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emailId:bushra.jaleel@adu.ac.ae
Book:PrinciplesofLeadership,7thInternationaled.

2007CengageLearningInc.Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisworkmaybyreproducedorusedinanyformorbyany
meansgraphic,electronic,ormechanical,orinanyothermannerwithoutthewrittenpermissionofthecopyright
holder.

Chapter1:TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership
(pp.134)
TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:ChapterObjectives
LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
Afterstudyingthischapteranddoingtheexercises,youshouldbeableto

Explainthemeaningofleadershipandhowitdiffersfrommanagement.
Describehowleadershipinfluencesorganizationalperformance.
Pinpointseveralimportantleadershiproles.
Identifythemajorsatisfactionsandfrustrationsassociatedwiththeleadershiprole.
Describeaframeworkforunderstandingleadership.
Recognizehowleadershipskillsaredeveloped.
Pinpointseveraltraits,behaviors,andattitudesofasuccessfulfollower.

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:ChapterOverview
CHAPTEROUTLINE
TheMeaningofLeadership

LeadershipasaPartnershipandaSharedResponsibility

LeadershipasaRelationship

LeadershipversusManagement

TheImpactofLeadershiponOrganizationalPerformance

ResearchandOpinion:LeadershipDoesMakeaDifference

ResearchandOpinion:FormalLeadershipDoesNotMakeaDifference

LeadershipRoles

TheSatisfactionsandFrustrationsofBeingaLeader

SatisfactionsofLeadersDissatisfactionsandFrustrationsofLeaders

AFrameworkforUnderstandingLeadership

SkillDevelopmentinLeadership

Followership:BeinganEffectiveGroupMember

TypesofFollowers

EssentialQualitiesofEffectiveFollowers
CollaborationBetweenLeadersandFollowers

Summary

KeyTerms

GuidelinesforActionandSkillDevelopment

LeadershipCaseProblemA

LeadershipCaseProblemB

LeadershipVideoCaseDiscussionQuestions

Notes

P.1

AndreSougarettisaseriousminded,highlyfocusedengineerwhoisalsothemanagerofthegovernmentownedElTeniente
coppermineinChile.Onedaynewsbrokethatthirtythreemenweretrappeddeepwithinagoldmineinhiscountry.Three
daysaftertheevent,SougarettwassummonedbyChile'spresident,SebastianPinera.Thepresident'sorderswereclearthe
fortysixyearoldengineeringleaderwouldbeinchargeoftherescueoperation.

Whethertheminersweredeadoralive,itwouldbetheresponsibilityofSougarettandhischosenteamtocompletetherescue
operationasrapidlyaspossible.Sougarettfacedenormouspressurebecausehehadtodecidewhereandhowtodrillthrough
multiplelayersofvolcanicrocktoreachtheexactspotwheretheminerswerelocated.

Atthemine,themethodicalSougarretencounteredamassofconfusionandanxiety.Loadsofpeople,includingrescue
workers,policeworkers,andfirefighters,weremillingaround,alongwithrelativesdesperatelyseekingwordaboutthestatus
ofthetrappedminers.Sougarret'sfirstmoveinordertogettherescuemissionstartedanddecreasesomeoftheconfusion
wastoasktherescueworkerstoleaveuntiltheymightbeneededlater.Healsorequestedanyavailablemapsofthemine.

Sougarett'steambeganbyinvolvingariskmanager,andtheteamgrewto300peopleinthenextseveralweeks.Atthemoment
Sougarretwasplacedinchargeoftherescueoperation,sevencompanieswerealreadyassignedtothetask.Sougarretkepton
thosehethoughtcouldmakethebiggestcontribution.

Akeypartoftherescueoperationwasbuildingthreeshafts.AttheenditwasPlanB,a28inchwideshaft,thatreachedthe
minersfirst,beatingtheestimateofhowlongtherescueoperationwouldtakebyacoupleofmonths.Aremainingstepwasto
encasethetopofthefunnelinsteelpipesandtesttheworkabilityoftheescapecapsule.Atthispoint,Sougarettwasnolonger
apprehensive.Thelaststageformewaslikebutter,hesaid.

InreflectingontheChileanmiracle,abusinessreportersaid,thesavingofthosemengaveussomethingwedon'tsee
enough,abrilliantexampleofhumanexcellenceofcohesion,ofunitedandcommittedaction,ofplanning,ofexecution,of
caring.Theyusedthehumanbrainandspirittosavelife.1

ThedescriptionofAndreSougarrettouchesonmanyleadershiptopicstobecoveredinthisbook,includingtheideasthat
providingdirectionispartofaleader'sjob,thattechnicalexpertiseisanimportantleadershiprole,andthatasuperiorleader
canhelpworkersgetthroughacrisis.

Ourintroductorychapterbeginswithanexplanationofwhatleadershipisandisnot.Wethenexaminehowleadersmakea
difference,thevariousrolestheyplay,andthemajorsatisfactionsandfrustrationstheyexperience.Thechapteralsoincludes
anexplanationofhowreadingthisbookanddoingthevariousquizzesandexerciseswillenhanceyourownleadershipskills.
Itconcludeswithadiscussionoffollowershipgivingleadersgoodmaterialtoworkwith.

