlndcr by a pircculu me. 10 ml.& wi,b o,kr wadabk
mf.,nn,uo .d inle,bgecein order to &, hi ia reaching
a logcal decasto. . One or mm of ,he enemy c.p&Uitxs cnumnkd ul
,k CIIIIC, mtcU&ta eaxi,e add mad, I M EEI .
. Tk EEls mtt,,,,u,e ,k mmmadeis priori,,, mPl- ,equing drtermvlrtlon of whether OTo, ,k enemy
,&a requuemenb ad. thcnfm. pmacnk the wdl .chuUy adopt tk cnumcntrd mtsesof DC.

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FMFM 2.1

E~ls ace frcqwndy panted toxud dcwlopvlg add,.

t,unJ mtelligence on known UT suspected enemy
,d,le,aW,k* al,* Y faulty dwpc.ntronh lo@strc ,n-
xkvurc,ea or Lsk ut agsewre rec~nn.-~c.
Tac,,cal plans LO explat an CMrnY wcrknclu Ire cxc-
culed whde the rutnenbd,ty rtdtcx,,,s. Tkrclo,e. u1
EEI wiatne to an enemy ulnembdity *d often m-
dude a requ,mmcnt to deerm,ne ,f Md when the
weaken ,a,&, k roncc,ed by rk enemy. Thu. an
EE, m,$,t sale. Determme if ,k enemy vdl extend
hh defenrs ,o mduds tk hi& gmund khmd Bea&
BLUE If so. when. and wth what iomr? Anotkr
EEI m&t k phrased. Dctecmme ri tk enemy wti
extend bia ur sea,& n&r corcnge 10 ,k XUL If so.

Knowkd~ of the enemy atwtmn ,6 often extremely

ague, pn,~,duly durtw Ihc e&y plamg for an
mphtb,ws opentton. In thu and r,mdu cases. EEIs
may k desgn.ted for tk purpose ofrcqumnq
ai batdc
mtelberncc. parucularlv mtclligcncc
&t,e to enemy ,denttticruonr dtspa,t,ons.stcmgth.
md canbat eiiisuncy. An appropriate EEI pranul-
ated euly m tk phnntq phlsc oi .n ampkbmus
.,pe,at,on mlqht k. Determme dw eompasltmn.
rtrength. and dlapatron of enemy forces whwb wtU
oppose our Iandmgs. As ,nt.lUgcnce kcomes ad-
rbk md plans kconw more spcctfic. thu EEI mqht
k moddiid to. Detctmme ,I tk enemy wdl defend
*ma ourraterbom. asad,. ,I M, wlh what forces
Wk,e rdl hla maul deknslve pos,t,ons k located?
Spccnic rttentmon 10 actl,ties of tk 14th Rat% Kw

Cecm,,, rcatkr. ,crram. and hydrowphrc miorma-

,IM Inay Cl, k rul&k, ,hu reqwnnq ,s.%,ulce 0, The EElr promuleted bv adwcnt commmderr are
a, EEL Fat c.ampk. tk EEI mwht k Pkued. kndkd m ,hr ame mumer as those of a hwher cam-
De,e,m,,,e tk YCU err Ob,ecne b m wh,h heb. mmdc,. that ,s. tky m kequcndy mphnxd. For
copten can k laded. or, Determme ,i ,a& cu1 exunpk. a EEI ot an adfan, ccg,m+ntal commander
c,.,ea (he ma&y area bddind Bcxb BLUE. Howerr,. m&t k. Determu~ ti the enemy wdl subxquent
lequt.s,tto,, and draummattun of xcrtba mfomutton ,o OUT landma. occupy pos,,mlls ul tk ncvl,ty of
,, ..,,maUy a matte, of SOPs A we&be, EEI is, there- QL!,,XTiN TOWN.Tbis m&t k mphnud.Deter.
iom, Uavuy deeio,ped only m those srtualmnr where mme Ii the enemy wdl more iorecs thmgb OUI zone
wutbe, may k I ccilttoUiig f~C,or. An ~ppmpn~tc M Dday tn Ihe d,rec,mn af QUANTAN TOWN.
EEI mqbt k, Determule if the man, ,tw hwe
changed mffic&iiity m tbc CORCY axea and kck of Tk EElr of a wbwdmatc commander are genemUy
Bcrcb RED. Puuculu attenuon to fords acrca tk not unounecd to tk command aa P whole sm.% tkv
JARDO RIVER. a,e of Um,ad inte,&. Howe*er. tk commwicc
cnwms that .cc measures an undertaken to sat&
Tk commrndu aotds tk tendency ,o kt every mss the announced EElr of hu subordmws He dkcts
mg ,km oi miotmahcm as .n EEL regudles of ~1) hu mtclliinoc oiiiar to sat&y tkm m tk ~nx


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rn.ncr u my EEI of hw ow md to dkemulate the metoxdous. mwi.hn, ptrpaeful. and baaed on eomnt
ltelhgena to alI rffectcd wbordin~le commulb. md anticipated reqoircments.

d OTHER INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS Ocher (4) Tk canmadcr also pwnda for tk pubculu
staff offan wdl ha= a treat rantty of qucltiona *hi& are lntcilyna which hlsobordinatanced mod which as kyund
not uitiui cnowh to k cammdcnd aa EEls. but which must the,, c.p&iiihu to pmduoc. I a, ~ph,b,ooa opcntlo.
k mswend. Clae liaa u rcquwed ktwce tk mteU,- pk,utg u baud in I lirge messme o ultcllwna pmvtdcd
~CDC officer md atkr mcmkn of tk staff to ensw ttmciy by h,r edtelow. Tk CLF ~t,ap,,a th mteUiiert re.
recap, of the-x rcqotoxncnts md tkw mtqnho toto tk quiremeb of his subo,db,,ta. uld he p,o.,da tkm wdh
oerau mikctt effort rcquued WeWnoc m tim for tt to k urd m theu ph.
ning E*cry armmmd. witbh tta upbditiea. asasu biir
404. COLLECTION PLANNMC Md adJaat cmmders 1 uleu cffort$ topmduec mlei-
bpnoc. At each edteka inteUfgcna colkctm planing
a. GENERAL rcfkcta ,k amoaad of deduced o,,eU,,ce nqoucmentr
of the comrmnder ud h&w adjacmt. tnd wbordbwe
(1) Tk mtelli~nec officer has staff re+wwbRity mmm~dr
for dcveiopng pkw for hla comMnder mlatln to tk col-
lectlon of iteu,qence lforlum. Intethgecncereqtore*nts b INDICATIONS
arc not ItahC but da&@ aa tk Itoatzo cbulga: eODY.
qucntly. the mlkcho effort moaat qwekty rcspand to (1) IdlUtios mnnrt of mfonmho i *ano(l(l
de~lopn& requtremcnls Tk m,eUiire offi&r mnstattly de4rem of errluatton. all of whtd, karo tk intmtlo of a
mtictpated tk requirrmnta of hi commmder md tk potetul enemy to adopt or te,cct a CaYtK of actton.
requrementa of sobordmate omts. He closely momton tk
progress of the collectto effort (2) I order to satisfy EEIs ad other intcUigee.
req,oremets, tk mtell&moc office, most have adqute
(2) Esvnhal to collection pllnnmg aa a conhnotl otfomtst,o fmn whrcit to draw cooduaons. Tk Brat step
study kadiiq lo extmmvc k+ro,md knowledge of tk is to analyu a paw&r intelbgna reqtorement to deter.
memy. area of apnttonr. md colkctlo resowccs .r&ble mun what endcna ia e&d to catiy d. A mdrutton UI
to tk mmmmd. Tk mtelliqmmr. oft&r mw k well in- uly mdenae. patin or egrtxe. which wll a&t UI sat%
formd about tk enemy, mdudsghk orpntunon, vc+mos fyii a mteuiiae rqllt~m,.
md rqtdpncnt and tactical doctrine. Knorkdgc I thne
areas enables the mtelliicncz oKtc.r to determine tk vanma (3) EElC and other btteUigcc mqtmwwnts gen-
cncnry &vitics tkt indicate the adoptton or rc~cctio of a ally fall tto one of two broad atepnes-those wrttlnlng
pat~cular capabd~ty. Siilarly. he most co,,uo,tsly study to cbaractensucs of tk *ma of opentions (e.k, weather.
tk chrnctcruhea of the objectwc area. wth panrctdar termm. md hydwnphtc coodmonr) md thoee pcrtammg
rrpud to tk tachcal effects of wratkr. terra. and hydmq- to tk enemy. hu capabibber w!ncr&lities. md order ot
rrpby on operattonr of both enemy md friendly foms: he kttk. Indsanons. the. m.y k endcnce concwnvlr ape
must &o haw mformrtton eoncemow the pop& located c,Cle aspects of tk ares of opntians or e.idece conamtng
wtha tk b,cctwe aret Thla mdodes the po&iiul. swo. the enemy.
lc+d md emwxmc condittonr and tk attitudea of tk
local popolact toward the enemy md fnendly forces. Tk (4, Tk ~.iys,. of m EEI relative to tk LR* of
intclligmcz oft&r most also be mmpktcly fundiu wttb opcnbo~ u gmemlfy rel.tiwly ampk. For example. M
tk wdrldbty. apabdiheh sod lirmtattonr of tk scat~ccs EEI may k. Determme laatwa smtabk for hebmpter
mod qmcies avadabk to tk mmnund for xcompllshmmt landing mes within 5 rmks of Objectwe I. kdiutioions
of the mlkctton effort which would k adequate to satisfy this &xxdar EEI would
k tk p-a of .mas of appmpnate a=, havmg adequate
(3, Tk mcct,o enor, ,, cotmoal,y focused on approaches uad exits, uld xttb suit&k nod anditto~ =d
rcquinnr ncnnal mtorm.tlo. At times. the mmmndcr topognpby. A EEI might be_ Detemtbte whether there ut
t&a rakdrted risks VI the employmat of cokctm mat6 my oktadu to torrmcn, of tmks md LVT3 tmmdutcly
ttemm,.,..sata wc,es may haw tonnqntratc
onp.rtc. z&ad from &a-A RED. Indie&xw which provide an M-
while other arem of po,a)t,aI interest
mmtk swe, to thh EEI an the pmsma or &p. of unfotdabk
temporanly c&cted. This c&dated d& cm k reduced riven md s,rey~u. steep slopes. lh,ck woo& oc mushy
to alxphtdc proportwts only If the plsnnmg effort i are*

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FMFM 2.1

(5) Analysis of inldiia rqukmenh nlrtive to (c, Sound undemuodinq of ,he enemys or of
cnemy cqdtiltics e a mudt more complex pr- Ess. ,mun ad of hi, probabk knowledge of Le ,crram under
&ally. the mteilignet officer debrmnea what endcnce u ou, co,rol
bkely to be for,bmmng if the enemy prepared lo adopt o(
ba adopt.4 I p.rclcolu up&My. For cxunpk. at EEI (d) fnfamahon on the pcrsonabtics of oppob
m&t be. Determme If the enemy wdl atuck our forcer UI utg enemy commwien aod put wfam~ce of opposvlg
hdmg Zone PINE. Tbia reqircmcn, 1s rndyzed lodctn- enemy I,&
mme the mdiczllooa of a &trek which m&t exist doMs
,k prcpmtioo for iumcbmg tt Some of tbur mdicawas (8) There 1s no atndud lit of ,d,cabona ,h., 4,
,,$I, be occup.,m of .rsrmbly amsa uld a,,.& poatiooa W& a p~culrr EEI or other m,elligce rquscrrnb
bq afawy eleme,s. forward moveme, of enemy RY~C conocmlng ,be coemy. Tk intelligeoencroffice, develops his
ynaz. or farwud edteloameo, of ubUecy. Other mdiuhoru md,e.uoa 10 fit the putiatlu enmy a, the plr,icullr ,ime
m&t be mcrcurd p,aoUb,g nd m.l r~a)~aman(~. sod in the pa~ctdat ama of cmcocm. Appendix C illustrates
r,rengthenmg of cotmcemcoamaksm~~ scrcenr. .mblii- bow mdicamoa m&t h developed aa evdenee of likelihood
me, of a obsenahon pa, qskm, ckanoce of m,oefieMa of an enemy attrck. defense. nmforcement ad pasrble rm-
uld other obstacks. mca-eu~ , r0U-y firu. nd may ployme, of nwku xcapms. It IS cmphaazcd that these
others. mdicatlons am prcw,cd only as UI exampk oi this puhcu.
,lI Mdligcno prMx%s A list so* u *ia cano, be sota-
(6) lntelliina ngullcmen~ connming enmy vol. h&d for baste md~ca,mnsdevelopsd as a t-csul, of study of
mnbibbea am lnllyzcd by de,emuGng the mdeaoos 111acnul Lwn.
vhtch an likely 10 exu, vhen my partmolat enemy voher-
ab,,,,y dcvclops F&n to btkrcrp, s(nka appmshtog c. TACTICAL EFFECTS OF TERRAIN, I1YDKOC.
from I cer,am dimcoon or ia& of ekc,m*c twono-a RAPHY. IND WEATHER. The corrsrdcnblc mtlucna Lh.t
I,crcepls I a ezetor may Lodiu,e a gap io me enemy early lenam. hvdroqaphy. md weather exert on ublary opera-
warning r&r eovenge. A mvked tnerelse in enemy dew- ,,ons a,fecti coucc,toon plmnmg I two WlYh cerram key
was may md,ea,e I low&q of morale. A diverson of rrpcts o, the ,e,mm. hvdroqrrphy, and wca,bcr may be I-
eomba, troops ,o wan,y ruks YI mm are., may vldate do&d YI ,he Iii1 of EEIs sd o,ber sqmficur, n~,eUiec~
cwl.,, hostJ,,y toward the enemy. rrq,,,nme,a The .cmys knowledge sod use of the terra
uc vnport~, conudenuons 111determlnvls tdeattonr of

c operation.
(7) 4, the initirhon
the mtellipnce
of plmnmg
officer depcds
for u( amphiiicua
lx& on baste
e,,en,v action. The dwxern,,ea
mllyred u IO thcs effcc, on mdituy
of ,he objechve ZRI
oprr,tos of vwnd.

o&r of bz,,,c stiier prepared a, nrtlonal area_ and flee, an. mod rrd WIIU. lndodvle both canba, uld YTYKZ SUP
,cr& for Lhc backqcund b,fooa+m on cncmy foras whwb por, ,,a of both friendly and cnemv forar Tbu mdvms
LI nerded lo develop lndxrtlons Ona tie assault e~mmc~~ d,ree,s rons,dcmbk r,,eno ,o thev cffee& on coUecbo
*c ~telligcna ofRccr a, every ccbelo nalyur acNJ effons For a dctrtkd study 01 ,he rlfecu o, terra. bvdroq-
rcmy oper~,,ons 1 the bid. Thii Daly... together w,,h mph. ad *e&w. zeceacoo 18.
,he m,ellif,ccx avaU&le Prior 10 the c+mmeeeme, of
opzmnoas, proudcs incnasmgly accurate liiu of idicat,Mla d. CIVILIAN POPULACE
wefol u, aodn,op; p.rt,eulr errmy npabiitler ad vulnera.
bilihw. A analvmo of Lhinahm is dmmnated lo all m&c
ated tm,u ,o order ,o aogwo, the reliabdity and accwacv
d ~lwpm,ax~ a, ~a* cd&n Acconte mnlyes of the
enemy Lo develop lndiertions rqouer

(a) Dccliled knowkd,ze of UK dwac,ensbcs

of the *t-a of opntionr as they affect mditsy opr*,tonr

(b) Drtuled ~owlcdee of ,b+ oq.uation.

t-qmpne,. ,ac,,eal docti. md lo&tic methodn of Le

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FMFM 2.1

~ornd v&I hm to k placed on mporm fmm covert rgcnb

uld onconvendond rufue fames whwh are nonrully con-
uolkd by .re. nd external yencua. ?
(2) Af,wks w a:titic of Ihe IaJ poptie. ai,
nnge from enthurnhc suppwt for friendly opcntlom to (2) r\ coUee,ion plu, mu, k p,cptEcd sod ,mpk-
open hahI& *IY~)s, friendly openhans In the former aso. mntcd c,dy m Ihr plannmg phase of a, ampb,hous opcrr-
dw mIkeeon effort ia greatly facdttated by the -tmac tloa Colkcwn plaonmg must pronde for ,k mn,mvow
and flow of information from friendly cniliuu. A hoahk eolkcttoo of mform,tron ,hro&out rl, phs,aof tbeopra.
pop&cc m&a coikemn more ddfiadL Local nbma fre- no,,. Tk mmmvldcr p.xdes guidance to tbe cdkct~on
qwntly tit tk enemy by concealing his rctwttcs Tk effMt by delermmiog nd ~nooocmg hb -cul &mats
intdbgeoce officer, in prepanng his eoikctmn p&a cuefolly of b,famaon Add,hondfy. other r,aff officer, .ad s&o,-
andyres tk a& population loa,ed wtbii the obrctne dowe eommmdcra pmwdt guidmc. ,o the mtdligtnce
we, ,,, o&r to exploit alI av&bk souras cad ,o muumwe oifiocr in hfs mfkction plnnmg by mformmg him of the,,
aerfercno? with hia milectmll effort. speafic lntruiia mqwementa.

