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ME 517 Calibration Instrument

Calibration of Force Gauges

Eric A. Magno
BSME - 5
Different Types of Force Gauges

1. Push Pull Gauge

2. Universal Testing Machine

3. Proving Rings
1. Push-Pull Gauge
Push-Pull Gauge
Mechanical force gauges.

This device measure both compression/tension force.

They have high accuracy +/-0.3% or less (It depends on the


They are effective and reliable tools that can be stored in your
toolkit ready for occasional use as and when necessary
Two kinds of Push-Pull Gauge

1.1 Analog Force Gauge

1.2 Digital Force Gauge

1.1 Analog Force Gauge

Designed for handheld operation

Useful for performing rudimentary tension and

compression tests in the field up to 440N.

These gauges require no power.

Analog Force Gauge
Applications of Analog Force Gauge
1.2 Digital Force Gauge

is essentially a handheld instrument

are highly accurate instruments

provide the precise force measurement required in quality

testing that determines strength and/or functionality of a
part or product.
Digital Force Gauge

How Digital Force Gauge Works?

The load cell or force sensor, is at the heart of any

digital force gage. When a force is applied, the load cell
produces deformation or strain.
There is a strain gauge that measure this strain and
output a voltage: the greater the force, the greater the
strain and, therefore, the greater the voltage output.
Through electronics and a microprocessor, this voltage
is converted into a force value that is displayed on the
About the display

Force reading accuracy may be affected by a low battery

condition. Always charge the battery whenever the BAT
indicator is highlighted. A minimum charge of 8 hours is
About the keypad
PROG - allows you specify configurable functions
including an audible buzzer that sounds when a limit is
reached; communication with a test stand to stop the
stands crosshead travel when a set point is reached;
activate/deactivate the automatic power shutoff

UNIT - is a dual function key. The key is used to select

the desired force measurement units (oz., lb., g, kg,
N). The key is also used to navigate significant figures.

PEAK - The key is used to activate/deactivate the Peak

Hold feature which freezes the display at the peak
value (T PEAK or C PEAK) that occurred during a test.
SET - is used to set the HIGH limit, LOW limit
and to activate/deactivate the set point function.

ENTER XMIT - is a dual function key. It is used to

accept values configured into the gauge firmware
(ENTER) and also used to initiate data transmission
to an external device, e.g. personal computer

* - is used in conjunction with other key.

* + ZERO to erase all values stored

ZERO - is used to zero the values being displayed.

1. No display after pressing ON key
Make sure that the battery is fully charged.

2. Display indicates ----

The load cell may be have been over-ranged.

3. Gauge does not communicate with my personal computer

Check to ensure that the proper cable is being used to
communicate to the personal computer.
Calibration Procedures

1. Gauge Pre-set
The gauge must be laying flat in a horizontal
position with no load applied.

Let the gauge warm-up a minimum of 5 minutes
prior to the calibration procedure.
2. Mount gauge securely to a weight stand in the
compression position.

3. Calibrate Zero (0% load)

Exercise the load cell three (3) times by applying and
then removing a full load weight. With the platen or
hanger attached and no weight added, depress the ZERO
key. The display should read 1111. You should proceed to
calibrate the gauge span.
4. Calibrate Span (100% load)
Apply full load to the gauge in the compression
direction. Once full load has been applied to the gauge,
depress the ZERO key. The gauge will display 0000.

5. Normal Operation
Once you have successfully calibrated to full load and
the display reads 0000, you may now remove the full load.
The display should read the full capacity of the force gauge
being calibrated and your force gauge is now ready for use.
2. Universal Testing Machine
Universal Testing Machine

A machine used to test specimens for tensile strength,

compressive strength, shear strength and to perform bend
test along other important laboratory tests.

The primary use of the testing machine is to create the

stress strain diagram.
Universal Testing Machine

LS1, LS2.5 & LS5 Series

Universal Test Machines

1. Loading Unit

2. Control Unit

3. Extensometer
An instrument used to measure
elongation in the material.
Loading unit

Expanded Table
Applications of U.T.M.
1. Winches 8. Chain
2. Steel Wire 9. Steel Rope
3. Electrical Wire 10. Rope
4. Webbing 11. Steel Chain
5. Spring 12. Links
6. Slings 13. Nylon Rope
7. Cable
3. Proving Ring
Proving Ring

Proving Rings were originally developed to serve as a

portable force Standard that could be accurately

used to measure forces applied by a testing machine.

National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST)

A Proving Ring is an elastic ring in which the deflection of the

ring when loaded along a diameter is measured by means of a
micrometer screw and a vibrating reed mounted diametrically in
the ring.
Proving Ring

Morehouse Proving Rings

Ring - made of correct steel alloy and properly
manufactured will perform as a nearly perfect elastic

Precision micrometer - measures the deflection, or change

of diameter of the ring under load.

Vibrating reed - mounted diametrically within the ring.

How Proving Ring Works?

Forces are applied to the ring through the external

bosses. The vibrating reed is set in motion, as the reed is
vibrating, the micrometer screw on the spindle is adjusted
until the button on the spindle just contacts the vibrating
reed, dampening out its vibrations.
When this occurs a characteristic buzzing sound is
produced. The resulting change in diameter, referred to as
the deflection of the ring, is measured. At this point a
reading of the micrometer dial indicates the diameter of the
Proving Rings are calibrated by against known standards
to ASTM specification E-74

states the requirements force standards must meet
and specifies the procedure for determining the accuracy
of each instrument calibrated

Clearly defines the methods to be used in the calibration of

all force measuring instruments.

Accuracy in proving rings and all force measuring

instruments calibrated according to this method is specified
in terms of uncertainty.

Uncertainty - statistical estimate of the limits of error in

forces computed
Calibration Standards in regards to ASTM E74

1. Primary Force Standard

2. Secondary Force Standard

Calibration Standards in regards to ASTM E74

1. Primary Standards
Primary Standards

A deadweight force applied directly without intervening

mechanisms such as levers, hydraulic multipliers, or the like,
whose mass has been determined by comparison with
reference standards traceable to national standards of mass
2. Secondary Standards
Secondary Standards

An instrument or mechanism, the calibration of which has

been established by comparison with primary force
standards. In order to perform calibrations in accordance
with ASTM E74 your force standard must be calibrated with
primary standards.
Calibration Preparation - Stabilization

1.Temperature Stabilization
It is recommended that a device be kept in the area or
lab where it is to be calibrated for the device to stabilize in
the environment. A good rule of thumb is to allow 24 hours
for temperature stabilization. Recommended Temperature is
23 degrees C
2. Electrical Stabilization
Depending on the equipment common practice is to
allow 15-30 minutes to warm up.

3. Exercise the instrument to be calibrated

The instrument should be set up in the machine and
exercised to the maximum force that is to be applied during
the actual calibration. Typically we recommend 3-4 exercise
cycles; most standards require a minimum of 2 exercise
Calibration in accordance to ASTM E-74

1. At least 10 different forces

2. At least 30 force applications are required

3. There should be at least one calibration force for each

10% interval throughout the loading range

Wanderer isnt always lost.