TheMeaningofLeadership
Youwillreadaboutmanyeffectiveorganizationalleadersthroughoutthistext.Thecommoncharacteristicoftheseleadersis
theirabilitytoinspireandstimulateotherstoachieveworthwhilegoals.Therefore,wecandefineleadershipastheabilityto
inspireconfidenceandsupportamongthepeoplewhoareneededtoachieveorganizationalgoals.2
AGooglesearchofarticlesandbooksaboutleadershipinorganizationsindicates14millionentries.Inallthoseentries,
leadershiphasprobablybeen

P.2

definedinmanyways.Hereareseveralotherrepresentativedefinitionsofleadership:

Aprocessinwhichanindividualinfluencesagroupofindividualstoachieveacommongoal
Theinfluentialincrementoverandabovemechanicalcompliancewithdirectionsandorders
Anactthatcausesotherstoactorrespondinashareddirection
Theartofinfluencingpeoplebypersuasionorexampletofollowalineofaction
Anefforttomaintaincontrolandpoweroverothers
Theprincipaldynamicforcethatmotivatesandcoordinatestheorganizationintheaccomplishmentofitsobjectives3
Awillingnesstotaketheblame(asdefinedbylegendaryfootballquarterbackJoeMontana)4
Firstfiguringoutwhat'sright,andthenexplainingittopeople,asopposedtofirsthavingpeopleexplaintoyouwhat's
right,andthenjustsayingwhattheywanttohear(asdefinedbyformerNewYorkmayorandpresidentialcandidate
RudyGiuliani)5

Importantly,leadershipisnotonlyfoundamongpeopleinhighlevelpositions.Quitethecontrary:Leadershipisneededatall
levelsinanorganizationandcanbepracticedtosomeextentevenbyapersonnotassignedtoaformalleadershipposition.For
example,workingasajunioraccountant,apersonmighttaketheinitiativetosuggesttomanagementthattheyneedtobe
morecarefulaboutwhattheyclassifyasatruesale.Acurrentanalysissuggeststhatforimprovedbusinessresultstocome
about,itwillbebecausemanagersbelowtheCsuite(suchasCEO,COO,andCFO)taketheinitiativeandriskstodrivethe
companyinadifferentdirection.Changeneedstocomeaboutfromleadersatlowerlevels,ratherthanrelyingexclusivelyon
leadershipfromthetop.6

Partofunderstandingleadershipisrecognizingthatnewjobtitlesforleadersandmanagerscontinuetoemerge,reflectingnew
responsibilitiesforleaders.Herearethreeexamplesofleadershippositionswithrelativelynewtitles:

ChiefCustomerOfficerworkswithasmallstafftoenhancecustomerretention.
ChiefRevenueOfficeroverseescorporateadvertisingaccountsatamediacompany,suchasTimeInc.
DirectorofSocialMediaworkswithasmallstafftodirectlyspearheadadvertisingandpublicityonsocialmedia
websites.

Theabilitytoleadotherseffectivelyisararequality.Itbecomesevenmorerareatthehighestlevelsinanorganizationbecause
thecomplexityofsuchpositionsrequiresavastrangeofleadershipskills.Thisisonereasonthatfirmsinsearchofnew
leadershipseekoutaselectgroupofbrandnameexecutiveswithproventrackrecords.Itisalsowhycompaniesnow
emphasizeleadershiptraininganddevelopmenttocreateanewsupplyofleadersthroughoutthefirm.

P.3

LeadershipasaPartnershipandSharedResponsibility
Thecurrentunderstandingofleadershipisthatitisapartnershipbetweenleadersandgroupmembers,includingasharingof
leadershipresponsibility.AccordingtoPeterBlock,inapartnership,theleaderandthegroupmembersareconnectedinsuch
awaythatthepowerbetweenthemisapproximatelybalanced.Blockalsodescribespartnershipastheoppositeofparenting
(inwhichonepersontheparenttakesresponsibilityforthewelfareoftheotherthechild).Partnershipoccurswhen
controlshiftsfromtheleadertothegroupmember,inamoveawayfromauthoritarianismandtowardshareddecisionmaking.7
Fourthingsarenecessaryforavalidpartnershiptoexist:

1.Exchangeofpurpose.Inapartnership,everyworkerateverylevelisresponsiblefordefiningvisionandvalues.Through
dialoguewithpeopleatmanylevels,theleaderhelpsarticulateawidelyacceptedvision.

2.Arighttosayno.Thebeliefthatpeoplewhoexpressacontraryopinionwillbepunishedrunscontrarytoapartnership.
Rather,apersoncanloseanargumentbutneveravoice.

3.Jointaccountability.Inapartnership,eachpersonisresponsibleforoutcomesandforthecurrentsituation.Inpractice,this
meansthateachpersontakespersonalaccountabilityforthesuccessandfailureoftheorganizationalunit.(SeeJoeMontana's
definitionofleadership,statedearlier.)
4.Absolutehonesty.Inapartnership,nottellingthetruthtooneanotherisanactofbetrayal.Whenpowerisdistributed,
peoplearemorelikelytotellthetruthbecausetheyfeellessvulnerable.

Block'sconceptionofleadershipasapartnershipisanidealtostrivetoward.Empowermentandteambuildingtwomajor
topicsinthisbooksupporttheideaofapartnership.Also,manyleadershiptheoristsandmanagersagreethattheleadership
rolewithinateamisseldomtheresponsibilityofoneperson.Rather,severalindividualswithintheteammayserveasleaders,
bothbyformalassignmentandinformally.Leadershipmayshift,dependingonwhoseexpertiseisthemostrelevantatthe
moment,8suchasonememberofamarketingteamhavingadvancedexpertiseinusingsocialmediaforproductpromotion.