(3) Psydmk&d oLI#ratanc P6yhlogwl opcn- (3) Dm-mg tk pkmmg phrr for operah-. the
donr hawe a duect mfluenac on tk cmliao poptdmx sod mlkction plan ts emsohdated md pobkhcd as puwaph 3
,,,ost k dok,y eoo&n&d w,h collec~on pkomb Pay- ,o ,k uueibgena annex. Sokequendy. I, will r&y k coo-
&dog,al openliw UNB ~1 well aa otkr fnendly mfocou- &dated. bo, wdl appear as I senes of direetwea or rrqucs&
&owl -nues .m import.,,, colkehon agencw keausr of far mfomlaoon
,,,z,, ,ccem to ,be d.diill pop&a md knowkdge of Uw
amblda of tbe cwiikl PoPulaac. g. LVTELWCENCE COLLECTION WORKSHEET

L INTELLXENCE SOURCES AND AGENCIES (1) A vdu.bk nd ,o ,hc m,dUgen.x offiar m ,k

pla~mg and supwtion of ,k caileeuoo effon u1 ,k mlel.
(I) ntdf&.oca Soorcar IntefUgnsx sorocs refer l&ma mlkcaon wokrhea


(2, lxkaon Agencru Cohetlon agencies are My


depcnda on*,k
to some ex,en,
For example,
on the expencna
ao expnenad
of the rqwmcn,s
of the iotelfiiencc
lntelliience officer
mdividuls, ocwnntio~. 01 ,,,,a that have awes lo sowas genr.Uy does no, need 10 prepare a de&d written work-
of iofcsmahon sod ,k capabiity of coiiechng miormahon &e, ,o saisfy lkUlge.x mqu,nmentr on localon f su,-
from them. (se par. 503.) abk k.cha or h&copter Imdmg 61,~s H. coUec,~on plan-
nmg ,o sod, cases m,y k cntn-ely mn,aI or may comas, of
hnef noln Lo asas, him m prepanng requcrls for mforma.

(3) For many mqurremenu. pamcululy thme co+

amcd wad, enemy upabibtiea and .ubw&Uheq a wntten
col!+etlon worksket u normaUy adrwbk. Tk deed in
witi& I, is prepaed. however, depends agam on the pimcu.
k nquwnmrs to k sawtied sod the cxknt to which coot-
din&on of ,he overal, eoUec,,on effort ,a., be rffectcd
f. INTELLJGENCE COLLECTIDN PLAN Thu* a, ,egmen(, soup. quadron. md baulion lc*eL Lhe
no,k ehbora,e. I, may
(1) An bl,dUgmee coiketiw plrn !d a pkl for maas, oofy of a ktmg of wul.bk colkcdon means. dua
ga,kMg blfam.hon from a.U a&bk souca ,a meet UI brief nom or mmnders to rhe mteUigcna officer on Cumnt
loteUi2cnm requuemcnl. Spufiully, 1, in Icglcal PLn for intellipoc
adspaticmfommtion ,hat most
vwfwmw the esentidtkmmts ofinfommtroo m,o orders k CoUeCkd.


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(1) Pmod ccmetd. Gdlection plmJdg for l putt0 (b) kfomution to k sot&, then becomca
tdu ownboo conncoc~ wtth tbc ncetpt or dnluchoa oi a the w fof speahc o&n Ad mqoedts for mtkCti0 of
nrusion by the mmrmnder md ia c~tmuoos mbl tk mlb mfommtio, A coikctio agccy in mat c&l u not uswed
rio is xcompiiehed. Tk mUecho work&et. the. mven full teqwmbiltty for titabb&bq that my parttculu mdio
the pnod from inacption of plannmg vntll accomplishmet t,on cxbts For eruapk, bx,e*d paholling may k M lndc
of tlu olfonon Horrver, In M m+btow oprao, o?r. UtIoll tbrt lo enemy D prepaiig to utac!i. A ntk compny
uin o~:clliia rc+orcmmts rn.y k directly related to would not k vked if tberr WL( a m- m enemy patrol
YulouI phaa of the opentm or nut k sattsfied aa I pm. actmty m its occtor. Imtad. mC a&tic mfomuho to k
rcqtite to other pluvln~+ For exu,.pk, inteltiga~~ ,eqwre- saogbt tbat form the bass for a onkr to tk ccmpuly
mnta mlawe to locam of autt.bk badea 01 helicoptu would k the freqoenq of enemy p.wols axountemd VI ,h
Iandbtg zones moat k ubsR+d 104 b&m tk actud -It. scetor. Amtbcr mdk.tton of at& mi&t k forward e&c.
Tbc pcnod which is entemd at tk top of the form in @we lonmg of artttky. Tk rpw4F.e mfomuho to k swght by
4.1, tbcmfore. IN k lea tb.o that of the ,,,a, g a &ok. I o~lkction .gecy I not wkther lrhlley u kmg cehelwd
Tk rorkahcet rn,W k rewed u kt&genc rcq,d,w,,eta forw.ld but ntber the IOcaho of uhlluy I certam amah
develop or kcom mapplicabk. ~1 wad&k collection age.
cwa cbaoge UI llmkr sod type, md ~1 spent% collcet~ (c) l thcac two cxallpka, tk ltelRgea offi.
usao~ become mapppmpdae. For these masw,s_ a c&kc. cetl u tbc ow I the bat patlo to I& proper dcductmns.
ho workshcer should k rmultamed in tooeekai form co. Fnm, tk inf-tto he ~caves, tid nftetercomp,nao ntb
tamou only cune(It utenal. mfoml.,m Jmdy .rti. the rnteLge.ner oftiar Cal
deduce wkther I f.ct then hu h u1 ,crcwc I enemy
(2) Column (1). In column (1) ut listed tk mtetli. paroilq. ad wktbrr 1 fact the eemy ublkry ,s bag
gence requwncLI *-hid, mllst k waicd. Thck include crhclacd loward to a~wort the attact
tie essential &mats of mfomutm mad other nqlurwmra
(d) Tk lnbUigeee ofRwr cucf,,,,y studlea tbe
(3) Column (ZL In column (2). 10~
EEI ad am, of ope,ahos and the know mcmy ntuatto I,, order to
other Ite&geoc rqokments the intclbgecc off&r beta lowa tbe lnfwm,hcm cotkchon effort on a rpeaftc ares For
tbc wtd~cahom which he hr dcnved from u1 ~llys~ ot tbc exunpl+ B,, dsvelopng rpenfic lnfonnaoo to k sat#~t an
enemy ad the chwaclenahcr of tbe oblecbw ama Indiu. pa&k enemy maforcement. he stodrs the road eta sod
noonsarc crdence. poatwe or negare, whh. when auul&k, soi,,b,e zvenw, of ,pproa& to determow faglc., roates over
wil uusfy the par~cuhr ~qmrement. lnd,cao~ form the which celny ntnforamcnta woold move. Tk rpeafic mfor-
bass for drvclopmq spentic mformatm reqouemnts md ~t,cx, to k rot& tkn kmma the volum md type oi
atoll orders ad W+X~P for the dk~tlon d informawn trlftic along a ptilcldll mad or UI a puticldaf Pres. He 0
For cxunpkr of mdiuuons. see appndrx C. hul I bw for dcreloprng plma for w,d wcol~~~ce 01
for establishment of obscrvatm paats.
(4) Column (3). Column (3) mta7r an 01abc of
triei oi rpcak dormdon to be aoqht whleb *ti sub+&. (c, FocungofIhcmformahaoeollcchoncifort
uate or refute each mdlcation liitcd in colum(2). ,hro,,gh dcveloppment of spec,Re mformrbo r.x,urementa
o paieul.r ares w k of gmat benetit UI dcwlapw o-
(a.) Havmg detemwxd what indications pow &u ,a,~,. For cxlmple. a, mdicaho of UI cncmy attack
10 lk solumm of 1 PartKUkr urteu&a r_qul~me*. tbc v&t k tbc occup&m of uscmbly arem and attack pmt.
lntelbgenoc off&r next determmes what lnfommuo u horn by memy mfntry ad armor. Tk lntelligcna oifiar
needed to subtaxttirte or refute each kdio&,n. If ternoval studies tk t- nd enemy ~~tuauon u he knows tt .d
of wea and oktadLs k UI mdiuuon of UI enemy attack. skcts tbae UC- suitable la the scmy to we. Spwsic
the the infotmatio needed is wkthe, ot not the enemy is b,fo,mrtlon to k sought ,s wktkror at the enemy forces
.ctuaUv rtmov~)g mlncs ad oktacko. Rcluctmce of pr,s are I-ted in thex apafic amu. Should bdh.l aesxh reveal
oen to RM~ in foward areas my k u) o,d,cr,,o of the prcknac ofcmmr touts, the effort cm k directed to that
memy pmparasolu to amptoy nodear werpona Tk lfr. toatity II, sofftcrnt lf.xuw for nwkv ptaMlg ia
MD ceded u wktkr 01 not primers demonsuate ny developed.
marked ragemesa to k cr,cluted fro, the mmbr, ma.
Impmvemnt of enemy postt~~u may k UI mdtauo of
defrrwc. lnfwmahon ceded is wktkr or no, ,he enemy w
actually lmpmtig his paartmns

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FWfM 2.1

cwnnunds wbth cull gatbcr iniormabo of vJuc. I rddl-

c tm ,o troop on,&. the list

specub8u such u coutenn:clb*ce.
rndudes mtclheena
,magety m:crpreta:ron.
uld m:enagmo.:nnrla:or pcmcmocl. The 1,1:q of troop
unto u no: ms:ric:ed :o comba: elements.

(a, FoUowmg br detcmlmr:m 0, :hr *pccaRc

Llorut,oo to h sol&l the m*e,*cna o,ticcr vlccw rtK
mllecaon agccas which wU be ordered or quested to fur.
in making
oh lformrttorL hmrkcrnnrhrISgunled bg
of upahlty,atttabtlity. mtdhpbnhl. ad (i) Column (6). Mwellincou o:es on :k p~(pcsa
b&we. o, the colkcoon a-e mco,dcd , cob,, (6) olthc works&e:.
Tk m:eUiice o&e, dewlops a s~ple cede to md,o:e
whieh colkc:lo mtssno~ are proaedmg wbslactonly. which
rqwre ren~o. md whwb rhoold k c.ocelkd. Romp: can.
acllabon oiorden a,d rqoerls iwcolkcnon o, miormrtm.
lncludurq EElk s mandatory II the ciiorts ofcoilcttto age.
ctes are to be focused props-k. A or,,: SOP for m:rll,gerr
:uctlo,g nomullv prwdes ior ,ou:tc reportrngo: ocrta
(c) Agenm selected to gather mi~ma:mn arc tvpa 01 miormr::on A note 16 made I the colkcbo work-
thoa best suted fo, the task. for rxunpl, a lrvned torcx she.: when ~,,a, ,iorm~:,o requtnmenls am covered by
RC(M~~LYYOC to,,: u nwm.Uy be::<, awled for .mph:bwuE the SOP. For cxunpk. the ,epo,:mg of mlneiields may be
,woo-ce :hul D a p,Vo: from I tic compvlv \ m- preJa&d by the u,: SOP A ~qutmme: for mirxma:,
fala,,oon colkc:m lso 16umslste: wm me Ixtlcal or on the encon SUY ofmtner can be hrndled bv pheul< SOP
lc+tcd Msuo assgcd P u::. The mclliccnce oiileer. u1 mlumn(6). md tyz.,na,h,bty need no: be ,d,ca:ed under
tbsrefon. coordinatea many collection muons *ttb the ageene,cs. However. a ,cqur,w,e: for reporhnn the Iosa.
opentio~ officer at-4 logistica office,. Suilrbdlty aha I. ho of mmciielda I the vwt!ty of a spcthc arca 16 a:
eludes cMundeno ol econow oi mew Thu. hefore u) tetkd as UI SDP item. FwUY, m the remarks column, :hc
qency b selected la a prrtlcuh, task. the mtrllrpcna o&w intclliqcna oftice, c&s thoac speetfie mformallo reqoim.
emsden what other colkcuo tasks mgh: h accompbsbed menb whtch cm k combmed m:o a singk order or quest
by I: a: the same tmw. to Y) qeency

(d) liama::o u culuakd ad mterprctcd in 405. ISSUANCE OF ORDERS AND REQUESTS

order :o denve tn:eUlgeu. ACCUR:C rraiur:,o wwues
cornpans of btiomuao obtamed Fran awrrl wwees md Impkmenutm of the dtmao rilor: ,cqtons prrpws
aseenctco.Wbencrcr possible. Lhe inklbpna oflicrr rckcts bon ad ssomce oi suttabk orden lo rubordt.k un,ts. md
more than one agay to coke: :niwmr::on. quests :o h&c, and adjacent commadr ior rpc~nc mio,.
m*:lo cokcuon usk.5.
(e) Fiily, :he lnkllisna ofiicerrndeavors :o
brlvlce the collectlo uorkload unong arulabk aena~s. L ORDERS TO SLBORDINATE UNITS
~kboogh desnble. b&w ts the kas: importa: cos&ra-
ho u, the sclechon of aguxics. uld mwe often than not. (I, Orders for the cotkeuo al m:.Jl,,,mce mfomu-
car&l mnudcnho of upabdt:ies and surtahtility rtwk u1 ho are dasemmated u, :wo ways-, parqnpb 3 oi the
adequate dntnbutioo of the workload. mtrllignee MCX ad a ingmntay ordera aad rcqu&s.
4 itclbgccc aex Is pubbdled mirequently. orders se:
(6) Cobmu 1.5). cOlum (5) rcikcts (he w. md forth In the loncx NC 0,diudy most of * mtmugahlre
plw r: which infmnau u 10 be reported. lnfomuuon or xhwb wqture openbons over a conudcrabk penod of
&da anims too iate is of o v&e. The ::clbgcc office, pmt. Orders prenooziy wed are i,eque:lv smm,mred u)
e,,wm tbd bmca spatied in the collectto wcskdtee: me: the anex L order du: ail ulb may be made awue l myor
d,e e& of the umunnder. other staff
oNice. md hi,. ~tcomtuyunce, obwvrhon. ad nmdar lnforwm colkc-
&ant. md suhordiiae tmtts. I dc:cnmmg when mior- t,o tasks Iha: uc :o k vndcrtaken .\laumwn ksd tm,e
nutto u to k rqntcd. tbc ln:eUiiencc officer eMlwdcn the Loadd be pronded to mlkcho agncler so that chev c.


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FMFM 2.1

pmpdy p&l and prep* for the ~eeomplkhmel of aa- obmled, on memy mae*enLI wLm ita?mne.On the otkr
signed mks. had the common commnder wu generallypmrnk how
mqwsu fa vrul rewnnatsmncechmddk rubmined by a
(2) Rwrdka of the m4md of dkendnatian. ground urn, ,o a arpparting UT mdL
mden for colkc,montaska must embody me form of uly
pod order. They mlu, w, forth ,be who. whet, wb.,. whew c. COLLECTION REQUIREMENTS. Tk meam of
ad why lb necessaryfor a mmpktc undcnandm& mqveshngspcuic inteiUgcectdkction muQom m:

(3) Tk inklligncz offiocr hu primary rtrff reapon-

&fity for mc prcplraon of onlcm for mfomutial cdkc.
&In Iasks. He cQordin.,cs do& w,m omer ltrff af,icers m
me preparanonof at& arden for dw commander.Tk oper-
ations off@, may pmpam detaikd o&n fw infamrhon
c.,lkehon mwaom when the rtiwhesof the unit mnduehnnq
me m,,mon mist k c.mfuUy comdbt.kd rid, openbcar of
o,her comkt una or mtegrakd ~7th plas for the employ_
men, of supponmg- Tk intelligcnar officer p.rnap.,m
dime,,y m the pmpambon of such o&n Close Ii&en ir
mamtlvled w,b ,k colkce~ agenc,es,o obtsm adviceon 406. SUPERVISION OF THE COLLECTION
the fcwbdrr, oi task md ,o der, ,bem ,o pw,bk m,s,o~ EFFORT

etc., am focuxd no, only on & posibk commvld post but

on developml: miomwion on Ihe wmy foxed dta, midtt

ul,nm,t un,bspdidy
For exrmpk. may k dkcdy .

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fMfM 2-L



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,,,,,,a of xhwh ,hey have knowledge. Ruonen m,y be ,he

best source of infonoatlon emecm,q enemy no4e.r de.
brery mean& puacul.,ly rurrwe-m-wf~~ mall& aincc *be
ktter can candy be concealed fmm frkndly colkcwo efforts.

(2) Informahoo that EM be btumd from p,,sooen

of WLT includa troop ,denhfiutrn and dnpoatlon. combat
cf,ic,e*c% s**hn of supply. and fuhlle c*pa&li,k*. Infomu.
,,n dewed from p-m. howcnr. m.y no, h ,,me$. a,,d
a u& pmoocr may be Ihe SOurn of only bnued informs.
boo. lncca@ian of codabk numben may be ncwury
tn o&r to develop iullr a wr~cuk, .spc, of a d,u.t,on.
Maximum multr aka depend upa r*ufol intermphoa and
carchd hmdlii~of p,iaoocn

(3) Enemy darrkrs are scgrcgakd from other pns 1. FRlENDLY PERSONNEL M,btiry sod nwbsn per-
own of war. othenrlse they we haodkd in Ihe same omooer. roooc, of our own and Allied forces who hwe w&d capfurt
Svlcc the enemy m.y plant false desertem, rep&s of inkrro. and escaped from enemy tcm,nl norm& we their return
gaoo from dekrters UC ckuiy marked P ulformatlon 1 h.v,og succesfullP avozdcd cootic, r,,b chc cncmy. Tky
horn dcscrter. Eoemy woondrd ur, fkn ,n,c rcspwwe mry, neLheks6. a lbk , ,um* ,fml*h on naral
to i,cwogal ma noowoooded p-n of w&r. ocu- cnd,tmnr m ,he arca and bmded mform~,, on enemy
mema sod m&s of idehfica(lon found on boul wounded fomr They may be ooabk , supply dal. .a f exac, lees-
a,,d dead pmndc o&r of b.t,k and other iofom,aw,. ha md bmes of observation L&w&cd nnliuls. refweo.
d,,pkced penotu. ad coo~enbre enemy shoos rdbunly
are no, trailed mdstiry observers How-r. they may hare
mfocomooo of combs, intiwecnec *sloe. Persmnel of thuv
cavpr,es arc vrnned carefully by ,tcno,+ra m e,ue-
f. ENEMY DOCCMENTS. A cmmy docome, may ho wt* coon,ennklligena sod cml affaim pwxonocl in
be soy form of mco&d informamo m&ii cocmy forcer under to detect .od rppmheod bae crowen sod enemy ageols.
or UCYL Pmnded
,xonde more x-chbk
Ibe d-,a
are ,,bentl+
that ptiwncrs of wu h-
they may
,.a~ doam,enU am uruallv no, btwd. The posnbihty of enemr suul commomertiom pronde mformauoo on enemy
,,b,amw lnfonnrhoo of cmmednle cacbcal. as well as sn. ~dcnmica,na loc~(1os. dkpcs&oos, and conkmpkkd
,C)OE. aloe VYIloD metlcldous explo,,&m 1 ,hw so*. operabons. Enemy co,o,oo,c~bo116 em k a source of mfor-
(xc xc. 6.) ~PI o, immd,a,e value to the tachcal commmder. puhc-
,rrr,v Llcc, I, luwe, kwk. ,ce ,rwmbsl 83 c0mm+
g, ENEMY \lATERIEL InCama,,oo of ud,hn,cd. ,a~. ~lpl%-d.
bc.1 aod ~ba,egu value can be obtamed f,m ,,ems o,
roemy eqtupmen, caphued by our forces. Gp,umd docu-
wnu sod captured m&ml may have !im,,ed dime, or on-
medkte combat io,eRigeocc vabte, but have the patut v&e
for rurtruic m,clRgena purpolca. Tkn an ccasmw when
roemy nutcnel wdl pronda rnfomutioo thr, cao h explo,,wl
trctirally. For cxampk. eaP,um of stocks of &cm,c.l &Us
n, a, enem ar,dk,y position may &en a comm.od ,o ,h
,xaibili,y of I chemiul a,&lc (See xe. 6.)

who haw hen wilhii cncmy contmlkd sew may be 4. TILti 4hD CHEWCAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.
rbk x)(I,ccs or inr0rti. plmcolwly cooarmor ,c,ra,n. Duds. muks. uld &It fngmen~ am MU,QS of informauoo
They &.a ma have knowkdp of enemy ina,~ations md o tbc ,vpe utd ubbcr of enemy sapporting weapona. Craw

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F\IFM 2.1

. -.