Lookingatleadershipasapartnershipisalsoimportantbecauseitislinkedtoanoptimisticviewofgroupmemberswhowant
toperformwellforthegoodoftheorganization.

LeadershipasaRelationship
Amodernstudyofleadershipemphasizesthatitconsistsofarelationshipbetweentheleaderandthepeoplebeingled.Inthe
wordsofpopularleadershiptheoristKenBlanchard,Leadershipisn'tsomethingyoudotopeople.It'ssomethingyoudowith
them.9Researchindicatesthathavinggoodrelationshipswithgroupmembersisamajorsuccessfactorforthethreetop
positionsinlargeorganizations.JamesKouzesandBarryPosnerconductedanonlinesurveyaskingrespondentstoindicate,
amongotherresponses,whichwouldbemoreessentialtobusinesssuccessinfiveyears:socialskillsorInternetskills.

P.4

Seventytwopercentindicatedsocialskills,and28percent,Internetskills.Theauthorsconcludedthatthewebofpeople
mattersmorethantheweboftechnology.10(YetapersonwholacksInternetskillsmaynothavetheopportunitytobeina
positiontomanagerelationships.)Buildingrelationshipswithpeopleissuchanimportantpartofleadershipthatthetheme
willbeintroducedatvariouspointsinthistext.

HowleadersbuildrelationshipshaschangedsomewhatinthemoderneraofWeb2.0anditsemphasisoninteractingwith
peopleelectronically.Itiscommonpracticeforleaderstogiverecognitionandpraiseviaemailorapostingonthecompany
socialmediasite,orapublicsocialmediasitesuchasFacebookorTwitter.Asarepresentativeexample,atCiscoSystems
managersareencouragedtocommunicatewithgroupmembersthroughblogging,uploadingvideos,andusingcompany
createdsocialnetworkingtools.11

LeadershipVersusManagement
Tounderstandleadership,itisimportanttograspthedifferencebetweenleadershipandmanagement.Wegetacluefromthe
standardconceptualizationofthefunctionsofmanagement:planning,organizing,directing(orleading),andcontrolling.
Leadingisamajorpartofamanager'sjob,yetamanagermustalsoplan,organize,andcontrol.

Broadlyspeaking,leadershipdealswiththeinterpersonalaspectsofamanager'sjob,whereasplanning,organizing,and
controllingdealwiththeadministrativeaspects.Leadershipdealswithchange,inspiration,motivation,andinfluence.Table1
1presentsastereotypeofthedifferencesbetween

TABLE11LeadersversusManagers
LEADER MANAGER
Visionary Rational
Passionate Businesslike
Creative Persistent
Inspiring Toughminded
Innovative Analytical
Imaginative Deliberative
Experimental Authoritative
Warmandradiant Coolandreserved
Initiator Implementer
Actsascoach,consultant,teacher Actsasaboss
Doestherightthings Doesthingsright
Inspiresthroughgreatideas Commandsthroughposition
Knowsresultsareachievedthroughpeople Focusesonresults
Focusesonupliftingideas Focusesonplumbing
Source:GenevieveCapowski,AnatomyofaLeader:WhereAretheLeadersofTomorrow?ManagementReview,March
1994,p.12DavidFagiano,ManagersVersusLeaders:ACorporateFable,ManagementReview,November1997,p.5
KekiR.Bhote,TheUltimateSixSigma(NewYork:AMACOM,2002)Leaders:SalespeopleinDisguise?Manager's
Edge,SpecialIssue,2007,p.3HenryMintzberg,Managing(SanFrancisco:BerrettKoehlerPublishers,2009),pp.89.

TABLE11LeadersversusManagersGenevieveCapowski,AnatomyofaLeader:WhereAretheLeadersofTomorrow?
ManagementReview,March1994,p.12DavidFagiano,ManagersVersusLeaders:ACorporateFable,Management
Review,November1997,p.5KekiR.Bhote,TheUltimateSixSigma(NewYork:AMACOM,2002)Leaders:Salespeople
inDisguise?Manager'sEdge,SpecialIssue,2007,p.3HenryMintzberg,Managing(SanFrancisco:BerrettKoehler
Publishers,2009),pp.89.

P.5

leadershipandmanagement.Asisthecasewithmoststereotypes,thedifferencestendtobeexaggerated.

AccordingtoJohnP.Kotter,aprominentleadershiptheorist,managersmustknowhowtoleadaswellasmanage.Without
beingledaswellasmanaged,organizationsfacethethreatofextinction.Followingareseveralkeydistinctionsbetween
managementandleadership:

Managementproducesorder,consistency,andpredictability.
Leadershipproduceschangeandadaptabilitytonewproducts,newmarkets,newcompetitors,newcustomers,andnew
workprocesses.
Leadership,incontrasttomanagement,involveshavingavisionofwhattheorganizationcanbecomeandmobilizing
peopletoaccomplishit.
Leadershipproduceschange,oftentoadramaticdegree,suchasbyspearheadingthelaunchofanewproductor
openinganewmarketforanoldproduct.Managementismorelikelytoproduceadegreeofpredictabilityandorder.
Toplevelleadersarelikelytotransformtheirorganizations,whereastoplevelmanagersjustmanage(ormaintain)
organizations.
Aleadercreatesavision(loftygoal)todirecttheorganization.Incontrast,thekeyfunctionofthemanageristo
implementthevision.Themanagerandhisorherteamthuschoosethemeanstoachievetheendthattheleader
formulates.12

Iftheseviewsaretakentotheirextreme,theleaderisaninspirationalfigure,andthemanagerisastodgybureaucratmiredin
thestatusquo.Butwemustbecarefulnottodownplaytheimportanceofmanagement.Effectiveleadershavetobegood
managersthemselvesorbesupportedbyeffectivemanagers.Agermaneexampleistheinspirationalentrepreneurwhoisso
preoccupiedwithmotivatingemployeesandcaptivatingcustomersthatheorsheneglectsinternaladministration.Asaresult,
costsskyrocketbeyondincome,andsuchmattersasfundingtheemployeepensionplanandpayingbillsandtaxesontimeare
overlooked.Inshort,thedifferencebetweenleadershipandmanagementisoneofemphasis.Effectiveleadersalsomanage,and
effectivemanagersalsolead.

ManagementguruHenryMintzberg,aprofessoratMcGillUniversity,stronglysupportsbasedonfirsthandobservationthe
positionthatthedifferencebetweenleadershipandmanagementshouldnotbeoverdrawn.Mintzbergwrites:

Howwouldyouliketobemanagedbysomeonewhodoesn'tlead?Thatcanbeawfullydispiriting.Well,then,
whywouldyouwanttobeledbysomeonewhodoesn'tmanage?Thatcanbeterriblydisengaginghoware
suchleaderstoknowwhatisgoingon?13

AnexampleofhowacompanymightrecognizethedifferencebetweenleadershipandmanagementtookplaceattheBoston
investmentfirmGMOLLC.Thecompanybroughtonthefirstchiefexecutiveinitsthirtytwoyearhistory,MarcMayer.His
rolewastotakecareofrunningthecompany(management)sothatseniorofficialscouldfocusmoreonnavigatingthe
treacherousmarket(strategicleadership).14

P.6

TheImpactofLeadershiponOrganizationalPerformance
Anassumptionunderlyingthestudyofleadershipisthatleadersaffectorganizationalperformance.Boardsofdirectorsthe
highestlevelexecutivesofanorganizationmakethesameassumption.Afrequentantidotetomajororganizationalproblems
istoreplacetheleaderinthehopethatthenewlyappointedleaderwillreverseperformanceproblems.Herewewillreview
someoftheevidenceandopinion,proandcon,abouttheabilityofleaderstoaffectorganizationalperformance.

ResearchandOpinion:LeadershipDoesMakeaDifference
Theideathatleadersactuallyinfluenceorganizationalperformanceandmoraleseemsplausible,andtherehasbeenamoderate
amountofresearchandopinionthatdealswiththisissue.Thinkbacktothestoryofthechiefengineerwhospearheaded
activitiestorescuetheminersinChile.Itisdifficulttoimaginethattherescuewouldhavebeenaccomplishedwithoutan
effectiveleaderandmanagerincharge.Herewelookatasampleoftheexistingresearchandopiniononthetopicofleaders
makingadifferenceonperformance.

TheCenteronLeadership&EthicsatDukeUniversityconductedasurveyaboutexecutiveleadershipbasedon205
executivesfrompublicandprivatecompanies.Oneoftheissuesexploredwaswhetherleadershipactionscanaffect
performance.Itwasconcludedthattheycanindeed,butonlyiftheleaderisperceivedtoberesponsibleandinspirational.Such
behaviorsincludedengagingemployeesinthecompany'svision,andinspiringemployeestoelevatetheirgoals.Another
contributortoorganizationalperformancewaspromotinganenvironmentinwhichemployeeshaveasenseofresponsibility
fortheentireorganization.15

TheflexibleleadershiptheorydevelopedbyGaryYukl,aprofessorofmanagementattheUniversityofAlbany,alsoprovides
insightastowhenleaderscontributetoorganizationalperformance.Onepropositionofthetheoryisthatorganizational
performanceisstrongerwhentheinfluenceofmiddleandlowerlevelleadersonimportantdecisionsiscommensuratewith
theirunique,relevantknowledge.16Theimplicationisthatinvolvingleadersthroughouttheorganizationinmakingdecisions
improvescompanyperformanceiftheseleadersareknowledgeableabouttheproblemtoberesolved.(Thisproposition
contrastswithleadershipadviserswhothinkthatanybodyshouldbeencouragedtoparticipateindecisionmaking.)

AleaderwhoappearstoadheretotheflexibleleadershiptheorypropositionjustmentionedisMaryBerner,thechiefexecutive
ofReader'sDigestAssociation.SheandherteamaredoingtheirbesttorevitalizetheonceprominentReader'sDigest,aswell
astheapproximatelyonehundredothermagazinestheassociationpublishes.Middlelevelmanagersthroughouttheglobal
organizationcontributerelevantknowledgetoeditorial,production,andfinancialdecisions.17Thecontributionofthesemany
leadershelpedtheReader'sDigestAssociationworkitswaythroughbankruptcyin20092011.