.* OI)LR
. . . -IR

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Force. repwta dttectly to the Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Fora. (j) Develop+ m.bxtaiw,md reftas rwtnd.
md b., gcncml staff tesponahlity lot a matten pertattg the Marme Carp Intelbgata Greet Denlopm+t Rwam.
to the b,teUigmct mtivf!ies of the U.S. Aii Force.
(k, Excrua ptmut-, staff cogtz..x over the
(9) Hasdquonerr. U.S. Man..c &z-p,. The Dbector mm.guntt md .dtmktwtm of M,txc Cwps PMCIP~

of Inteibgutce. Hudquuten. U.S. .Mmc Corps. ta tcw.a~~. mn m Depa&et of the Nwy ctyptologte acnvtttu.
bk f.x the fonmdrttoh cmrdm~tto. md tylagxmet of
pIaIM_ pmgna& Md prdickd pertaig to tteuigece. (IO) Dheror of tteufgena ad Reea4. Depwr.
mutetmtdJigmo. hurmn mteUigece. cgrptolcgy/siqnak me, of Sue. The Director of IteUigencz md Rewrch.
irtteugenec. commtutia -ty. forw@l balm. lotug Deputmvlt of State. develop ad impkmcnts a coordmated
kguage rcqutremen& md intelligc~ career development. pr- for fretg iteibgeD rot the Dcp.rtlmt of state.
He peti- the foowtg functmns. Puticululy tmpwtmt u hu u~pm&bty for prowding the
b,teUigcncc support rcqttiuind by tbc Scmtw of State m hu
(a) Diichugw Mattm Corps respoMtbditleJ I poaon ui pnttapal adriser to the Preudent 00 forerg
cmectt wttb mtrUiacac otttt~.tcd. pktts. nports. ad pobey ad UI a mmber of the Naho,l Seeunty Counl.
rtudla. The Ducctor oi Intelligmes and fleaear& aim prondes staff
asa,tm~ to the pdicy officcra of the Deputment ot State
(6) Pmndca fat the ma+ md dwmttnrtlon ad uttulw Ii- Vltb other rntelligence drgmt~ttmu m
of p&sent lntelligmce to the Commmdnt md hn rtatf at cartyvlg out the dcputmmta nrposbility t tbc tteib.
Headqwten Mume Co+ genee prc+mm of me gwlct.

(c, Dcvelps, 3 cootdbutm With rppropnlte

staff agmcta. plms, pobcies. opentrond concepts, docttme.
te*iquca. and wpmstbiiti uI the tiebis oi itelbeea,
cotltent&gccc. ctyptolwy/agak tteuigece, eauun-
ieat,m,a rcunty. md ekctro~c warfare.

(d) Fomttitca UI motdt.tio wttb apprc-

ptiak staff agmctc+ tweatri~ md dewlopmmt requirements
in dte field, af combat lteuigece. coutennteuigec.
~typt&.gy/agn& mt&gece. communtutionssecuntv. md e AREA AGENCIES. The lntelligenoe ~$cues at tbc
ekchrmc wufam. md mmitora plogrcs on research md umfied commrnd kwl c-t of that which yc a put of
derelopment ptqccts in tespawc to those mquiremcnu. the ututii eomttwtd hctdquuten and certattt ficld ~.XFICS
xhwh opentt diictiy under the commvlder ot the urntied
(e) AnJywes Jotnt Chiefs of Sbiipapen whtch command.
are of G.2 dwtsm cogtrace. md recommends posahos for
appmv.l md UT by mC Commmdmt at meetings ot tbc
,ott Chiefs of stair.

(fj attom the actions of 0dl.x U.S. ltcui-

yvlc~ agetie cowxmmg iteUigec. aad countctmtelb-
gmoc tatten of blatat to the hlumc corps.

(g) lhrutom Mame Corps parttnpadon t tbc

Defense Attache System

(h) Sena a a member of the Yi,ita,y Intclb-

gmu~oBwd (MIBL

(i) Executea military liako wtb foreign mdi.

taty rmccs md thett United States tvptcsetahrcs.

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FWFY 2.1

mnrmt~ond photoyrsphy. adc&okiog asbomc n&r, md mnlormaon w hot photo tq.xt (HOTPHOTOREPI (See
tbennal mfravd (IX) sosoo. the 4u&c.o pmducc~ day sod app. X. form 5 forexunpk format.) La cnherl miormaaon
n&t photography tar exploltatloo by unyry inkrpre,cn D dtascmload by amtlll photographic intcrpnwioo report
of ,bc Marmc amphibvxu force. di*irioo, md wcralt xmg. (IPIW. (See app. X. form 7 or example format,) The IIlC
doa no, perform wppkmcn,aJ crploitahoo of onwry. nor
dou II accomplish the processmg sod dtmbutlon of pbots
gnphy. Suppkmnut kterprctw,o and apectal atud,w am
perfamd by dw remuninr: ooagwy mtevrcten usl+ to
the *too, HAGTF. Soppkmenta, erplottahca u dim,,,.
ated by the supplemental phot# totecpretahon report
(SUPIR). mbw the - format Y the IPIR Since dx objcc-
he of the IIIC U pd. it D collocated wth the unal recoo-
~~LSS,IOLckmentl4uadroo. nomully WFP-3. Tbk prweo
lost tone m wwoiw the onway ior,nterpre,.t,oo. Fwher-
omre. a posme. mpd mems of commuruc.tiom mlg, h
pro,ded htxeen the IllC md mqor omb of the kodttg
(a) fntmqmm.Tr.,n,kmr Tam, d,o,,,,e Dbx. force. The MACTFIkodmg force lnktbgena offkor &dates
noll. Ead, intelmg.tlcn-miw*tor
teamC-b a<1officer sod coomffdates aU imqclcry reconn.waoce ,eqoesk horn
uld LO enlisted mea. MC0 38W.1 sets lath the number of ubordmrte un,k and w,bb&es wkcb rrsulb wdt be arb
ITTs rarwoed per divmmo md their Imqrure/lin~~ grow outted to tbc IIIC for bwprc,ation. Final miamo taddig
d,MctCr,sS1Ics. InknwUon-transk,loo team paoooel are byed opan recommcodatroos subm,,,ed by the m,cUipcncc
,ramed to m,errog,.k detamccs md capered enemy person- offtar, LI ac+ompU&d by the wastao, chwf of ,a% C.3.
ocf. u,d ,o tno&,e enemy docomenlr. They opcrr,e most
c.tfkkndy Y teuns but may be broken mto subklna md (d) Coonrenoulkqeoce T-. Cowte~teUi-
suu.ud ,o umtr ui rquued. usuJlv not below battaboo pncepcnondCan
rxpiat souro(* lo pmnde mformacroo
krrl. The type md scope oi mfommhon that ITT personnel on dw xopc md effcchcncar of the cncmy cowt tot&i-
cao r4wrc Y only bm,kd by Ihe mfocm~hon a&bk sno eifort md the threat to the commlnd from abo@e.
,roln die source* UIcy explat. Prfsonen am a alulbk sottree rsp,onagc, uld subvemioo. By vlrtw of tbar cootsc, wtb
of mforma~on and wery effort should be made to oumkm a mdiinw penoos local pobcc. panmditary. and fnendly
flow for crplothtim
The soppo+M
and logistic suppon
toot must
to the ITT *k.
cwdiaos or agmu.
of obtaomg
mlonoatioo of immedlak
pwumoel arc cap&k
tacchcaI ioteresL
mot rttshed. For a dueusloo of the USCof IWs to ex- CounteMklb~a sllfl pcrsooncl are cootuocd 111w,q.
plo,, captorrd enemy pamoncl. documents. md matcnd. d,u,on, and mos lfACTF oqgmzrhoos. Uanoe Carp,
<tc section 6 countcnntrU,penoc ,cam, arc compmd of 3 officon md 11
vobstcd me,, ri,,>h ran be dr\,ded mto four wbtcuru of I
(b) Imagery lnterprerrron Dnru. lmnqey m- o,,,cer sod 2 cobskd men each. Coun,erm,eLpna teams
,rrpretrhm touts are prorded m tabkr of oramuatmn o, a-e force troop orgamzed and cqtoppcd under tables of
\,xnne diuioions. atrcraft wow+, and Fleet Gine Forcer orpmwooo ad cqupmeo, of the 4i22 ~nek Aa fntelli-
F.id, no,,, of 3 offkers sod 22 e&ted men cormsu of a zc:cn.xspecmbst teams. Uw YC Lwked by tbc a.wtao, ddef

,xrd.,,lrkn ekment (1 of,icer sod 2 enlisted) md loor of staff, G.2 10 aceomplkh rpeufk CoontCMfL~neC
teams (I otficermd 5 eoik,cd). Imagery tntcrpmhrs uquuc ob,ec,,er. Slnee the rhf;ro,mteMelligtnce olftetr u the
,oionn&on by mlrrprrtat~on of image obtamed by cy~~ru. .wts,mt chief of staff. G.25 prinnp.l ad- on mootem+
thrroal iofrared -m, urd side-looldo~ vrbome ndu. tel.Ueena matters. the .swtlll, htef ot staff, C-2 exucfsea
hn d,,ccUoo. con&o1 and suupemsroo of the team tbmwh
(c, Iowoed~e fmogery I,elprewfo cenrer *e rtrfi ewntcMtcUtpce oificcr. CouoteMkUipcna
,,,KJ. The INC. rhen activated by Fowe or MAF berdqwr- wan am aasmwd IO maor Fke, .Man,,e Force comniuds.
km. wU be employed to sopp+R opnllom mndockd by Three team are oommlly .aepned 10 each hlAF sod ooe
Lhc \IACTF. The IlICbcompaed of-hm ofthe rmaucry ,em cd to Hcdquartm. Fleet Marme Fame Pacific ad
,,,wp~t~uoo units orgmw to Fket iW& Force wood Fke, \lanne Fnree .Ad,ohc. Cootrot sod coordbutnm of
ad au un,. The poxpow of the UK ia to conduct rapd cx- co,mtennkUirm.x LCUM at the MAF kr, h oxnh.I to
plottatwo of mmtwy and to diwminrtc cndcal intelbueoet eosure u1 rconomrc.l llenbk. ad coo,d,oatcd rcspmre lo

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c 10 SOOK put oi hu ctothlne If o tips UC awkbk. Ihc c-
under o, Ihe cwor, s wcn a mmorwdum r,aMg:

. Date and hmc o, CI~,R.

. Pka of capture (lap wordblabs 0, r&r-
rnce pa,)
. l,, etfreunpcapluce.
. Clrcums,arlce of capture.
. Documents md sqwnen, cl~tuud n(h

d. TRE,,THENT. The overall treatment &t.ca to cap

Wed c~my penonnei mus, be in accord with hc iheva

Conrenho. Tk following s,ep~ apply:

(1, V~Ial xgmre,w of p-n a, all ,cs

(See par. 60le.I

(3) Prcrc, pnsonen Irom dktard@ OT d&roylng

my ,,,gra or document DO, t&n or orrlookd by ,be


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FMFM 2.1


(2, ln,e&ence ckwii,wn. Documents wll be

eksuicd by d,nsian and b&r headquarren mto four
groups1( fdlo**:

(a, Typr A. Daeumen,(s, co,.aW ml-tron

of immdkk ,actlcaJ0, a,nk*c value.

(c) Type c. Doeummqr) N,N mornutm

of ksservalue10uttcigenccsoifs.
of immdkte tleticd mteres,
which wdl be obtamed qu,rcs ,bc mos, expeditmushand. (d) Tylw D. Document(a) mntauw no mfomu-
bng md dlacmtna,,on ,I it is to k of rduc ,o rhe command- ,, ef appumn,rrlue LOLn,elbgcnec
s.,. Such dlgcmuuuon should in&de mum,um (ge of ora,
nporhng by tckphonc. radio. and pcmonai l&on co~ten, b. \fARKINC OF DOCUMENTS. All documnb wdf
w,, ,he vcun,y of ,hc lnfomtlucm and ,hc c,,hc.b,y of ,he be ma&d a3 fou0%
dma,on. SiiAcan, infomtrtion diimmakd immed,rtely
wdl be in ,he forma, cantied in apqcndix F. Wlxm d&&d (1) Idenqiirmn L&err. Documen,, 4, h ,awd
,,,fo,,,,.sx,, of, specuic tug, is obtuned, other applicabk howmg the n.tlonab,y of the c.p,w.ng forct by the nahonal
f-*,s in appendix F may be uxd. AU such infommhon, fdenh~ klttrs pwsaibed m STANAG 1059. .V&on.d
whe,be, nported by ol or wittcn repOn (mtei~~e Db,b,yusbfnF Lana, /or Ur by All iVAT Armed Forcer
report(INTREP)) in the manner dacnbed above. wdl akn (to be usedby MAGTF operanngwtdun NATO).
be included in one of ,he fdlwmg in,cno@ion rrpor,
fomu (See app. E,) Care must be excrnscd in th,a ktter dii
,emmabon 10 md,ea,c that the information was prrnwsly
repwted and is no, confirmation from another source.

(4) Date/Time o, G,mce. The date uwl hme of

cap,u,eof the document$wdd be gii*cn.

(5) The detaikd bttetm@km repor, wll be wed lo (5) Pkm of CQphlm.
Thepkoe of crpture
q.x, mfommticm obtdned in ttu cou16cof subsequentin- cm,dbla,rs ,agwcn
,c,,c@,on o sckcled infermgeu. The form., for ,bu ,epon
u eontuned ,,I append* E. (6) Sunmaw Grre t wmmuy of CI-,uw
uadcr rbi& the documen,was found.
L CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS me,,,, am ,o be fonwded wt,hou, dsky by the capturing
MI, to ,be m,clligmce officer under whom the unit k up==
(1) Secu,y CLluffimrph Dowmenu (except for ,,I,& Donrmau ,aka from a p-r of w., ucevacuaud
cyptmphic documenb whkh always will be hlndkd aa wi,b Ihe pnroncr.mcustodyafthc guud.ro fha, the PMane,

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FMFM 2.1

es,, be mtenaged 1( to tbc content

of the document. Al- effcet on tbe cum,,, eitoahm arc tmtumttti by the qmck.

c though no ~cuty
apt,,nd docomnta
CJamtfieatton gMen , fonwd
wd, be handled as SECRET mrknat.
area. 0, dtcmattvc
mmed by the wmmlnder
IneuLo avukbk. wtfl the precedenct deter-
submttttng the report.

d. TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENTS The tntttd to- (3) Umt commlndcn wit be mpooabk for pkaog
te,bqe,,~ r~amto~ttoo ot docomcntc wdl tab pkcs at the tbe aptwed enemy eqwpment under gurd to order to pm.
lowest kvel rt whtdt toterrc$at,On-tr.ndato, ~rxooocl are WI, Iwtxo& mc, or desrmetton Lx&t-e the anwd of
attached. Tbk cramtodtoo wdl bc bnef md far ti popa tedlntcd pemoncl.
of obtuomg mform.ttoo of local tacoed inter& only. Nor.
,,,a~, a complete tmoskttoo of a docome,,, WI no, be oude (4) Ill tccbnrcd documenta should be ,a& TECH
a, this k*el uok.. 1, contams cxtmpw mfomwloo rekhog DOC or otbenue ldcntifkd in order to rvotd dcfacmg by
to the local tacttul sttuaoo. The format for a humktlon captunoq UUD or .ppmpnate ycnclcb so tbrt to the notmd
rrpot, u contaoed in appendu E. e~plottatwo of captured docomnls. the commaad CM.
rimed cao pm.ide duplicate copies for tbc go,d,,,oc of tech-
603. ENEMY MATERIEL nted peramoel in tbelr cxammatmo. AU wch coptu fhoold
aczompaoy captored mrtenel.
(I) Haodbog of captored cncmy matend fdb under naw tcchotcd repwt ir submttted by each ontt whtch cap
the s,rff cmaoct of the 1d6utant chrets oi staff. G.1 md tows soy ugnificant ttcm of enemy eqotpncnt. The report u
G-4. a we,, ~1 the -atmt chtef ot rt.tf, G-2. The awstaot .ubmttted Y woo after the xqtittoo of the eqtopmen, w
ehrf of staff. C-l dtsemtortn mks md nprl.tions per. postbk sod w dtreeted to the dmF,wed tcehntcd tot&
,u,,mq to war Irophw the aststaot chtef of staif. G-2 IS once ekownt thmo@ appropn~te chvloek The repurt coo.
rcsponsbk for detenotorry xbrt captund materid wtll be IUtsof tb+ idlown~ ,fomuhon:
-t-d for tecbntcd ~ntcllignce cxplottatton: md the
~snar,, chtrf of staff, C-J provtdea for t~spwt~tmo and . Dllc foood. locrtton
d.ponftoa. when marruy . Type ot eqotpinent md qoaouty.
. Ongm or apparent sooroc of item rf known.
(2) Uotts ,ocab,tg enemy cqotpneot of pobntid . Rnef dcscnpttoo IV,& diitioguuhi marks_
o&liqnce vdoe robmtt t pmlimtoaty tcchmul wpat coo- . Tedtoted cbanctcnaics wiL ao tmmedute vduc
cemto3 I,. These qwxta are dacnbed to parwqdt 603b . Swutttm al the commlndcr of captwbtg ~ntt.
Those cootammg infomatton which could hare M oomedtatc . Time md onvjn of the message.


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Provided by www.marines.cc
of inlom~hon in relation to exh other sod u pvhcolarly puml ently number: the tame the infomubon wu sent.
effccure as m ad to toterpretattoa It forther swvcs u a ral- rcerscd. o, noccd. Lhc date-ttme group of me.ea.se rent or
orblc ad , dwemm~ttoo. smw I, pctm,ts the m.dy transfer ,ea,vcd: ngmanng a,tecy o, sddrewe: a bncf of the atem.
0, ,,ml, on, 0rrdr*s The enemy stNltlil map md diipwtton of ,be miormasoo. The ~omrl entry number
hoold pmwde extcostve cnoogb corengc 1 wm,, the R. acqxd 1 an mcugmesagc sentemd 0 tbc mesa+Y It-
m,dig of lfrm*tt concemrnll I sod ali enemy f0rces s,,. and olesqte .m tided in ,bc ,oum* ,ile I tbe numrnral
hi& are cap&k t tot~eriog ~~tb the &MM of the ant, urdcr of ~0um.l cot&s. The ~umd. m addition to prondmg
ccemed. I, loold mdude for a gwe echelon cnougb of a b,,cf dwoooloacll accoim, of eventa, thus ezrves aa a
the ama to IwUtate not ooly the cooduct of cone, pen- index to the joomd file by whtch tt 11)supported. The wmll
tm# b, the plaonrog of proJected 0, antlapated penboos. coven a st.,ed pen& omuUy 21 hours_
hp, ur.wood task forma wU oomuUy mqotre three
rmmy ~t,,,oo o,,ps of d,fferet serlw: e. JOllRNAL FILE The ,omll fik coaststs of incom-
mg sod outsow messngu of a mtcUigece a,~ fded UI
(., 4 large scale ,act,cJ m.p (approxlm.tely the mncal order of atpncd ,umll cotne~ I, wpporta
, s,$O) rh,ch coven the cotwe forec bcachhed plus ad- the rntetbgmce wmal sod, Lowtber wth the loomal. wo-
,aee, ,ermn to a depth of 15 , 20 mkr Thu stuat~ ndcs a compktc *cad oi wenta prment to tbc tntslligcna
m,p ,s wed m the conduct of ground pentmm. xcooo. Ibc wornal &. along wtb tbc t*lUgncz loom&
pmnder soorc mates, lo, the p,epuat,on of penod,c mtel.
bgcna rrpor8. mtelligenec summanes. and other to,eUtgena


workbook pcrmm UK unogemcnt of buomrng toformat
by wb,eet for mady refeercna md compmsm, md tbu
facdttrlu funher proocaring md disrmmatioa It 1s not
(c) A small suk map or ~erttlcal char, agaowd m my pnsenbed fort,,. but should be dinded to
(approxooately 1:1.004000) which cowa the c,~R am- fit ,he needs of the ser. For a dercnptloo sod s(gested or-
pbtbioua objective arex (AOA) sod beyond , distaoas of gaoiutl of the intelligcoa workbook, we appndtx G.
&out 4.50 natutcal mdca from the center of the AOA. Thvl
m~at,oo nup b aed to mcord those dap coemy wtalla- g. DATA PROCFSSMC
nom. such uurftelds sod mlsaL sttes, that un affectfmndiy
p.slhM (I) Wiul the mceptloo of ,actical data prmssmg
titppwt. UK retrwd of intclbgeoec matcntl wgnatlv iacdi-
. (2) Thecnemv
should show tnforma- wxi. 4board the LHA and LCC md wttbin tbc lhtcc a,~-
,,n eocem,g alI hostde ootts. regxdkar f&x. wh,ch am mated robsyams of the Marme ~u.Ground InteUi~enn
capable of stgo~ficao, ,o,erterece wtth the totstoo of tbc System (WAGIS). ,hc toteliigcnce ffiar haa access to the
Mtt eonamed Accordto&. whtk the enemy ~toauoo map Naval lntelliimce Proasalna System (NIPS) data. Data baw
of, dwim, would not ordourdy show ho&de tofvltry umta files UC dindcd in, the followtog Rvv funchosJ groups:
s,,,JL, than battaboo8, tt rhoold show know or suapcted
,clhN of ewn an& artillery pteces crpabk of
c!+u pro~ectdes I, the dincams pentiog ares. Informa-
oo u posted o the emmy etoahoa map ., it ~1 rearwed
atd removed prompt& rbeo no loqer cumnt, now rots
11u1s or tdatcd infommbm may result in ermoew eralo-
,,,to,, sod t,erpre,~hm Seplnte flrpr of a.z,ate CYI be
,oed to record differrot type8 of ioteU&ooc. redo&g over-

d. INTELLIGENCE JOURNAL Th. to,clligea ,r.

al is a rccnrd in which briefs of mesaw sod events prh.
mot to the tteUigea ~chon am entered in duooologxcd
uda. For ah ttem entaxed. the journal nommlly cootaim a

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b INTEGRATION. Order of battic II ao mtewl pti of

combat and s,nW,c mtelligeoa. Order of ba,,k ,ogethhcr
wtg other ,nleUigenoc prmmmg to the enemy. k,wo. and
weather nwa, be colludered when de,ennn,,,g eoemy e,p,.
group IS used ,a prondc a d,ql,al s&cl mdex lo ,be burc kb,wes pnd probable E- ol acw.,,. Order of b,,,k per.
rekmnce pubbca,toos m rather h.rd copy or mmma,unzed soonel are lespmslbk lo alI ioiomution cooccrwlg forc,go
(or,,, Ako mciudcd I,, dw mdcx may hc re,cnlces ,o publr- md,tuy forces. A major probkm II rbe diffictdly so locaung
ca,,o,u obuvld locally. and ,dmufylng dw enemy and ,he mstdtso, kck o, uuful
mfomuixm. Thk probkm k campounded by dte tendency
(e, Other. The ,iks coo,amed in ,hu group of some mib,uy md paramdttuy forecs to make lnrqoen,
cbvlger to UN, idenhfiahon md louaon. While m,eti,yence
Y dewloped to many rielda outudc the xop ol OOR. alI
mteU&na u tdflmaely rektcd to I,. For exampk. dw erll-
oahoo. malws. md ioterpm,ahon of forago sccmafic md
tedlntul iniomuaon producea urlelbgencc on ,he CapablLi.
(2) The pmw-, purpow o, d,e NIPS/MACIS da,a ,,a and chuac,enrtlu of a weapon. but OR iofomvtion
base IJ to suppon *he in1elbgena &ncnon ud openeon determmes Uu effee, of ,he wcg,oor c,p&h,,e, .,,d char.
,daoomq ad protde compkk and accwrk lntelhgcncc on uetcnstia on enemy tacncq crmba, cfbchveo~. and orgao.
xh,& Ihc coommodcir dcnsmna EUI be made. The accom a.8on Enemy m+tary ktclli~0c orglmu,Iom am of
pbshmen, 01 ,h,s reqmra ,he cxplmtlaan of d source da,a pnmary mterer, to couo,eno,eignce. but as par, of, m,,.
1, each echelon UI dcploymnL Each .&loo u rcsponr,Mc stay or?,ao,zavXl they ue ako or m,ercd, lo OOB. bcuox
,or 1,sown locdly gcoen,ed fdcs sod Tie records The outid they concern enemy CompcaBcal. s,mng,h. an* pnoNb,wa
,aencJ dru hse wdl be wwnted by the lnblbpencc An+-
lU G&r (IAC) qmnsn, oi MACES from Lhe hemlsphenc e COMPOSITION. Compauhw ,s the ,den,,~,u,,on
data brae pmided by Ihc Fkc, IntcLgena Gn,er(FlC). md orgvlurhon of uo,,s. I, apple. ,o speafic ,o,,,s o, coo,.
m&s. as opposed to ,y,s umtl tint, tdentlficaxm u often
(3) Of ,hc ,hree automated sobs,Wcms ol MAGIS. c&d the key lo order of bo,tk mtelligence. betause I, leads
me TacncJ Ekcuoaruc Rccoonamance Processm~and Evllu. 10 the YUwen ,o maoy quelhoos cooamln~ the enemy.
aon (TERPE) wbsystem for proceranq rkclmmc support Unit idcnofation conaatl of the complete destgtmhoo of a
mew,ts m,ommbon from the BA-6A ad EA.68~s Lided speafic om,. It ldcnhfiu the oar,. vldtcatu what ,ypc on,,
c lo 1979. die Imaeery Intcrprelabon (II) a&yoen, 4, be I, ts. and @esIU rckhe sw.eor shcngth. Through ,dmRc.-
helded dunng 1980. md an rogm.xnn~ declopmen, m&l boo. the OOE vlaiyst u abk 10 de+ a bastep,c,ure of the
or prototvpe of Lhe LnteUipnee An&sk Cen,er will be de. memy. Combned wul orgawaaon. ,hc tdentlfiutmo of a
brered ,o Fket &rme Force \,ko,,c for pnproduc,,on ~pcafic uo,, akkrts the mllys, ,o the possbk prcsroet of
UY dunng 1980. odwr wudentllicd UND oi the - organnlzatlon


a_ CESERA\L Order o, battle nsdeloed as Lhe,den,t,i.

ca,mo. rwcneth. commaod auc,ore. sod dlapowon o, the
prsooncl. emu md eqlupmen, ol my mdi,q low. I, coo.
51~~)oi edu&d tofonnahon rqudmdmg the fdlowmg ck.

. compostron.
. Dbpmrll0.
. S,ren@h
. TraImnl,. e. DISPOSITION. Dtsposboo ,,, OOB ,em,mdw co+
. Tacucs. we of the locauon of enemy urn,,, md ,he maoner ,o which
. l.opu,Ks theac om0 arc ,.ctlcay or admunsha,,cly deployed In
. Combat cllec,rcncss. .dd,hoo. dwasanon melodes the rrcen,. ~,,,,a,,, and pro.
. uuallmeaus data. puaed or probable mocmxne of enemy ,,,,a. Locaiw,,

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Provided by www.marines.cc
FMFM 2.1

stmtqtc totdligenee. Civiliao orgruaattom under eootmct to

the Dcputment of Dciew m&s spell sbtdrsron wtoa
sublectacoooemmgfore@ sodenemy mditq forces.

n. OOE RECORDS AND FILES. 006 rwx-d. md file*

L ORDER OF BATTLE PERSONNEL 008 person- an coosokd cMdiy for the putproseof prodoctngnew
ocl a6511the mtelligeence
ott%xr m conbnuowly plrnnmgtbe m,rUtgena. Fdca are cstab&kd for cotalcwg tneomulg
&ct,n cffor~ As mteUigcnceia developed.the need for iofomwion for CMy reference Md for oae as . baaa for
new ,nfonn~t,n anszs.md every effort i m.de to mantam eompwon md coobsat m Lbeproduehm of new ,oteUi.
I ~oobnuooaw of OOB yfomutim by hmcly requestato gence. Becauseof thii. OOB f&s must be ampk. yet corn-
Ihe colkotton agenctes. pkte. One or mom or me typul a& dii bdor may
be wed: the type us, dependsupon the cxuting sitoat,
m PROCESSING OOB INFORMATION.Tk mt&gce md the echelonm.mtammg the fiis.
a,,d mformanon mcetvedmd procccsacd by ao OOB xca
normally bccomu volummoo* II) a short pnod of hmc. I (L) U,,,, Workbook. The fnn.1 of the UN, work.
orgawmg thu mtrmatln. 008 peixmnel maintamexterr book dependsentirely upon tbe stntetttreal the foretgofores
sve and ,y,tcmahc eooxpdationsand fdbw wtenu. Spatic kmr momtorcd. Tk omt wotkbook ~onsub of a coikchon
items of mtrlbgence and mlommhoo most h lo~sted on of on,, workrheeb, arrangedby type of uo,, o, YI mtmenc.l
lo,, nowe sod mcorp+ed toto comprcbenn.creport, I uquencr. Analvsu. wtb 006 boob .t tbehcr dupoul. ma
mllvszs. Therc nqtotcmena e~~sttate a hqb degree i we them as nit wotkbooks by INetting additiood pager
ehiaeng m the rquurab and proaleing of datawaved. a CW m~otzn~honIS renved. CennUy. the parent mtt
Typical 008 docwnentapubbahedan. htd ontheunttworksheet
IIof diridon mzeI larger. Untt.
patal, md vehick numkrs arc noted on tk workdwt and
(1) OOB H.nd&ok. 008 had- often known are wed in dctcmtming 008 &o~ or .s coot-ma&a of
p. Haodlw,k of Mdihtv Force.%cootambackgmonddata cum, data, DC,& whtcb mav revealany facet o( the omts
,odd,,,q dscnphonr ol a iormlpl nattoospobhul ~ttoctum. 008 are noted m the tomarkscabtnm. Itemasuchas reports
,yp,cal org.lutmo of the mdltvy estab!Jshmmt.lrct~cll of bra& msqmr number sod type of weapon&and state-
doctrine appkclhk to various tvps 01 mditatv omts. mod ment, t local restdentsato entered in tbia cobmm to abke-
the, mote todmtcd data. such u the logmtta ryrtcm used natcd form. The data sod the soot of infotmrhoo are
and d,e cb,taetenrhra of weaponsad cqupmnt. entered lor cad, ltry. Tk ulst&tioo edumo of the work-
sheet Bows the numencll desgnattoo amgood a puhculat
(2) OOB Books. 006 books are csmpltiona i cncmy matallabon when plotted on I &etch mnp duet. I
cum, mtelliina which showsthe compaattansoddlspo- town plao attached to the wodsheet
stttool the md,tarv rrtablishmnt t forago anom. Tkx
m normallv publiied by headquartersof highercommands (1) OOB RorkkoooL The workbook udr m s~hne
or at the deputmcntd levd. and contain ntabkhed intdlb rvalurtron.
and ~nterpretahon of informabo and I the
gnet data on ma,, tdenhficd wuu and Uw,r rvbordii~te preparat, of ,ntrU,eeoc repotu. IL1 purposemd we we
ckmnts. They omv al- conam pemooabtydata, bsts t ~drntleal to those t the G.2 vorkdxet. Then 1s no pn-
,ogtsuc.mstalbaboraumt hlstorv data. md other OOB da. snbed fomt lor the 006 workbook At dition and higher.
Chaoqcsor updated~1610~1arc nor& dusemaued on a the OOB workbook u tabkd to c&arm wul puagmphs1
regolu bat, by the publuhmghrrdquutcra. the pcnod,emtelligeoccwport (PERINTREPL

(3) fnrrolhrt Honobwh. There bcda emtam (3) OOB Sttootkm .lfp. This ts . graphtcportrayal
camplea mfomI*ii cecrlo~ erel? mditan ls,&h i corm, enemy OOR c,ther coof-d or uneontirmcd.
in every city I the counttv or amaof interra Tky am us- It shows idcnttfie~tt sod dupostioo of cnemv umts and
fol. parttctdatiy dorms wacemne. for crtabbchb~g dapaa- znv other mbrmat~on whtch w,U astst it, derelopag the
boo of foms. enemy OOB. Eoemy umb down to and mdudinq two echc-
loos klow the mllysts own kwl 01 mmmaod Ike p4otted
(4) llircfboeov. Document.. Other pobkeat~om by lump the appropriate symbolsmntaioed in FM 21.30.
md pnodmals pnpu-cd at departmentaland areammm,od .Jlifiby Symblt For exunpk. at dttioo. coemvrqmxn~i
kveb ue of value to 006 petsod. Thrse may LJ apeof. and battaboosam plotted; at the UAGTF kvcl. en~mv dwi-
,caUv wtb OOU or x,tb my ad all phaseaol combatand sons and h,,#wr umts me plotted to the er,ent pnetmbk.

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Pecolkntia of eemy orwiz.auon. the tactical stluInm,

nd bme and pnonnei availat4edeamune more preckely
WI,,, wti k pioned ad vbot wdl bc out,cd oo order of
b&c x.pr The time uld dole of ,bo iofonnatm ze e.
,emd below uch wnbol or plotung. A capho box o tie
OOB dtutio map *a umototio eo,auug Lform.tlml
wih help lo oxpkl the 005 dtua~wl. Al,bw&b ay
umtw of caption boxesI*), be used. omlauy three ,ypes
arc casury4rc&. udoukd umto. ad kgcnd capban

(4) 008 Card (STANAC 2078)

1 . Tide(number
anddcslgnatio of wt/
2 . Code a (official w -wed by
the rncmy for cocnlea L
3 . Niduume (unoftinJ populu nome).
4 . Pamlt lout formow.
3 sobom.i~k f0rmluc.d,la
6 . Fk,d pat umber.
7 . L~,.(pcnoncl ad eqluprr,).
a . C-alder.
9 Unit history.
LO . \Ibreuancous.
11 Louuon.
12 - T&c of pcrso~el od mayor ,,ems ot
eqmpmc, (to lncludc uuhd u,d effce- 704. EVALUATION
we rue@bs md czwuluer). (See
STANAG 2076.)
,3 . Canbat efficrncy.