Inanotherstudy,agroupofresearchersanalyzed200managementtechniquesasemployedby150companiesover10years.
Theaspectofthestudy

P.7

evaluatingtheeffectsofleadershipfoundthatCEOsinfluence15percentofthetotalvariance(influencingfactors)ina
company'sprofitabilityortotalreturntoshareholders.Thesamestudyalsofoundthattheindustryinwhichacompany
operatesalsoaccountsfor15percentofthevarianceinprofitability.So,thechoiceofaCEOleaderisasimportantasthe
choiceofwhethertoremaininthesameindustryorenteradifferentone.18

Ananalysisofthefranchiseindustrypointstotheimportanceofleadership.Thereportnotedthatitcanbedifficulttopinpoint
aspecificformulaforfranchisesuccess,yetconversationswithsuccessfulfranchiseoperatorsemphasizedtheimportanceof
enthusiasm,leadership,andanabilitytoworkwithpeople.(Enthusiasmandtheabilitytoworkwithpeopleareimportant
componentsofleadership.)OneofthefranchisersincludedinthereportwasStevenJ.Greenbaum,thefounderofPostNet
InternationalFranchiseCorp.,whichofferscopying,printing,packing,andshippingservices.AccordingtoGreenbaum,
Leadershipiscritical.Youarerequiredtohaveavisionofwhatthebusinesscanbe,andcommunicatethevisiontothe
companyofficersandfranchisees.19

Anoverviewofresearchonmanagerialsuccessionoverarecenttwentyyearperiodprovidesmoresupportfortheideathat
leadershiphasanimpactonorganizationalperformance.Aconsistentrelationshipwasfoundbetweenwhoisinchargeand
howwellanorganizationperformedasmeasuredbyavarietyofindicators.Usingdifferentmethodologies,thesestudies
arrivedatthesameconclusionthatchangesinleadershiparefollowedbychangesincompanyperformance.Statistical
analysessuggestthattheleadermightberesponsibleforsomewherebetween15percentand45percentofafirm's
performance.20

LeadershipresearcherBruceJ.AvoliofromtheUniversityofWashington,alongwithfourcolleagues,conducteda
comprehensivesynthesisof200studiesabouttheimpactofleadership.Thestudiesanalyzedincludedthoseconductedin
laboratoriesandinworksettings.Themanyoutcomesofleadershipstudiedincludedoutcomessuchasthesatisfactionsof
subordinatesandorganizationalperformance.Oneofthemanystudyfindingswasthattheleader'sactivitieshada66percent
probabilityofachievingapositiveoutcome.21

Howleadersimpactorganizational(orunit)performanceistheessentialsubjectofthisbook.Forexample,goodresultsare
attainedbydevelopingteamworkandformulatingtherightstrategy.

ResearchandOpinion:FormalLeadershipDoesNotMakeaDifference
Incontrasttothepreviousargument,theantileadershipargumentholdsthattheimpactoftheleaderonorganizational
outcomesissmallerthantheimpactofforceswithinthesituation.Topersonalizethisperspective,imagineyourselfappointed
asthemanagerofagroupofhighlyskilledinvestmentbankers.Howwellyourgroupperformscouldbeattributedasmuchto
theirtalentandtoeconomicconditionsastoyourleadership.Thethreemajorargumentsagainsttheimportanceofleadership
aresubstitutesforleadership,leadershipirrelevance,andcomplexitytheory.

P.8

FIGURE11
SubstitutesforLeadership.CengageLearning2013

SubstitutesforLeadership

Attimes,competentleadershipisnotnecessary,andincompetentleadershipcanbecounterbalancedbycertainfactorsinthe
worksituation.Underthesecircumstances,leadershipitselfisoflittleconsequencetotheperformanceandsatisfactionofteam
members.Accordingtothisviewpoint,manyorganizationshavesubstitutesforleadership.Suchsubstitutesarefactorsinthe
workenvironmentthatprovideguidanceandincentivestoperform,makingtheleader'srolealmostsuperfluous,22asshownin
Figure11.

1.Closelyknitteamsofhighlytrainedindividuals.Whenmembersofacohesive,highlytrainedgrouparefocusedonagoal,
theymayrequirealmostnoleadershiptoaccomplishtheirtask.

2.Intrinsicsatisfaction.Employeeswhoareengagedinworktheyfindstronglyselfmotivating,orintrinsicallysatisfying,
requireaminimumofleadership.Partofthereasonisthatthetaskitselfgrabstheworker'sattentionandenergy.Theworker
mayrequirelittleleadershipaslongasthetaskisproceedingsmoothly.

3.Computertechnology.Somecompaniestodayusecomputeraidedmonitoringandcomputernetworkingtotakeovermany
ofthesupervisor'sleadershipfunctions.Thecomputerprovidesproductivityandqualitydata,anddirectionsforcertaintasks
areenteredintotheinformationsystem.(Wecouldargueherethatthecomputerisbeingusedtocontrol,ratherthantolead,
workers.)

4.Professionalnorms.Workerswhoincorporatestrongprofessionalnormsoftenrequireaminimumofsupervisionand
leadership.Agroupofcertifiedprofessionalaccountantsmaynotneedvisionaryleadershiptoinspirethemtodoanhonestjob
ofauditingthebooksofaclientoradvisingagainsttaxfraud.

LeadershipIrrelevance

JeffreyPfeffer,aprofessoroforganizationalbehavioratStanfordUniversity,theorizesthatleadershipisirrelevanttomost
organizationaloutcomes.Rather,itisthesituationthatmustbecarefullyanalyzed.Pfefferarguesthatfactorsoutsidethe
leader'scontrolhavealargerimpactonbusinessoutcomesthandoleadershipactions.23Inrecentyears,thesalesofsmart
phoneshavesurpassedthesaleofpersonalcomputers,includinglaptopsandtabletcomputers.Thesalesboominthesecould
bebetterattributedtoanoutsideforceofhandheldcommunicationtechnologybecomingso

P.9

essentialforsomanypeoplethantoinspirationalleadershipwithintelecommunicationscompanies.

Anotheraspectoftheleaderirrelevanceargumentisthathighlevelleadershaveunilateralcontroloveronlyafewresources.
Furthermore,theleader'scontroloftheseresourcesislimitedbyobligationstostakeholderslikeconsumersandstockholders.
Finally,firmstendtochooseneworganizationalleaderswhosevaluesarecompatiblewiththoseofthefirm.Theleaders
thereforeactinwayssimilartopreviousleaders.

JimCollins,whohasextensivelyresearchedhowcompaniesendureandhowtheyshiftfromaveragetosuperiorperformance,
alsodoubtstherelevanceofleadership.Accordingtohisearlierresearch,corporateleadersareslavesofmuchlarger
organizationalforces.Collinsmakestheanalogyofchildrenholdingapairofribbonsinsideacoachandimaginingtheyare
drivingthehorse.Itisnottheleader'spersonalitythatmakesadifferencemoreimportantistheorganization'spersonality.24

Anotherargumentforleadershipirrelevanceisthatinthemodernorganizationeffectiveleadershipmeanswidespread
collaborationinobtainingideas,ratherthantheheroicleaderdoingalltheinnovating.Accordingtothispointofview,instead
ofcentralizingleadershipinthehandsofafew,authorityandpowerareshared,andpeopleleadthemselves.25(Theconceptof
sharedleadershipwasmentionedaboveinrelationtoleadershipasapartnership,andwillsurfaceatseveralplacesinthetext.)

Theleaderirrelevanceargumentwouldhavegreaterpracticalvalueifitwererecastasaleaderconstrainttheory,whichwould
holdthatleadersareconstrainedinwhattheycandobutstillhaveplentyofroomtoinfluenceothers.

ComplexityTheory

Similartothepessimisticoutlookofleaderirrelevanceistheperspectiveofcomplexitytheory,whichholdsthatorganizations
arecomplexsystemsthatcannotbeexplainedbytheusualrulesofnature.Leadersandmanagerscandolittletoalterthe
courseofthecomplexorganizationalsystem.Thesameviewholdsthatforcesoutsidetheleaderormanager'scontroldetermine
acompany'sfate.Managerscannotpredictwhichbusinessstrategiesorproductmixeswillsurvive.Thebesttheycanhopefor
istoscrambleorinnovateinordertoadapttooutsideforces.Ultimately,allcompanieswilldie,butatdifferenttimes,because
itisthesystem,notleadershipandmanagement,thatdominates.

Anotheraspectofcomplexitytheorythatchallengestheimportanceoftheleaderisthatorganizationalmembersarenot
passiveworkersinneedofdirectionandemotionalsupport.Instead,theyareactiveagentswhoinfluencedcoworkersandare
influencedbythem.Thesamepeoplearecapableofdealingwithharshrealities,suchastheneedtoadapttonewtechnology,
withoutdirectionfromabove.26

AusefulperspectiveonwhetherleadershipmakesadifferenceistoasktherightquestionasframedbyJ.RichardHackman
andRuthWageman.Insteadofaskingifleadersmakeadifference,weshouldbeaskingunderwhatconditionsleadersmakea
difference.27Acrisismodeisanexampleofasituationinwhichastrongleaderusuallymakesadifference,suchasgetting
fieldunitsbackontrackafterahurricaneorproductrecall.

P.10

LeadershipRoles
Anotherwaytogainanunderstandingofleadershipistoexaminethevariousrolescarriedoutbyleaders.Aroleinthis
contextisanexpectedsetofactivitiesorbehaviorsstemmingfromone'sjob.Leadershiprolesareasubsetofthemanagerial
rolesstudiedbyHenryMintzbergandothers.28Beforereadingaheadtothesummaryofleadershiproles,youareinvitedto
completeLeadershipSelfAssessmentQuiz11.

P.11

Leadingisacomplexactivity,soitisnotsurprisingthatMintzbergandotherresearchersidentifiedtenrolesthatcanbe
classifiedaspartoftheleadershipfunctionofmanagement.