SUBSEQUENT THERETO. As each ,tem of information w
received.,, is cruau\nl unmdu& Lodetcrmlne whether I,
IS of oo mtel&ea notore. ,,a ur~eacy. ad by who, I, 16
(5) Pesodly Ftk. Personality data on doianated weded. Ifom,a,io who& k no, pmne, is at processed
*,cpa of bI&idula ?I+ recorded I a pemoab,y fie. further. Uwegntmfomutrw LSdwermna,cd immedirkly ,o
The pu,,,~c of ,hk fde is to providerekrence moknal wd thok apnea rho need it: I, may then be fur&r praessrd
, mc d,w&me, of other o&r of bat* ,te&ew. In- nd ,bc mndta tbemof duxrmnaed o a followup baas. I.
foaQI o key mditw fgwes Cal twoof wwiMt vabn fonnrcioa which u not of a uw, arm u woo&y folk
, ,be cablkhw, of uu, Idenhficatimr uctlco. ad c- cr&sted and interpr&d. The resultmg inlcilisnce. nlher
ba, cff~cbvcua thra tk bu,kl rnformahonrtif. k dwmmnaed.

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(1, The rvaJua,,on 0, r** lkrn 0, informalon Is

dctermmed bv unw a standud svs,cm: a k,,cr UI urd 10
show ,be evduaton of reb.bdi,v md a numeral u uad ,o
show the crtlurtlo of accumcy. Thii sys,em ,I m accordance
wth STAN4G 2022. (See app. Il.)

(2) Eal.tion ( the rcliahbty ol the Iurcc Is

*own ad iouors.


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md hypothesesbasedm wb.1 he would do tf he were the

cncmy cmmnurdcr.
Aitcr they am formulated. alI hypolhcsa UC alyz.4 .d
tested. Arulys. 01 M hypotherv lndudu de,emmmg the
mdications which hwld cxm, ii the bypotheas u a rabd
oe. Totong ldudu fyulg the eu*tence or nonexist-
ecc Of the= mdrcrbon. w,thii me Iiu,atios of a*&bk
tomdmn known to k true. ~ppam to k rmpddc Tk
evaludmn would Los k A-S. Conversclv.M erduaho of d. MENTAL OR DETAILED PROCESS. b,tesr.ho
E.l would k give UI a CLV where, a sourceof know un- may k a lental pmaed crmpletcd , * few mom,& or,,
rdt&&y reported u1 ttrm wkch. lroogh eontirmatlon by may h a k&y P- mvolviogtk colkcbon of a law
odw ~wrtcs_ was01 prove aeeomq. A report dirarmnalcd volumeof addthmal mfomuhon.
,o h&r. Iowcr. md adIs=, o,D ulllw the cvduroo
for each,,em oi u1tommtm. 707. INTERPRETATION

705. ANALYSIS L NATURE AND PURPOSE. This I+st step m the pr.a
ecswg o, infomubon is to detcmtu,e tk rrgm,icaoct a,d
1 ISOLATION OF SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS. &ml- mcaorngof tk mionoaaon uld its effect oo the em, YI.
ysu u tk aftinC ad wrung oievduated infomuho to YD ,eBigcna ell,mute.
late ngn%at elementsmtb respectto tk misstoomd aper-
~UOM of the cammmd. Analyaia rcguwxgmd judmmnt ad b. DETERWNATION OF SIGNIFICANCE. I order
s thorwgb Lnorkdqc of the pnnc,pla of mltuy opent,os to detcmuw riu mg~ficvleeof otiotxahm. each ,tem u
a4 ,he emmy nhr.,ionr to lndude enemy docmne md pas, carefully amdticd10 deteminc tbc fdlonng.
(1) Tk muomg oi the iniormihcm
UI r&ho to
b. RELATION TO MISSION. Adysu at a headqlur- current enemy upabd,tier ad i relsho LO the poMbIe
tern&ove dwmm k.el often mrolvcsdc,akd march wtb eiicct WI tk -on u,d opentlom of the coxmmd.
greaterdif,icuRy erosedby tk tncmasd vdume oi iniomu- t
tton. Tk maw mdividu.l. rho wdl k tvdved m prform- (2, WkUlcr. ad 10 what exte,. the lnfomuno
o,g snaIy,es most relate tk,r effwtr to the m,ss,o of the altersor addsapruticlndy to prev,ous,,ehacnee.
commandin order to ~0x4 the eedkaserpd,to~ oi ,,me
and eoclgy. (3) Wkuler, md to what extent, it lends to co.
tirm or to mto,e c.ustig estonatesoi tk enemy stnuum.
a. CO\IBINING ELEMENTS Iotcenoo tnvolver the MATE Correct m,erpretaso luds to accwllc eondw,mw
cornknow of ekmnts wolated in nnalyslaxtth olher know cunccmlnq rc enemys cap&ilitks. Tk mtccpwaho
miomuboo to form a logxd p,cturc of hypotksu, &enemy plied upon c.ch new am of o,iom,ha osodly affectsUI
~ctxvitleor tk influence of the chuvlenstlcs of the areaof - way the cone, ltelIigece eahmate. Cochsto4
opent,a~~ on the mtion of the cwnmnd. prrnouly dnw. ~uacuhrly ther made pnor ,o Lutiatio

ot the Iadmg acad& may k aI,ercd, cmfmed or dll

b. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESES, Intcgwo caded. Horcw. new mcmy up,bditia m.y k waled
or. puhcululv. tk dewlopmcn, oi hypotbeacr.requrrrathe ad cer,a pwou~y cstmutcd enemy cap.bllities rmy k
sa,e gwd ,odpmn, md thorough backgroondknoxkdgc elunin,,ed firm further cos&naa, aa ,k rdawe pmbs
rss,,d M makmg I good malyw. I fomda,mg hypothe. t,bty of adopno of the hosale co- of act+, kcamea
ws, the mtelligna oifker mustavoid pmconcctvedopnwu lore clear.

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c. PERTINENCE. Doe e,u&o ie cxercieed b, order to form of conferecee, bnefmmg. ud Ikeon *isits; or by tee.
C~WR the, alI intelUigee II dirunnafed ,o eU age- eee of b~,dligenee doeummtl eueh e lntclbgenec yu)cxce.
vht.9, hew e wed for ,L In Ihi, -crion, btoed dieeemm, iotelfignoc ~~mnea, md penodk ln,dbgeec ewnmariee.
no wbfcb resulti m Ule oeermmd dkembution of inkfli. See FMFM 1U.f. fZmewmcorion. fw lntcUigece eommuu-
genee to P uu, to wideh it u no, pertinent te pmfenbk lo eetlo et evedebk ,o blwigence aaffe.
duecmmabon which is so selective tba, utde mey fail ,o
recewc aredrbk i,dligeee wbieb ,bey need. thweer. & h SELECTION OF MEANS. Tk mast sw,abio meam
umbutro should no, rewft UI uoi,a f,equeUy reeewmg 10 k used for dimmdtutim dependa ptuxip.Uy upon the
imlevmt intelligence whieb thy &mot we 01 rolumlnou aore ad rgeoey of me blaliina cod the lew aveIl-
mfomuho wbicb bee up lhcir c-luuticm cbuuula on- ebk. Wkn the wide dkemieho of e complre8veiy large
eceeeenly ud which flwy emno, hndk. Tti ie espsuffy ullam, of b~,dUgenet ie requbed. I, ie oeudly dusmuulcd
rebd in the ease of dkemnetion LO tmib of th+ regmc,/ by the luueoee of wwopdetc inWigea documenu As
group level aod klow, whoee c.pebiUuee for pncee&g ~1. erempk during tht pinmmg pbaee of eo empbibiou opec
formeon are relatively lbnrted. Gmcrdly. dkemmehon eboh vnne tntelligcnce eebmeto ad lnteUigece uulcxee
doxnwerd should k eeketive. bued upon tk pe,,i,,enoc of 10 openho pku are ueed foe ,bh purpoee. ln*cUigece
,k m,eUigea to Ute unl, conanacd. Conversely. virtually ImmMee acd pcnodie wdUgecc repone m eieo uecd
1 in,eUt~cc sbould k dkembutcd upwud. Coeidcnhon vmdady dunng dte wren, pbwe. Ekcmcd commu,anon
mw, k pven to the fee, *a, ,k peraence of m,&gece maw am efkttve foe ,be diesermnadon ofin,elUgence tee.
,o a parneuhr unt, mey k altered by e cbmge m the iha. cages However, arch durmme,io mey k arbja, lo delay
t,on. 4 ,,em of m,eUigeae whxb P no, needed by a un,, I, doe ,o requuem,e for ueNuemo of outer lesage* of
a gvc ,m,e may k pertim, ,o I, Ltcr. Pertrncnt mtclli- bigbe, pnon,y ad for ,k cncrypiq of clee.&ed mesagee.
gcm 16 dissemmrled to edwe, tits on the same beeie. Tk impoeaion of radio &a durmg ,be movemc, ,o dx
w,,bou, qomg throqb the hem of commuld. objective pheee mey requue lhr, memgee k debvend by
nsuel mate. by ardrop. or by hcbeopter -get kh*een
d SECLRJTY. Tk enemys ~wereeee Gut fnendly shrp of ,k amphibmtu rack force Gnpbar maenab. sod, a
foro.5 kr. eel-,* 1lelUgea coamblg hu ei,*lo mey sketcha. ovedeyr. ad kab swey mpoa. ceo k dime
cause him either 10 akr hi eetiow 10 the, Lc mtclbgcacnecYI ad by mew of faeemde equ,pmet Avadebd,~, of data
0 ioger alhi. or to s,rrng,ben his couotenn,cUigea cf. proceeemg equ~pmen, nil pemu, nprd d,eeemmetio of
for,. sod ,bereby render mom dtffiud, ,be subsequent eolko urge, i,emr Tk mteUigea offiar muntlins dcoe beuon
ho of mfonnrtio by friendly +scur Accordiigiy. d,e- WI,!, ,he coommtution of,ieer m order to keep hooeelf I.
rmmahon should k rccompkbed. in cub we. by a meaoe iotmed. I, aLl times. Of the eredebdlh, of commNc.ho E
rh,eb prondee adequate treoeu%ioo wunty. Clasrfied mew. Fmquent intehgna lieuno nei,a between unue. ad
mew to k ,nnsnittcd by a meats which is wecepuble parhcoluly from hiQer to lower UIID. should k empha-
,o enemy mkreepfloo dmofd ordbwdy k encrypted. How. rued. parhcukiv after ,k ktdmg fora 1s engaged I opcr-
rwr. ,I hme das no, pcrm,, cncrypmag due lo the urgency Lholu *ore. A kdiog force lntclbgena net u eesen,nl for
o, the m,ormao md cucoms,eo~ ace such the, the dlssem,o,,,oo 01 mrcllinee ,brou,$xou, the Ia,,ding tome.
rCmY came, mlercep, le mfomlttio m ,lme lo ee, upon Ifowcrer. rxpenence bee shown ,ha, the vo,a rd,o et IS
I,. I, may k more expedient to send du meeeege. if elPrPuied tnherrnllv ,i~-coamwg. Tk mleUigea officer sbouid
lower ,hara TOP SECRET, m the clear. Such ,,anemu~o oi k ller, ,o iehfy ud use u~y meeoe oi ~o~~ttmeauoo
&es&d lnfomnho I the cku obviously should k co. wbkb could resd, u1 (he npd tmmicr of informebon such
fbted 10 urge, ttctlul meeager of local end ,r~nr,cn, etg- UI faeemnk sod other meem oi digi,el eo~num~LI~~e.
n,Reace. Truurnurno of meeeegn I die cleu i, no, tek,yp. hckopfer. etc. Additioodly, Ulen may k e need
msorled to I the case of ciae&ied informauon whieh would 10 rxpditiwdy pace camk, mfomution from the colkclor
Ix 08 veiue lo the enemy L o,ber - or durmg aukeque, to ,he YYI. bvpsmg.xmel &em of commrnd ebmnels.
.,pen,ws agame, out foras.


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wll nomdly h pmcnbed by the umt SOP fw mkfbgenoc

t* tke0pelatcm
or the ttdffa.x ulltcx order.
IIY* mum
of diwminatmg detakd inform&m atd mtelligcnce. It
cown the enemy aht.aon ud enemy Openholn, cap&if.
ttie, uld vulncrabifitics;chuacrnraca of the YC. of opera.
,,oN: nd countennteigena. Oher mteigcna documenu
ad weaber atd cbm.te sammaneamy be durcm,n.ted as
appcndurcsto the PERfNTSUM. Tbc PERINTSUM u coax.
as. but complete. ami ma!a manmum w of &etdtes,
owkyr. vlnotated maps, md MNI~,. A ma,,gc fomu,
for the PERMTSW wbtcb hu bee struetumdto fadlfkte
updatIng ai the rtelbgm~ erum*te. In contued ill appe.
d,x K. Dunng tbc asad, phve 1, PI ormaffy pmpvcd md
iuucd da& by di-o. wg, MAR. axd MAF. In smdkr
urk, appmpn.te mtdbgcna lnduded in tbc WI,, nport
8 lieu of uyILg P separate penod,c itcuigce summny.
Dist,,buho of pewdic mtelligencesutnm~s rhould extend
to aquadronrand b.ttabons yi. muttmumMd may extend to
cornpaver The CLF presudes the func to be cowed by
pcnodx mtellyencc SUM~ULO of hw abvrdmatea. Uaullly
dw penod 1800 to lRO0 k esmblkhed m order th,, cum,
detukd intdbgecneewdl be rvadable to alI comma&n UI
hmc to facdttatepluming for the lcdkwmg d.ya ~nwa.


The DISUM UI prrpad UI me- iorm at the mutt fom
component eommrnd hc+,uten ard Pmwdes hi+,.
Irard. a,,d sub.xdu,atchcadqwters wth a summq of alI
rlyttielnt mt&qencc produced dutmg the prcceeding
24.&w pcncd. The at of tune for mfomwtton wntent
md submmswume for tbc rcpcst 1.4 be lespeniied by the
JDW force commattder.The iomut of the DISUM !a cw-
tuned YI sppsndu >I.


SW). The PERLVTSUM b a rummav of the mtclbxea
s,ttt,~mt covc~g a longer parod thin rhc INTSWI whxb

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(3) Anphibfow Obj&.eSldy (AOS)

. L.md.
. Lnduy budma md &iii placer
. Rlkopterkndq wnu.
. occanqapby.

. Popuktion ante Md ports.

. Mttitaqfwcu

(b) Additim&y. erch AOS MLUN lekctcd

map. dust% and photoawhs of the .reu Y wadabLeand
mwred. The rtudka UC preparedb, , form wbtch k repro
duabk by the openhag f- Studwa sbndar m PUT-
uld mope to tbe AOS M preparedocaaon& by tbc opw.
athw fore-a. nmnulfv at the Fket M,n,,e Fom,amobiJxo,u I


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FMFM 2.1



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FtdFM Z-l




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FMFM 3.1

b. Add~hondly. most of tbe mtellige~ce.stim.ki p,t.
gra+ 4, Atufyaa of Emmy Gpabditks. fin& ttsetf ink-
gratedmto p.mgqb 3 of tbc c-mderr cst,matc.Awl.
y~ls of Oppo.mg Cwnes of Acha The atbcr m,d,,~cncz
utlmate Paragraph1 UC Impartant to the commmlder btcwse
they asman hi th.1 a mu,,d ordetly th,,,kb,g p+,ee~ wu
employedby hu ~kllrgmee oiti~r.


L HEADING. The hradw and ending am b,,portln,

pata of a wntkn ahmate. They kll when and when the
cs@mak was prcpard. tta duaiiuiwn. md ita author. The
krdmq vldudes the name of the dicepnpa,,ng mt rrt,.
ma& the headquartersm wluth the csbm.k u p,ep,red. fhe
am of the plro or FFO number xkrr the he,dq,wkn u
located aad a date-tvncBOUP wtb the name of tbe month
apelIed compkkly. The how m&t not bc mduded in tbii
dae.Umc group tf the tcrmb,.hm of the eaima,,g p-e
cannot k detenined preasdy ot Y coraidcrcdtmm,po,tu,r
Howercr. the dak w always impakat becausett mdiuta to
tba teaderthe dry the camutmg pacrr cased.

b. TITLE. The &sJing~ fdloxed by the htk.fNTEL

LICENCE ESTI.CIATE. A,, oi the map new ior a,,
undcrstmdmgof the dhutwn daenbed in tbe eromak are
listed. Enough mfonn.oan about cad, m,p should be nn-
duded to pmpdv tdenoiy tt. lnduding the scak of each
map. Tbc numbx and dca~twas of prtment inugety,
rpcarl char% etc.. usedin UK esbm.nngp- and e&d
for a compkk undenkndmg oi tk c&mate are abo I.

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FMFM 2.1

are omitted or, if lked, are foUowed by I &art negtive

rtatcmcnt lucb u, Hydraglphy. No effect on enemy apa.
bilik, QI the fdmdly mtssic.,. Nomully. however. sbue tk
dkeuatica funetio of the c&m,te ia of relatively Ic*
importma. oly thae lhaackrisne, which will 1ffect
aemy c.plbiLtks or tk bicndly midoa are listed ad
d&a&. Tk detmnlution of wkt dumcterlhca to in-
clude in the &mute wdl de@ &I a wktkr the putw
* rhvrstchtic h prtk+~t or wktkr it exists ua tk *a
d. THE AREA OF OPERATIONS (PARAGRAPH 2). of opentimr If my ckmcbrislic t ot appliabk or does
The mteSigeoc of&r (G-2) stata conditions whch exist not exist in tk ituatim it houtd k omitted, or if kte4
-d indicrtes the effect of tkr csmditiom on enemy up,. tt rhodd k followed by I sbti statement, rush as, Not
b&ties uld the a.+& elm. Tk enemy situation is dis .ppliut&. For cxar& tkre is no mqutreme, for m.
cuard tmder three mm ubherdmgc-Cbuutetutia of the dudbtg a diaa&a of tidy if tk ara of operakwu
Arc. of Opnhof. Emty .Miitaq Situtia. utd hu no blhabitath If the minion L to rmintain opca r*
Emmy Unconventtond ad Paychdogicd Warfare Sthu- mutu ktween two lad ucu. tk gsoud forces are not
ho.. The G-2 couden the Mmmt of inf0ml.h .ulLIMe likely to &et ss Lma 0 the otkr hmd, maology nuy
to hi u,d whether the factor u&r tonndentton ,s mapor. k a dtmctenrtic of *ital importrace facig UI .mpbibiou
tvl, enough to the ccamuder to mqutrc dctatkd treament. lm~Tkd&aoutotbcswpeadkgthofdisntsPon
Tk d- of det.il bduded h the ultettigena eattmue wdl to k devoted to ay puttadu dmt.ctedshc wdl depnd
depend on tk operatug situhon in which tt u wnttcn. prim& upoa the dcgre to wbid~ that phmctenttw D
When I staff hu ken workLy together fa . coruidenble expected to affect eely c4ubilitiu or the frkdIy lmem
lagtb of hme. m u1 opntig aatuatloh its members nor- a4 to a ksxrextent. upar the pupae of Useestmute. For
mally will know quite a bit about fk currct coly mtu* butmce. dtmak lad watkr dwsys affect enemy cap&Ii.
80 u a rcdt of sllff mcetmgs. confemnma. datty uluth. ttesmdtbefrknilymiatmr However, wbik thclr .ffect I
gence bnetigs, weekly mtetligae sxumrn.ca. uld other ~vctiercgmwinruoptcllrwrmykofcntiul~.
,,,tdbgecc dLretuutlo denas uacd YI tk hedqurten portma. their effect in a mom tempuate UTI rmy k much
When tbtt atwhoeruts.
oft&r need not la, tmportmt. halo. a atmute t preparation for opn.
m&de oxtamve deti m hu rWligcna esttmate to bnng &a La. tempnte ?.oe. Each dgruf~lt dlulctcdshc of
the staff up to date. 0 tk other hand, when the staff is tk aret of opcntiotu. as it ir crpected to chit during the
,,ew,y o,gmu.ed. has may new memhrs ad a new co,. eoaduct of tk operaticas mqured by tk us&m. &add k
wader. or wk tk atu.ho~ hul undergorae a great cbmge. daaibed. 1duded should k tk effece of each chamctu-
it wdl k eceaarf to mdudc man detad. This paragraph isttc 0 po&le enemy opchons ud 0 tk -0 Of tbc
&,,dd indude all or most of the data used lrter sn tk u&y- friendly nvnmmd If appmptite. L disuseam of the effete
SUI ofcncmy upabilther A full list of prtmmt facta mwt k of tksc ckmctcrkio (e.g. mounkalM term) pal the
ma& in order that a sdutton to the pmbkm may k de& clnploymcnt of nudeu and chermul weaporu will k I-
aped Suffinent data must k pivented to md~cau dl gen- duded. Tk discus&on of tk effects of eHh churcteiishc
rrd eapabiliha of tk ecmy to affect our usto. liowrver. of the mz. on pdbk cncmy opentiw nomdy indudes
tf it u obnous when listmg facts m ti paragraph tkt tkse candm.tt of the effects 0 the emmy, abdtty to attack.
sa,e facts must k repeated in detail in tk p-mph which dcfmd. nd nthdraw. It may ako include conaderahon of
fdlows. ad if exdudo of tkse facts doa ot ebmmrte other pwbk awruiw and m his tmibk ewdoyment of
cc,tat,, capabttticq then 11 ir patkabk to place such facts partiadu wea- m&is, tedmiqucl. I forcer Tk
in the andySiS radW1 thvl in the blttUtiOnl ppph. By SO exte, of tk disau& of the effect3 of tad3 dluactenrhc
do,& conctcee~ is ided ad clanty u not ucnfiad. on~fr*ndlymidon*lirmtcdbythc~turraf~mib
ma,. Thus. when tk d&m is offensive, the diion does
(1, Cbomcterirw of tk .&a of Opemtionr. Tk ot indude the effects of tk ckmctetitic on tk frimdly
dctcrmin.t,o af wh.t chamctenrtia wx k mdudcd in tk defuue. fa#hy d-on hod.3 k ardded. d padbl.
csttmate is based on a coMidention of tk pupae for which Utium UT shculd k made of m.pr. cbvts. graph&, ad
the nttmate is intended and tk degcc to whtcb the chame- petorid pruau~on To pm.rt undue bsdk md in tk
,emt,c wdl affect enemy captihu or tk fnendly mwlo yltemst of brenty. 1, m.y k driublc UI -Nin uuuIL~* to
may k included. Hewever. if the only purpm s to drnve s,m,,,,,nze tk m.i points of the si,u,ticm fc, mdwnlon in
enemy capabtttia. cbmctmsticr whrch wdl have no effect paragraph 2 of the intdligmce cstun~tc aad include de&d

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studtea u addenda to the can~k. Mdttimal brenty often wan& amnl. d.yliCt acd d&es, md phases
a be ,,kmcd when tl&ig the c*ttmk by elimmag of tha mow. If emsidcnd rppliublc. specific
dup,ic,tio of nulyces. Frequently. M cxkwc M~~UI UI mnh rho&i be made of the effeck on the
puagnph 2 of the atuntie I repeated L pamgwb 4. rmploymcnt of u&u md cbcmul weapona
Aalysu of Ewny Cqbiitw.. 0C of the LX ca be a Weakr CPI k defined 4 the corditiolu of the at-
bmf of Lc other. wphcn ** a gwen Mu ror a give pkce OI nglm.
A pattm of the cs(lmak should diww wcadxhci,
(I) Mffikry Geography. Tcrrv featurea 01 effect pal the cnclys capabdihu When &y.t.
other rieton of uhkry geognphy i the .rez of openaos day inkU&~oc sstlmatrs am bctng prepared. it fits
namuuy will ~ffec, the wmplkhut Of the l*: ruddy into tbc emmys ritu.tio puag,.ph of the
dwefon, the e,tbmk hmdd dcsvih them If thk porbon c4m.k. If tk ~ltmuk i far. angle openttm.
of the errimak u bulky. it rn,y be treated rprnkly uld weather d-g the period of th., & only need
atkched Y u1 appendix. When other skff membem~mquire be summamed. For estmuks cownng I geencml
gmgmphk rtudks of the friendly knitory. the mklligaec sltu.ho over. longer penod 0, ke. * k~mge
officer shmdd prepa or obkb, them. Tbac .rc prwmkd to forecast bad o I gmeml dmntolqy study of the
the skff i , form othzr thul the inteugena estLmIk of the enemy are. fw the pastycan may k uxd. Cbmak
stuhm, beauss ,t k a rhldy of the tncmy md not of ,a dc&wd Y the rtrtutk.t &cm of lndindud
fedly terntory u,d beeuse rk lam, ts not sukbk for condaios of we&w md cb,.hc inklbgenac u
te& atudier The krnm study (KC a~. Q), wkcb pm- tk ~cntnic ln.lyru of dinuk fc dckmmmg ik
pwd by the mgineer officer. it u1 impwtmt donment for ~aeftd l~lic&. 1 mkllipma. Tbk ,kUigcna
the ~klffgcnoc off&r u, wntm~ p~ragrapb 2 01 the mki. u not f*etual I * su??- as I a readvr fore-
gence (Itt,,k. Mdituy geo$nphy has been dwded into cat. It ia gmeml md brosd in scope md k not aa
three subtop-Topag,.phy (km), Hydmgrrphy: oljechvely applied. Wen clunatw mkLligmca to be
mdCUmrk md We&w. vlciuded in the body of the inklligence cstmuk. it
would go II) the Enew Sihlabon p~&graph.
Horcw, kcwx of IU ancrll md bulb atwe. 88
,kgr.tlm ~0 the ertimak norm&y nqucs
tore space tha ahadd k allotkd to it. Tbc pg.
niticnce of the dim~ar mklligma ckmnt does
not un, glutcr comidchm du other factors
aIt recewig Were tbk to -, the Utmuk would
not be m b&we ntb armpuah*e degrees of im-
p-ce for each combuag ekmnr It is better
to place cbmrtic mklligmce in an appedix of the
Cltlk. ho C&W Officer u qed to the I.
telbgulcc staff. 8.9 the UlkuiiD uIPar must
go to the alpillbioru rdr force or Aii Weather
SaTice f.x this Lfomlnnoh

Light codltloa llpoeul by twdigjlt md loo.

ii&t. ahbcAlgh 0, M rnkgral put of mc weather.
al.4 so clovly alkd mat they UC cosldemd under
wcatber t ,k,tigemz eshmatcs ad km skdio
Ccnemlly, kbka ue mckded to kd,cak tmxr for
the b&nning uld endmg of aural tmlight am.
rise. eumet. 10~~14 m-t. md the pbwm of
the moo, The dak EUI be prepared by a mkmf-
*t 0, rxtnckd frml 1 publiution audl The
Nwti Abmnoc. publidted mnuaUy by UK Uikd
Skka Nard Obaen~toy. N,utiul k&h, is mat
fmqwndy wed for ulikr, purpwea .d k Ofk
cxpnonl aa the begummg of morning aubul


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FMFM 2.1

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FUFM 2.1

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(1) Determimtaca of &bti RoLbifity of A&p

ti.x Tk fttal p.gmph of tk mteltigence eabm.te u tk
tatemcn, of the C.Ts lnlclpre(rllml of thee*duated
hu bezn pescnted. aulyzcd. and kte,@ed in
the pcecedmg puagmpk I, containa tk statement of enemy
apsbtlftta which tk e&a indiatea tk enemy u mat
lib+ to .dopt listed n tk mlbve order of priority of ad-p.
Iloo 11 4 In effect. L statement of the col?cllsMms the G-2
hu ,ead,ed tbmugb a compuaire study of the pnadmg
uulysia and di4wd.m of enemy upabditiea %a this
detetmnatxa of pmbxbk enemy uplbilihu L bad an
mterpmt*tion of intc&pcc which i# mdlutiw of future
emy mien. the detcmnnatian mwt be fully jut&d by
the mlyw md dtsamm of the enemy upsbdahu m the
pci-&wnt puwpb of UK e&n,*. It ia abjcctive; it u not
a,, attempt to gua wh.t tk enemy wlJ do. It ir u, atempt
ta dcadc from avrulabk endena what the enemy is mat
likely to do. If tk ~v&tde endace of enemy rchn ty u not
definitive enwgb to ~u,ufy seketmn of an enemy source of
1PflO In061 pobabk of adoption. lk mlelbgcnec omacr
vkedl one based an UK dtrmtenstta of the UC.. of opr.
(2) Pwporu. Tk purpola of this pamgraph are to: hnu. memy doewine. enemy pmcttcz\ md tk rvalabk
edence. Conclamna readied on this blar yc ao indiukd
(a) List #gldficMt known fact3 regarding esh by the comm&er. If tk enemy upabk of impiemenrins
enemy capality. two or more utitiu mmultaaem~I~. that fact lhadd k
plainly b,&c.tcd. Tlds also applies b-y combinahon of tk
(b) Examme tbac facts m order to fully under. listed cap&bocr Where pcabk. tk five standarda should
stand the capability.

(c) State tbae facts that spaftc&y iadiute . What,tL

a hinder enemy execuoon of tk upaMity. . Wkre (in wkt area) I, call occur.
. In wkt stren& I, on k accompkkd.
(d) tktemtinc whether elch capability kted . WklLunormr.
is a major cap&Sib quaring cepuatc listin& or rhoubi k
grouped wtb otkr up&litter
(2) Enamy Vubsemtiliriu. Tk final put of tk last
paragraph of tk eahmrte shald list crplol~ble rulnerabil.
i&s, Tk kt is, m fact. a statawn, of conduamr mached
tbmugh comparatiw study of tk wb~crabiihca diiuKd in
(f) Detcnnine the effect of eacb upabiity en tk pnriw pamgraph. Tk kt i cc&ted to vubwbditica
the friendiy m!aton. which may k crpkwkd by friendly forcra In detemumng
what enemy vuhenbilibu should k listed. the C-2 must
(g) Point up nidcnee which would tend to mdi. ncoccdudy ghe xm eoMdenhcll to the felsrbility of cx-
ute tk nlahvc ordain which tk enemy mi&t adopt the pldtrhm by bu own e-da. However. tk rccommen-
crp.b&tie~ md attempt to detemdne and gw. - for the d.hm to tk commander of caune( of rcncm to k adopted
rcl.twe order of adoption If ewdawe ofenemy acmity i3 not u cd witbin tk prwincz of me C.2. but klcmgs to tk CJ
det-uuttve enough t0 JWtifi Stat+ titirC JXObrbillty. the lfte, cuefld cowdbutian and mnadtrbon with the c.2.
h for pmwty mu, k the dmmcteriatia of the an3 of Tkrrfwe. m tk ahm.te, C.2 kta thov vulnerab&ua
opentionr, cncmy docbinc, enemy ~txts. and the rnul. which m.y k cxpiaited by mt cvmmandcr and makea no
lble evidence. rccwmendahw. for ~peatic explottanon

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FMFM 2-l



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SURFACE AREAS. Reem and -illma of sure
fxz are ia l collection effort dirested .t au ml. Iocdity.
mu*. z.one. scta, o# other lpedti pation of the tenam.
01 the enemy forces louted thtek. It involve8 tk we of
ground. amphibious aetul md camutwtua~kchooniss~
&ction agaies. Thea agnctu employ a variety of
rlectmmc dmoca





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FMFM 2.1

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SirLooking Airborne Radar. SWR b

an airborn r&c. rierblg 11 d&t angkd
to the long axis of tk plaforlu w+d*
pmduea a Plwcn~tioa of ternm or
m&g tugeta SWRdebxmdiffuenccs
in reflected enetgy. II Cal provide k%pt.
able ba.gety dmmg pen&a of dukez.
and ul condition8 of sgt rIbI, 5ulkc.
hq and duut PortnyJ methoda wed
by tbi. dmsc wlude - p-t..
tfotu for insununeou
imaguy reoofdiig on tilm fa tetmttw
md detatkd rhdy. It i. vabnbk aa a
moving target bIdtutor. Infomwion
obtained needa to k wpp*mented by
otkr meal& such II VUWJ 0brrv*don

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and photo~mphy. which cn better

determine the cxa.zt natum of Uw
actinty detected by SLAR. Aobome
..du can eoer l.rgc we= qwekl md
~a,, opera fmm bdund rtu foward
edge of fnendly posmom SLAR is
dependent upon Jme~fwght, md may
be detected md jamed or dmned.
(b) Pknny. In an amphihour opnaon. plan-
. lnfnrcd Smw~. Infwedaenw,dctect w for ckctvamc ICCOM-cc e uu.JJy co.xdii.td
diffmncu m rrdktcd tbetttul infared catmlkd I, the ampbtbiovs ti force kvd or hi.
emtstolu fmm obJeeb on the eardts
swf~ce. In nontedmiul temq they may (6) RodMRsco-a
bc thou& of a de&c- .nd mcuwvlg
diffeteneca tn temperature. Jnfmmd im. (a) The ue of vruaft to conduct radidc+gcal
agey k ah&k I puwnting camal. suwcys k of cxtmme ahte on the nucku httkftdd. It his
fkge and m coUectitt# tnfc+mrhm dur- important rppbutlom tn Ute offense follomng out 0%
ing the day a weU aa &at. Horeet. prcpu&alu. md ako idlowmg enemy ti todrtctmkc if
effechenu, ta tedwed by water *pot. an area Y safe to enter. Ancraft pm& the commander ntJt
fag. clouds, preapiwi~ dust_ uld I rap+d mean of momtormg wide areu atd ucuof hi& tn.
smoke. Airborne tnfrared IMOR can tattv contamiruhon In addition to tk we of arcraft to
coer krge *teaa qwkJy. but are be.of. conduet mittal radiolvgtcll wney~ md au umpiu. belimp
s&t dependent Udike SLAR, which m. (CR cm be used to tnnrport kulll for a moe d&&d
qutms tbhc hmrmkaon of M ekctrkd ground surrey of an area.
agnd. infrared k a PasaC system wbkb
camot be detected a J-Id It is. how. (b) Ancnft to conduct mdidogcd REOMLL~
cr. suscephhk to enemy decrphon woe yc pm&d bv YUUK light hdkopter squdtons
which utdizea fake cmtsaon mutea. @ML). Marme medium helicopter squadto~ (HMM). md
Patrayd methoda used by these dencecr Mamw obxwaba, squadmm (VMO).

c mdudc scope pnscntatvm

eo~l ,ewmg and intasty
fti for retenhon and detaded study. As
for utrt~ltan-
ww.iii on e. SIGNALS
sgnak mkUiqcnoc
INTELLIGENCE. The employment
umts and tJ,hcdue of commu,,,c&,,u

mUI SLAB, mfnnd is mtmdcd to corn-- and ckcvrmcs mteUJgcnoc I dtxused in FMFM 2.3, S&md,
pliment conenhand photwaphy. lteuisence/Ekctmnv Kvfare Oprmtfonr( U).