1.Figurehead.Leaders,particularlyhighrankingmanagers,spendsomepartoftheirtimeengaginginceremonialactivities,or
actingasafigurehead.Fourspecificbehaviorsfitthefigureheadroleofaleader:

a.entertainingclientsorcustomersasanofficialrepresentativeoftheorganization
b.makingoneselfavailabletooutsidersasarepresentativeoftheorganization

c.servingasanofficialrepresentativeoftheorganizationatgatheringsoutsidetheorganization

d.escortingofficialvisitors

2.Spokesperson.Whenamanageractsasaspokesperson,theemphasisisonansweringlettersorinquiriesandformally
reportingtoindividualsandgroupsoutsidethemanager'sdirectorganizationalunit.Asaspokesperson,themanagerialleader
keepsfivegroupsofpeopleinformedabouttheunit'sactivities,plans,capabilities,andpossibilities(vision):

a.upperlevelmanagement

b.clientsorcustomers

c.otherimportantoutsiderssuchaslaborunions

d.professionalcolleagues

e.thegeneralpublic

Dealingwithoutsidegroupsandthegeneralpublicisusuallytheresponsibilityoftoplevelmanagers.

3.Negotiator.Partofalmostanymanager'sjobdescriptionistryingtomakedealswithothersforneededresources.Four
illustrativenegotiatingactivitiesareasfollows:

a.bargainingwithsuperiorsforfunds,facilities,equipment,orotherformsofsupport

b.bargainingwithotherunitsintheorganizationfortheuseofstaff,facilities,equipment,orotherformsofsupport

c.bargainingwithsuppliersandvendorsforservices,schedules,anddeliverytimes

d.bargainingwithjobcandidatesaboutstartingcompensationandbenefits

4.Coachandmotivator.Aneffectiveleadertakesthetimetocoachandmotivateteammembers,andsometimestoinspire
largegroupsofpeopleinsidetheorganization.Thisroleincludesfivespecificbehaviors:

a.informallyrecognizingteammembers'achievements

b.providingteammemberswithfeedbackconcerningineffectiveperformance

c.ensuringthatteammembersareinformedofstepsthatcanimprovetheirperformance

d.implementingrewardsandpunishmentstoencourageandsustaingoodperformance

e.inspiringpeoplethroughsuchmeansasbeingcharismatic,creatingvisions,tellinginterestingstories,andbeinghighly
ethical

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5.Teambuilder.Akeyaspectofaleader'sroleistobuildaneffectiveteam.Activitiescontributingtothisroleinclude:

a.ensuringthatteammembersarerecognizedfortheiraccomplishments,suchasthroughlettersofappreciation

b.initiatingactivitiesthatcontributetogroupmorale,suchasgivingpartiesandsponsoringsportsteams

c.holdingperiodicstaffmeetingstoencourageteammemberstotalkabouttheiraccomplishments,problems,andconcerns

6.Teamplayer.Relatedtotheteambuilderroleisthatoftheteamplayer.Threebehaviorsofteamplayersare:

a.displayingappropriatepersonalconduct

b.cooperatingwithotherunitsintheorganization

c.displayingloyaltytosuperiorsbyfullysupportingtheirplansanddecisions
7.Technicalproblemsolver.Itisparticularlyimportantforsupervisorsandmiddlemanagerstohelpteammemberssolve
technicalproblems.Twoactivitiescontributingtothisroleare:

a.servingasatechnicalexpertoradviser,suchashelpingthegroupmakeoptimumuseofsocialmarketingtopromotethe
company

b.performingindividualcontributortasksonaregularbasis,suchasmakingsalescallsorrepairingmachinery

8.Entrepreneur.Althoughnotselfemployed,managerswhoworkinlargeorganizationshavesomeresponsibilityfor
suggestinginnovativeideasorfurtheringthebusinessaspectsofthefirm.Threeentrepreneurialleadershiproleactivitiesare:

a.readingtradepublicationsandprofessionaljournalstokeepupwithwhatishappeningintheindustryandprofession

b.talkingwithcustomersorothersintheorganizationtokeepawareofchangingneedsandrequirements

c.gettinginvolvedinsituationsoutsidetheunitthatcouldsuggestwaysofimprovingtheunit'sperformance,suchasvisiting
otherfirms,attendingprofessionalmeetingsortradeshows,andparticipatingineducationalprograms

9.Strategicplanner.Toplevelmanagersengageinstrategicplanning,usuallyassistedbyinputfromothersthroughoutthe
organization.Carryingoutthestrategicplannerroleenablesthemanagertopracticestrategicleadership.Thestrategistroleis
concernedwithshapingthefutureoftheorganization,oraunitwithinthelargerorganization.Specificactivitiesinvolvedin
thisroleinclude:

a.settingavisionanddirectionfortheorganizationandprovidinginnovativeideastopursue

b.helpingthefirmdealwiththeexternalenvironment

c.helpingdeveloporganizationalpolicies

10.Executor.Incarryingouttheexecutorrole,theleadermakesthingshappen,oftenhelpingtranslateplansintoaction.Parts
ofthisroleinclude:

a.translatingstrategyintoaction,suchashelpingdevelopactionplans

b.makingchangehappen

c.holdingpeopleaccountabletoensurethatproductiveworkisaccomplished

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Acommonthreadintheleadershiprolesofamanageristhatthemanagerialleaderinsomewayinspiresorinfluencesothers.
AnanalysisintheHarvardBusinessReviewconcludedthatthemostbasicroleforcorporateleadersistoreleasethehuman
spiritthatmakesinitiative,creativity,andentrepreneurshippossible.29Animportantpracticalimplicationisthatmanagersat
everylevelcanexerciseleadership.Forexample,ateamleadercanmakeanimportantcontributiontothefirm'sthrustfor
efficiencybyexplainingtoteammembershowtominimizeduplicationsinamailinglist.LeadershipSkillBuildingExercise
11providesanopportunitytoapplyroleanalysistoyourself.