(5) Ekctmnlc Reconmssmce. Ekctmmc twmnaJs 1. INTEGRATED RECONNALSSANCE AND Sf.JR

s,,ce k tJ,e detecbon. ,dcnatiutton. eduibon. and laahon VEILLANCE PLAN
d faeigq ekctmm~ttc radahons emmsting from ether
tbm nudeat dctonatiws or radioactive source. With tbu in-
fomution it I pa&k to m&e a relsonrbJy ucumte efit-
mate of the enemys electronic order of battk (EOB) and
seket the mart
effective mew of countetmg it The pnmiry
aetul ckctmNc Ic comuKancc crpab+ty of mc .wanne
Caps D cant&ted tn the hkimc tacttul
fmm Ihi squadron hre the cap&d-
ity of conduct& day md night. all-weather. ekebonrc BY.
+JJana and RCul-eL

(4 TacticaJ AppfJcofion A tachcal rppliaban

of eketmnie nconmks.na support would be to mitidly
warda. detect. locate. and record Ihe ylurcc of ekctmac
erntmt~~ in ,n se, when futum opaGmr,s am pJaned. The


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(CD) s 5.400 feet, sbstttte in tk lotmuIr. RF=PD/CD. (2) C0f.w. color r&n npmduce1 full colon wlthbl
D&e b&J, numentm and denombutc., by the nunurato, the is&k ~ecuum. It is normatly uhlked when knowkdge
to determuv tk scale which u l/12500. of the actual color of an obkct k of impwtana to tk ,c-
quate,. Cola, fbn can rlro k wed to penetmtt cklr ate,
(2, Sefection of Rewimd SC&. Sdcctton of tk to limtted dcpdw and is vscftd in detntmg wdewatc, okta-
p,ope, rc& for a pbotcsnphtc -on II baed upon &es. There UC a few limitabau which make tk UK of color
rreml conndcntions: Fdm impmehtrbk for extended oprrtions Acaptabk expo
aurn cm k made only dunng cku we.tbe, .nd dung houn
(I) Tbe type of information wbieh tbe photo. of mumnun daylight Color fbn pmducu a p.mh.e t,anb
gnpba i,c expected to yield. pamncy which cm k rrpmductd by a hme~omummg
promas tbgt mqwru r(@d contml. Tk Mm r&if pnscnta a
(b) The &lity of photo ucnft to obtam problem y1 rtorye kewe of tb aenstmty to tempntun
photogmphs of the de&d safe. cowiering re&er. cloud ehuy.
cow,. enemy oppoaiuos and tk type of fh utdked.
(3) fn@ed. Not to k mnfuaed wtb (hermat in.
(c) The time bwdnd for photo inte~mten fwed saww.. mfwed film k pvlQmm.ttc film that hu
.&en pbotogmpbs us made .t I ly seal o, of a lug -, ken chermcllly tmabd to k ertn scnatirc to refkcted
,esdting m oh!mulola print& mf,ued em,gygy.and 4 pnmanly wd u . supplement to
p,ndwomrtic Rbn m day photography. Slna all bets
(d) AI a geaeml mk. tiw sule s-quested rhautd reflect salykllg amOunts of the total rnf,ued cne,gy radi,tcd
k tb+ mmlkst commcnsunte wtb infomuhon qutmmenta upon (hem by the sun. mfwed tii product, mud, man
and of an UTI no laws, tbu, ,eqwd. Tk 1-t scde ..,I. rh.rply contmstmg toma of grey tba,, o,dbwy black and
abk u appmxtmateiy l.l.oM): the smalfedt 1:1,000.000. An whrte fdm 11 UI e~epcnllly wfui m defmng the bm,ts of
add,tionai facto, to k consideaed is tbc clmty of the btack w&ways. mu&ted weas. mad4 and nmwaya.
md white tib cumntly utimd by photot,.phw qadmns.
Tbii fib,, pcmutr the enlagement of phot~ph, wttb n. (4, Gmau,kye Detectwon (CD). CD tidm m ncwmal
tentton of necevury cklty and wtthout lom of time. By c%, nra,,. It w sew,tie to the md ad gmen porbansof
rpnfymg the lnfomuhon needed from a-quested photo. tk w&de spcrmm and tk ma, mf,a,cd po,hone of the
gmphr mque*ten allow tk #lotogmpbIc qquadmtw Iufti. in&k spectmm. Wkn photogmpkd wttb CD fiim. bvc
c,ent Iahtude to dcte- tbe feu&4ltty of m.&g w&, gewing exetlhon whwb contuna the ekment ddomphyll a
sale photognphs and cntugmg them a9 necesuy. SmJLr bigbh wkchrc ddanct. appe.ra nd-puQk m color. Dad
wk phetognphy rcquwes fewer piehuu by the awaft eget*hml md clmartla$te pama which COntam no dllcfo.
a,,d nduces ,ns oc, the tawt. phU and we. thcmfom. pmrly relleehvc. wdl appe~ as
gmemsh.yeUow tones. In addition to it.a pnmq pupase of
(3) Cuidonce. Appndu V is a tabk contaiomg camouflage detccaon CD s especully laeiul m pmetmtmg
,ccemmendcd mmmwm sc& for v.tiolls mditay twgets. shadow and dcfmmg tnek mhnty. As wth color fdm, CD
The ,w,mmended scales an based upm 20 tines of mso. requun n& pmassng md stomp mnsols
,u+,on p, mdlimtc, and may k adjusted upwud based
up,,,, known camen md ftbn rtmlution erpabilihu d PHOTOGRAPHIC FORMS

L TYPES OF FILM. Tk sckchoon of ttlm to k wed

fr,, a, awill photoqapluc mtmtm wdl depend upon tk
,,s,fta that em k obtabxd tbmugb inteQ,etahan The
four m-t common types of film UC discuard below:

(1, Pmdmmatle. Bhck and while fdm sItI&.

tk myority of th+ u&s mqwemcnts ad L the moteon,.
mo,dy used. It can k obtamed atuyq f&nrpced*
wde l.r,tudc m ,ts use. ud can k wed under a,yb,g bght


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(b) Beach UY. Tbk photoanphy may

mhlde ertml, 0b4ique. md plnwunlc cwerlge a, uytng
SC& of the area from offshore to a depth of lO.OtM mtem
mland. The depth of photography u&d wll depend ups,,, the
eon~entntlon of enemy defense aguns, .enal opnttm In
tic erent of a hcny conan~tim of mhaircmft 6. in the
area. II MY not be fernbk to fly the addmona, shps LOse,
complete ewerye IP I depth of 10,000 metera and a an*
crtrcal and oblique IUIP may hauc to suffice. Bud, photob
rapby IS repet,e md my rndude Mack and white. mfmd,
and CD fii wth the Iat mtm~ to be own early on D.1 m
order to pemnt dctectim of final enemy pixp.mbons.

(d) .lkneuun Phot.w&y. This UI krgc SC&

pbotoqrrpby flown m support of un,ca monng oer ,a,,d lp.
pro.&a It ui wed for t- uulyas md for d&coon and
rdentlficahon of enemy forces along dte rouf~ of adm.x.

(c) Enemy .Uonnuur Photopphy. This u

pbotognphv of poagbk horhk router of approach. NormaJ.
II will bc eriic.l or ~pbt wrtwal atnp photognphy, of lame
wk. along the paabk cnem uuof adrance.

(f) Special 6ar.w. The II photograph of

rpecttic t-em af ob,eca. flown to obtan mfomution md
to enfy M crp.nd on mform.oon dewed by atber me,,,s,

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lwFM 21

i,,a,tcu, detukd tepottt WU mcotpomte cxtcn~ve tBustn.

bm gtaphia.

(4) Diuwwn. Gastderrttmlt rt iwth rbave WdI

prwie I redhtk snd complete cequeat for xtml photog-
mph,. Tk unit opwd the mtuton of obtmnmg the photog-
npby may tit tkt l.xne muion to the tequut necuuw.
Such frctm P dottd emer. distutcs to the target, aru*biLty
of suit&k fIba and enem, oppattat may scvctdy twttct
w ptedude
. rrguoted mlrim. Tk requter drw wea.
tk, tk intended WC of the pbotogmpka mdudmg ttem. of
mfonnrbon k intenda to gain fmm them. Higher edtdm
it&igence mctIolu rnq k tn pc4uatm of tk iiomtuton
tequila ebmm1tmg mc neccmty rot the fw.

(6) Ifavement. Tk aauI imagery plan for the

ampbIIou udr foroc ia ptqued jamtry by tk CATF pnd
CLF. 11 tetlwb the imwtY tquttementa of rubordiite
Ianding fmc umta and ia djusted to the upabdihcs of
hty --a agenda Tk CLF ptcmdagutdana
to aubo&uk taut8 concetning the iradabibty of imwcry
reca,,assm~ - Bated M tbia yldma, subordbtate
unita wbmtt tequuh iot send imagery to tk CLF. Thcsc
MpJmts xc caunb&,ed into tbc ovenll mtagey pLn for
the apuitwn. Appendix T contahts .n example of an aenal
bww Ph



a. DEFINITION. JCS Pub 1. Depwtmenr o,fkfnu

Dictiowr of 3fifft.w aad A,,oeaad Terms. defvlu au IYI.


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FMM 21

fmlltrte the detectton. identitiutton. md intcmphm of

hoetdc awnft and m&r It mwlt h mMtamd over an
f area of suffictent depth to wmtt friendly ultcrcept or corn
mncecment of e~temtcamtrc~ pnor to hmtik mrenft ar. c. WEATHER RECONNAISSANCE. Weatherrwxmlib
ririn(l at I pant from which they cn attad; frLndfy forces unoc u .ccompi&d for two pupan:
a tnnrt&lonh



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The +mploYment of improved rleetromc combat sword-

iance/tupct acquuutmn systum m no way obnstw the
requvemcnt to1 contmued emploYme, of other nv~und
combat mtelliin~ colkctmn -ts However. retmote sensor
swcdlana systems do poszs umque advantages, some of
rhtch am:

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FMFM 2.1

i. TLWELINESS. Remate - system8 pmvide Rmely function of .&tm rite.t- n

duty cycle. and the
swveRImcc/t.ctiul data tbu MbcwdinDmducti.nl0f d~lftie Iimitatiotu unposedby useot battery power MUTCQ.

d. lAMMING/INTERFERENCE. Remote scenu)rs

b. ALL.\VEATHER. Remote - system. UC s&m,% ,eport vu , radio bnk arc rub,ect to ~Iectm~c ,rmmmq and
untIy Icsl weather remrictedthan hum.o obaetvera.mi &a fmentiolvl 0, unmtcnttonrl lntertenncc tmm other ehc-
int&gcncc coIIstion aslet& konlc emitter%

c. FULLTIME. flmtote oelgon optate wthout regvd e. FAILURE RATE. Inherent m a electmnre systt
to conditiciu of vitibility and fatque. i# tile pombdity of cnmponent idIRe.LM
ot any sln$e
c,cctmtt,c component may render the dencc meffecnvz.
d. EXPENDABILITY. A -te ae,uor, .re expsdare
and may be employed in hI&idc mn*nta. f. FREQUENCY USAGE. Remote acneon rque a
channelin an &udy overcmwdai radio frcqwncy spckum
e. SURVIVABILITY. .4rua in whi& remote sectorsUC and are subject to poeable uxterfercnccfrom ioul tadI
employed may be am&cd by ruppwtins arms wtb . hii tranmutten 111
many puts of the world.
pmb.biIIty of the smwIII~ee device, betsg udauged.
6. SUPPORT REQUIREMENIS. Inenucd dependenca
f. COVERTNESS. Pm&y andconcukd
empIwd on the wc of remoteao- mu requue appmptite prowam
t.e- M mIuinluuy
enemyaunityd support.suchas.
. Tninsdpmonnel.
g. FLEXIBILITY. Rmmte setuca may be employed . Airmat, or other meam for delivery. mmt~rw.
ntber closeto or at great *awea from the usmgumt. use of and rchv.
0crt.m d&wry meth& sad, Y bigbqeed aue,aft 01
hehmpter delivery. reducu he needfor cimeco~ md
dmgaou pmnnci pmettation of cnanyhcId territory. h. LOCATION. Roper ut&.tion of data .cquwed from
remote senw rcqldra preclk !uwxledge of the scmora
1. ENEMY REACTION. Remote x~ora employed in
Difficukks and disadvantagea
that may be encountered enemy areasa arb,crt to destruction. rcnmvil. 01 boohy-
when cmploylngremote muor 6ystenwm&de: mppmg by enemy forcea.

a. COST. Remote Xmo powsing the de&cd data ,. TERRAIN MASKING. Remote seawon.re suscepttble
mkctmn a@Iitica are wed in Iarts numbers The hish to termIn ma&q of Ime~f+lgbt ,ranmlLIIIQM. Effcctlw
eonaumptlonnte of expendablesenson can rcadt In ugnr- employment requirea termn ~pPrecutmn and dctakd
RutI, repknuhmcnt cast& flhmung of senwr r&y and monttoxsateIouhOns.


we UI reqmme to one 0, two phydul phauunmr MANAGEMENT PLATOON
%tm.Uy. -te - &me do not provideidmta~tion
of the mUIce of enetgy *hi cluaw tbc wiwion. Tbc us
of a rlmty of - typI or semom tn mn,unction with .
other mketioa - WII a&t in providing tdentdiitJon
of the activity.

c. LIMITED LIFE. Renmtc acanon arc dependentupon

batter, power. Tbc Iifwpan of tboc dcncn is. tbacfore..

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4 .

, .


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FMFM 2-l

c. The SCAMP s mmpowd of Mazincs who arc spendly mformatmn.but tin&d mtdliience products aa well.
tralnd to xast m remote settsar employment plannmng. to In the tbencz of the intrll~nec ct. any otbet tact~al
ratrhiii arid mantam sensor monitoring hcilitieicr to ar. or dmbttatmtiw net within the COC/FSCC/DASC may
dcbver mwte be- from helicopters. to anLyre remote be used. When fewide. cucwtl utiSzed for tnlwm~on
of *MM dewed data should be fycurc to preclude
c,,,,,pmmis of tbc sem.,, ryshm. To f4itite the most
to elements ot MACTFs -te LYMO~ mttw.
to pmwde nptd possrMc rcspxw by supporting amu to MMO~ derived
bonmi todlidt monttor
the usllpvnent of ,nfomutia,,, a direct communiation between the se-r
a SES 01 SET, reaponsbd~t~ for cmpioymmt. inbrpmtatmn mon~torbtg h&y and tbc fn support mordinatton center
of tentote amsot derived information. diimuutmn of I nrcescxy.
mfofmation, and rcwion rmuina wtb the supported ticttcd
unit. SE% or SErs may pmnde techntcd inauction or (3) Implmtation of remote -n m tcmm that
saancc r&t to the intelliicnn xc&am ot to d.atgnated offers obrtreb to theu lbwafught ,ransmMOn rcqlutcs
pcrmnnel such aa reconatcsana teama and STA piatoons. communiatiom between the implanting umt and the
SE% md SET% may also provvic lmson between the pnmary tttonitor site.
SCAMP and \Iane rnrtion combat elements for ranotc
YMOI UI d&wry md rubome monitor md retry rqwe. b. FREQUENCY CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT
mats. In some imunccs. SE% or SET.6 m.y be tldced to OF REMOTE SENSORS
Implant remote sensors. but such task& severely restricu
the momtonng cap.biiity of a SES or SET. llw monttonng (1) Emdoyment of spcdic remote amsots wdi be
crpabditv of a SET h &a we&y hampered by extended detetmmed by the rvailabtiity of frqucncws m respective
operahorn lndepcndent 01 the parent quad. amu of opmttom. Overall remote xnmt ftque? manage-
ment wll be detamlned at theater level. Normaliv,
1105. COMMllNICATIONS frtqwncy mamgement b&w this level mnll be based on the
geograpbwal an. amcc tbb wdl eliminate frquencv ~ntcr.
a. CO\fJItiNICATION REQUIREMENTS femme pmbkms when units M rqued to mow to dif-
ferent areas. .\(.mgement md auacat*o 01 frquencles *ail
be wompl!ed at the bigbcat Icvcl to p,rcludc dupbutton
and to determme pnontiea among mmpting rqu,mments.
(2) Wttbin the txtvai are&) of respowbilin. the
G31S.2 must coo,dbutc vlth the comm~mc~t,~w+k~ho~~.
. Frqurncv band: 162.174 MHz offinr (CEO) regxdii frequmcv management (frqucncy
auoutlon and aswmcnt).
. Power output: 2.2% rttta
(3, Partlrti attet*a must be gwen to p~lng the
. &de: dtgitdandatlog USC ot frqucnciea wadable for amwttc remote sensors.
iradablc frqwncies muat be utdizcd in such a wsy that
. UoduLtion. FMFSK they do not interfere wtb other mutters 2nd tcccwets.

. Bmdwidth: 18.75 kHz 1106. TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT OF REhlOTE

(2) The trurmussron of sensor d&red data from the
mon,tor ate to the mtclliicncz section should be acmm- a. Remote (ctmom are empisad before, during. and after
pliicd over euttng mtemd communiatmns. If the data is wult opcnm~ where enemy a&ity ~1 known or antici- .
I ruttic,ent ttugnitudr *cl affect tlpcimmediate
tactical pted. Smmts are sted where they effecbrely detect enemy
bediwmmatcd to the affected umt. vttb tmop and qldpment moement. activity on iii of
an appropriate pnonty. over existing commumution mmmuntc.abon. and loggica acthitiea Gmund and at&me
chanefi. Yonndlv. the dmvcd d.ta will bc mmhted rttb relay w$tema UC emploved, if ncczawry. to 0Crcome terrain
mfomwmn awlable to bitt. adjaunt, and subordbute muking between the Ynml site md the sensor momtoring
wu. If utabbdwd. appmprute mteiligence net3 wdl atgmti- ,x&y. lbe temotc setwon are monitored aboard ddp u
cmy mhmcc net oh tbc dtmmation of sawor derived weUIsbymmmmdrmt.auhon.

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FMFM 2-l

b. In artam stNIPom. mmO,c rnam mny bc employed lo bllcr. adJxct, and suborduutc mmmnods thmqb

c to cnh,mx loul scnuity tiihutioru

usmg rut* aurveiJkce system. Howcwr. rcnmtc wU0m arc
by mttgntio with the cxuhg dwmek.

rn.38, cffectivcly employed a, mny beyond that of the b. W!cn xnmm arc cmploycd I support of MAGTF
eaor equipment alquuc to Mneuver lwa. combat opcntiona or I WPport of lonq ruge pknnmg,
KIWI mOitong will omuJJy bc aceompbshcd by I sensor
c. I molt meance. remote xraon wJJ bc employed in ao,,ormg fanlay nvMed and qutppcd by SCAhlP. The
suppon of !mlt( posmun(( a c&dity to teat, ,o the auuor radia Ink YMOT dau !d molutorcd ctlhcr dnctly or thmuqh
q,ucd da,, by employmtj mmcuvcr element, or rupportiry @and brscd 01 urbane rcky ryarcms The sasor
amu. The sauor xquircd da wdl be pr.xcmcd and moru,ong frcilitv nd romully rcllin monitanng respow-
dlswmuuted Lo vl,crc.,cd awencscsby a rwr moJ,omq bdity far d omom cmpkycd wx,hin the obJcc,lvc uca, eve
txdity. D- plrnniry for. ud the cxccuho of. u) ,hougb a portion of tbcac devses ma be belnq wed m
rmphibiwr pention. mnotc ICDM~ MI be utilirtd by the ruppon ot IoaJ oprstiw as dcsabcd m parqrwh 11071.
commatdnderampbiiiou ti forccilatdii force Lo pmvlde I rush cue,. rcspo&b,y tot rcrctm mm, be eklrly
timely snfomww a enemy acU*itr ti(hin the ampbibiaus defined.
bJwhvc ama (AOA). Examples of AOA empkymcnt arc:


in mos, -. ,hc ~,crprcta,m o, ~YMOI de& data

.md <,a presentltm 1 a melt md uvbk tormat *dl be
accomp,,sJwd bv SCA.\lP personnel in Lhe rsor mon,,onng
,adt,y. SJfF personnel wdJ pmrtdc asss,~w 10 ,he m,eU,-
gcncc rrr,f u) cx~nmie rc,trW trends. and companng data
vltb Lhr, ab,a,cd from other mtelbmnce Y)UIEI, md collee-
tmn aqcnclcr I o&r ,oensrc neeum,c rsMmc* 0, fcnsor
dcnrcd da,& the pmcue locallo 1 nmo,c KRU)~~ w impera-
,wc as u linoxkdp of ,hc LCNOFJ opcratmg pmmc,cn.


. Su,w,,na of m,a leading through ad],.

cu,,,J. M hW,k countrks.
. S,,wcilknce of cncmy afields. hubon. ad
wrtcnvaysdiatmt from the banlcfkld. 1110. REACTION


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IalFM 2-l

. Lbdtntblu of topognphy: mdb trammmh II&z.


. Ambient K.itznicand *cowtie oyc I~.

. Ind- po,xd.!ionduulty.

d. WEATHER CONSIDERATIONS. The empb)?nent of

My slwedhnm sy*tem an be affected to a dcgrM by the
ptevaiiillg we&u mnditioN. Climate k a faetat in mi&f
greatly from ON tyQe of - to armher. the fouowulg
mpbynmt of thae denm:

. Ptcapitatin: type. qumtity. duntim frequency.

1112. TACTKAL PLANNING andeffect cmloll complctmrL

. Windrdoatymddirecth.

. Tempmtute.

l Hum&y.

. Cloud Cover: h&&tat and densty (iduding fag).

e. ENEMY CONSIDERATIONS. The cffcctivena of

any ,ur*eillMe &cm UD be affected by the enunya
fuadtacfty nth that ryrtml. OP&nul trpixiencx utdialea
that enemy for&x mu initiate muntenneuulea to wnd
detectton by suwciS~cz devices Greftd plnnir&
momtoNt$. ud ehd;ing (when pombk) of cqxwment mu
lndiatc if the emmy II&# colutte~ Same of
thes camtennuaoca mdude:

. Deauwim of equipment.

. Booby~-de*ie+s


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FMFM 2.1

f. SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS. Tim pkmdw and COOT. helkoptertame comb., w&t kndlng - the &me, of

Q duuhan of the opemtmml

cqutpment k btgbly dcpmdcnt
upmt the culy
of wvedknce
ad oompkte
rurpme md riot employmu pmuslult
ludw ZOM. Semor derived da,.
prepamtwn fun m the
cull awst in detemumng
detc-no of support rcquemcnk.. Among the maty the feabiity of such kdmu. Pnor to Dday. w-n .m
beCoNidcmd rmpkced NU pmbabk enemy wmhonr and .Ionq avenuea
dw pkm+ for the UT of mmotc sewom am: of appwcb m the vleinity of potenti kdmq sttes. They
am mmutomd befom ad duw the actual amwdt. Infor-
(1) SurcedlMcs AuetJ m.,, ftmwbed by the sewma k used lot the dcttaon o
preppit$ the beach or -e mui for selectton of ape&e
. Avadabibty kmlii sita ntbin the 7.aC.
. TYP.
. Qumhty. C. AMBUSH. A offect,vc ambush mquues cavert
. L.xatlon. poakinK of frkmily form and sctwom Jonq mtel of
enemy movwnmtt. Remote setuo4 are employed rlow 111
mutea ludig mto the frkndly pomtmn to pmnde warm+
of enemy appmwh from .oty dibwtv,. Fii m,wa would
. Atr ddiwy: airmtt ~akbiity. type. qua be nkblkbcd if the ambuh k supported by aupportiry UM.
my. and wwfiaumtton. Remotdy fad ambtmha, nuy be employed by imegmtiw
. tkd+pkcement: wukbiiity of qtulxkd remoa rlaon empkeed at interwk abang Nlual ad
wersonncl. mu,,,,& avemw of app+cwh. mth mmmami dctoluted
mtmlttot CnuItq tbc kdbn$ -. It mum be rtnnmkmd
that poative tdentifiutwn EdIIO, ttomully pcable tbmugb
*mn almlc.
. .hlJabdity of equipment md pmnmtel.
. Aucmtt: arukbility. type. colltigtmbah ad d. OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS. The area of operamu
quw. aatgncd to growad combat rkmenta mrviucbttg combat
. F.cqutmmmtt foordatatcky tam Md equlpme,. operltktn u omuuy her thu, un be effeetlvely pkcni
. Smlbx rnmlito~ fwiity: level of pemocl mtdu su~~i3.t~~ by local vumty us&s. Inau&d tactical
bxlnmg awl pIwe, wolu.xd. ctfeuirencr m mmb.t opentkm cat, bc achieved by
maneuver &menu tbmugb the proper employment of
% mmate szuom optmmlly under the cc.ntx.4 of the ,vwmd
force mmmuida lwplm&k for the overlu OpcR,m.
Remote tz- may h employed in bkely enemy lagmbly
area8 attd alog tutlml Md iumude a.*ctmes of .pprcxh aa
1 tlmk_ fonwd, ud rear screemng pmteehon to the
manawm ckment. Once contact w mitmtcd. the emmy MY
wad decisive engagemat attd xtthdnr to amu whm he
1113. TACTICAL APPLICATIONS FOR cam,.,, be wdily found or when tcrmn ud pm+
REMOTE SENSORS defcmiw pmitionr pmnde him with. tacttai dratkw In
additien to the II,, of tcmote setttota to detect the cttemy.
they may be empioycd to b&t m mamtairmtg conhe, ami/
or to suea aguw cmmtmticks. sellson may bc
employal on the fknka and mu of the encmy to detect
when attd in witat dmctmn he it attemptxw to dtsetwse.
Once the senton hue detected movement, the commamim
must errltute the irdomumn SulKd rcalizblg that pmtive
idut&fimtton k not nwrmlly paaible tbmugb satsam &me.
If the de&.x k to test. tbc comm.mler haa the ~omul
b. BEACH AND LANDING ZONE MONITORING. optlocu opm to him. wbm the mkkbgemx ratmute mdiutcd
Cm-mm tstkal UuditioM dicutc ukbtg a Mpbibiour UK1QQbO.of~encmyfom.md~deasionrsmrdeto


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FMFM 2-l

control the enemy. rll wailable -UC Iled to peasely ekmenk al Uu MAGTF. Given the owlina of the t.ensx
locate the enemy ud pnwtt his aape. A potnon of the detwcd data. rt b pmsiblc to quickly identify btfommtion
forcz candwtbt# the seep. amuted by man aid mum- vhrcb fut swpott agenao requw. to &tack tugctt wltb
tmlu. rhoutd be utikcd to cotam tbc cncmy wbik tbc .ppropnatC uppor+Jn# arms. When remote semen are
remunderof the f0r.x nvap tk ata. empioycd in dtlutmlv where tar@ lrqtitlon u the pnme
c.msidentin, prcd+tcd target, arc iduafkd and
attadud by auppOmngama when - mdtate scanty
in the tar&et ateM. ProFerlY employad Iemote KM Cal
provide an udication of the type atget. numbcn. and
dbxtxw and speed oi the tat@. Dependent upon the
enemy ru.ztJon to the *,,a&. damage -II,. is pwlbk
from wbaquent calam .ctw*tbmh

j. PATROLS. Remote aatmr, wdl ti pa&t ,,, the,,

&nvedkn~ aetIribea &nd tbeu own ualrity.

k. RETROGRADE OPERATIONS. Remote ~ns.,ra may

f. ROUTE SURVEILLANCE. .Semca m.y be placed be empkcai bebmd the FEBA pn.x to aecutmn of a
dotw ot m pmximtty to enemy lina of mmmtmtcatton. tevwade opention 1 o&t to cdkd infotllutton on
lntomuwn genemted wdl be monitored. poapad, eni. enemy rchnty m th.t area after mmplchoa of the retmgmdc.
uated, and acted upott by a central r.ontml agmcy. This
employment. though rektive.iy nmpk. rmy pmnde lumtke 1114. REMOTE SENSOR EMPLACEMENT

8. AREA SURVEILLANCE. Se- m.y be wed to a. GENERAL. Tbtt puwapb deMba empkoemcnt
moN,or large areaa and provide mfc.t-mattQn of enemy technques to be employed m mmotc - openuons.
acttnty. for erampk, suspected cmmy uaembly atas. Altbwgb I, Y mttctpatd that the majonty of empkccments
Saw,, do 110, deny an area to the -y, but .xn be used will be ammphehed by o@c -ft M Bound forrm.
to mo~tot the wea and detect the pocnce of the enemy. the tcduuqw and gud1na contamed berevl encompus
ot vartao~ tn the kvd 01 activity. all of the dchvery upabditta cmtcmly waikbk.


Known and Mlspceted enemy awnbly MW rquuc se- emplacementM be dividedmto two wqoce-gmtmd ad
wuh maxtmum 6ctncz Me, Commamicn &xdd k pwputd w. Ground/hand cmpLeemenr of se- pmndes a b&h
to react when it ui detcmuned tbc ateas are occuptcd. dc(gocof accuracyin cmdoyment whtrh b cnti to etfec-
Beaus ot the ae. compkuty, and generally remote we O~~IXWI of the su~cdlu~ccsystun. Knowkdge ai the
bxatmn of these areas. I, k not always pwsibk to d&my rquted cmpkcement enterm tar each type smsot md
the wembly area and render it completely unusable. It Y ~peatic appliuuon and wcful. pmfcswrul wound empkcz.
quuy unprcttul to leave troops thcte ,rJ ptwent recnky. men, am the keys to suceaaful opntion. Ground/hand
Themultnuybc~tuscmblyvuauc~urrdonlytobc cmpkcsment baa tbc taetiul limitaho. of tquiring accesd
mrccupi+d by tbe cnettty P short ttme later. Sentan canttot to the ata. Ait delivery of rnson ttdnsra the aeass
dew the enemy a base are.; however, they cat, provide Ibttitatton but emplacement accumcy ts degldnl. Because
utfmutw~ ot butki enemy xtinty aa he ntumt to the of thk. tnaurd mm&em of Y- arc employed. and they
aces. Seleon left bcbbtd by IrkndIy troop .long probable am namuUy d&vend in a snmg in I aiqk delimy pus.
avenues of ttmwmmt ut the area cut be monitotcd petted- Enemy aat dcfensa and advets weather eondihons we
uily. Tbu atmngement pmnda tnfort~floo o,, the volume bmiting iwtot8 that mttM be CaMiderrd m opcnttarvl
and directton 0) memy rn~vement atutmd the atea and . pknntn,?. In gcncnl, to mamrchbkacetmeY
baa for pktmmg muntenctton .t the moat popitimu tbtle. k,,.,&d~ of semor Iwtwn, dayttmc Gaul debwtta .te
ptefmcd. The ait and ground catrgotks ol cmpkcemcnt
i. TARGET ACQUISITION. Most ap&c&otu of remote wdi bc dkcawd acpatatdy to pronde dqute opcnhorul
YNota tend to sltppott target rqltkiti *ctintta of a ,foml*tloll far pknniw purpox&


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FMFM 2-l


. Communlutmn treqwncy for gmund contact.

,f nquucd.

. Drop ada avadable, such aa radar burn

fm-.wd a,, ntntmlkr (RABFAC,, M porn-

c ment tenam features which mu&i be used L)

a,rdebwy reference pants.

. Enemy defenses. d known.

. Fm-vwd UT controller (FAC) a..astact, d




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FMFM 2-l


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FMFM 2.1

c -
(a)P* hit6n hnt.
am ur deliwed. ~ccunte -t
After -tr
of eyxt ammr

pop&y referace sensor derived d.t. ud to dctermme d

additiluul - empkawat nemzduy to morutor the
tusct au. AU poaabk mum to record reluse f3.u and
ODcdiaolv dwuld be taken to suppsrt tJ& effort. to mdude
tbomqta pilot dchnef, br.f&bt strike c.metu, ndco ta$c
maxon rem&m. ami nrul rpota by tbue aucmft. A
fomx.i bnpkat repott wdl be made by ibe delivery untt in
the fotma, coati in *ppmdix z.

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FMFM 2.1

cmpb,ymet pmceduw required for the putkulu ses.ws

they wdl unpkt. The we&t of individul ssna added to
abwdy bwily burdened pe-el al the sm.U number of
team, *aikbk mu uml, tbc lb% of stgs that can be
empkad. Al&ush monitarmg of remote se- ts DO, the
pnmuy -n Of recaamw cz u~ts m amphibious
opet,honr thin mrelo un be aawed whcte the opcratmlul
aNlM dkt.ks.





The mla~on of the bTA ,datoo. u to provide tramed

radar. ,gbt obawat~ dence. and scout t- for cmploy-
me, ,,, support of the rdle eompulies or on bztW,o-
as+,cd miao~. u denred.


(2) To,@ 4cqwuion Tuget xqtitio !a the

dctwt,o, tdcttticat,o. iml loutmn 01 a tat@ i suttiaent
dad t perrmt the effectwe employment of wupons.


(1) pbtow. llw STA platoon is UI dentct of head-

q!4u,en ami aria cmllpny. blfatQ bedion.It conasts
of 29 Matmu. eganuad in,., a platoon hudqwtets and 3

mudbcummughlYdlnteduuulopenhad ddltid d"Q the pkt -t


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FMFM 2.1

of reduced or no wibdify. Reliance on tbcsc dcnccs most be

avcoded. (a) Demded Desmprron (See FY 31-100
(TEST). To,@ &qwto and ,Vf& Obaennnon, ad
(2) f2d.v fii. NV3 this Illand.)

(b) Opemnoool Ckrenrtw. The AN/TVS4

n&t obsenrhon dmce utdiza ~tarhght and moonhgbt for
completely pasave mwoq. It pmwdea the vtewer wth a
p~lorzooc Grn or scene tbmogb ambtcnt l&t mteoc+
tiertmn. The NOD u wful. under proper stiit or moon.
hghhtconditwos. m rcquriog ud rewgmnw tarsets. It may
akl bc scd l aslat the commulder to mw~ conbwl
of the maneel or movement f fnendly forces.

(d) LLnitorrau. & NOD is heavy; the dencc

aelf retgbs 35 poumls Md ils tripod wet#M 10 poorads. This
po,,&f,jw co,x&ato ia a bouting fac,r when . NOD


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FMFM 2-l

tam u udwed to support . rifle comp.ny. llw NOD k

scvereb dwadcd in pcrfomuna by min. 103. snake, mow.
b impaired vnder rueh condition.. Althou& the NOD
pmnda the wentor with a good plnonmic vkw undw
proper ambfent b&t conditforu. it doa not make mqe
utblutioll caw. Its bud ml3 pmnda an urmutb qabinty
but is difficdt to mad at night unlcr I tl&Ii&t t ws,d.
The mqe and aamutb Ibnitltto~ m,y be o-me by
pabiw the NOD with a ndu. pmvided the qui,ed tar3et
h moviw. A mown8 uxxet wubxd by a NOD msy be
banded Oler to the ndu for ~MIIIB rang8 and ufmutb
dam. Simdady. the NOD ma, be ued to recognize M
dtntify monng u%etm xwired fti by thz mdu with wiudl
tt is pabed. Field tcstitw mdkatw that NOD operaton have
enme dihicdty in djurtm3 their *idon to dulowa condl.
tmna after OpmtJns the c+ipment.


(2) Ruignmrnt


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FMFM 2-l


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MFM 2-l

It mud be podtionad for the puwd of its usr sod then

diced fmm p&tion to position in the forwad nwvemmt 4
of the rupported campay. lld8 mut be Fonaidered 111
pLnnblg night offendve operatiaw.

(h) PobvA Rawa. Rsdu h no, effective In

(i) Act&e Emitter. The ndu I an ume cmittcr

of ekcm3magneec crazy witen 0pctbq. Tb3# fat must be
kept in mud witen opem%g .&wt as, enemy with a -n-
able aphisbati ekctmme cmmtamuuua apability.
3ulce be MY radtly toate the emittins radar and attack It
by duea fire.

(k) Cow end C- IhcmdumdNOD

operato -t take full advnlt@,a of mva and concut-
ment in the same - u I t+fkmm. but it u obrioudy
d&able for them to make atd~ use u dwy M. To ftmaion 6
cffedively. the opentom mud clwn that the devirrs an
m; i.e., are not ma&cd by ternin. an object. (II dense
fu. Tbe Ah/PPS-15 radar is d-cd to &t ICM~C
open&m wirh the wentor bcbii cover 01 III a foxhole.
Tbe AN,TS-t NOD mut be viewed dbwtiy bv the

(I) T&in,. Aside fmm tedmiul tramng m

garrimn or 1 @l+o&ke SitlMion wilae opmtora coneen-
tnte on their equipment. full adnntage mud be taken of
w-d train@ with tbc rifk eompMie4 to cnsxe that
operaton ue famdtu W&I company tact&d opemtionr md
eamnunden are rutty fundtar wtb tbe STA apbifitta znd
lbnitat~~~ of (he radar. NOD, and rout tams.

(In, M&telwum. Only orgudlattolul munte.

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FYFM 2.1

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FMFM 2-l


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