P.15

Uptothispoint,wehavedescribedthemeaningofleadership,howleadershipaffectsorganizationalperformance,andthe
manyactivitiescarriedoutbyleaders.Youhavehadanopportunitytoexploreyourattitudestowardoccupyingtheleadership
roleandtopersonallyapplyleadershiproleanalysis.Wenowfurtherpersonalizeinformationaboutleadership.

TheaccompanyingLeaderinActionhelpsillustratebothleadershiprolesandthefactthataleadercanmakeadifference.

P.16

LeadershipSelfAssessmentQuiz11:ReadinessfortheLeadershipRole
Instructions:Indicatetheextenttowhichyouagreewitheachofthefollowingstatements,usingthefollowing
scale:1,disagreestrongly2,disagree3,neutral4,agree5,agreestrongly.

P.11

ScoringandInterpretation:Calculateyourtotalscorebyaddingthenumberscircled.Atentativeinterpretationofthescoring
isasfollows:

90100:Highreadinessfortheleadershiprole
6089:Moderatereadinessfortheleadershiprole
4059:Someuneasinesswiththeleadershiprole
39orless:Lowreadinessfortheleadershiprole

Ifyouarealreadyasuccessfulleaderandyouscoredlowonthisquestionnaire,ignoreyourscore.Ifyouscoredsurprisingly
lowandyouarenotyetaleader,orarecurrentlyperformingpoorlyasaleader,studythestatementscarefully.Consider
changingyourattitudeoryourbehaviorsothatyoucanlegitimatelyanswermoreofthestatementswitha4ora5.Studying
therestofthistextwillgiveyouadditionalinsightsthatmaybehelpfulinyourdevelopmentasaleader.

P.12

LeadershipSkillBuildingExercise11:MyLeadershipRoleAnalysis

Hereisanopportunityforyoutothinkthroughyourcurrentlevelofskillorpotentialabilitytocarryout
successfullythetenleadershiprolesalreadydescribed.Eachrolewillbelistedalongwithareminderofoneofitskeyaspects.
Checknexttoeachrolewhetheritisanactivityyoucouldcarryoutnow,orsomethingforwhichyouwillneedmore
experienceandpreparation.Forthoseactivitiesyoucheckascapableofdoingitnow,jotdownanexampleofyoursuccess
inthisarea.Forexample,apersonwhocheckedcapableofdoingitnowforRole7,technicalproblemsolver,mighthave
written:IhelpedtherestaurantwhereIwasanassistantmanagerbringinmorerevenueduringoffpeakhours.Ipromotedan
earlybirdsupperforseniorcitizens.

Fewreadersofthisbookwillhavehadexperienceincarryingoutmostoftheseroles.Sorelatethespecificrolestoany
leadershipexperienceyoumayhavehad,includingfulltimework,parttimework,volunteerwork,clubs,committees,and
sports.
CAPABLEOF NEEDPREPARATION
LEADERSHIPROLE DOINGITNOW ANDEXPERIENCE
1.Figurehead(Engageinceremonialactivitiesrepresentthegroupto
outsiders.)
2.Spokesperson(Answerinquiriesreportinformationaboutthegroupto
outsiders.)
3.Negotiator(Makedealswithothersforneededresources.)
4.Coachandmotivator(Recognizeachievementsencouragegive
feedbackandadviceinspirepeople.)
5.Teambuilder(Contributetogroupmoraleholdmeetingstoencourage
memberstotalkaboutaccomplishmentsandconcerns.)
6.Teamplayer(Correctconductcooperatewithothersbeloyal.)
7.Technicalproblemsolver(Helpgroupmemberssolvetechnical
problemsperformindividualcontributortasks.)
8.Entrepreneur(Suggestinnovativeideasandfurtherbusinessactivityof
thegroupsearchfornewundertakingsforthegroup.)
9.Strategicplanner(Setdirectionforothersbasedonexternal
environment.)
10.Executor.(Makesthingshappen,oftenhelpingtranslateplansinto
action.)

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Interpretation:Themoreofthetenrolesyouarereadytoperform,themorereadyyouaretofunctionasamanagerorto
performmanagerialwork.Yourstudyofleadershipwillfacilitatecarryingoutmoreoftheseroleseffectively.Forpurposesof
skilldevelopment,chooseoneoftherolesinwhichyouneedpreparationandexperience.Readsomeinformationinthistext
orelsewhereabouttherole,andthenpracticethatrolewhentheopportunityarises.Orcreateanopportunitytopracticethat
role.Forexample,assumeyouhaveavaluableskillsuchasgatheringfollowersonasocialmediawebsite.Duringthenext
coupleofweeks,coachabeginnerincreatingeffectivesocialmediaposts.

LeaderinAction:CEOMartinMucciofPaychexWantstoMakeaDifference

AlargenumberofemployeescheeredwheninsiderMartinMucciwasnamedpresidentandchiefexecutiveofficer
ofPaychexInc.in2010.Paychexisanestablishedproviderofpayroll,humanresource,andbenefitsoutsourcingservicesfor
smalltomediumsizedbusinessfirms.CompanyfounderandphilanthropistTomGolisanosaidMartyMuccihasearnedthe
opportunitytobetheCEOinthiscompany,basedonhischaracter,hislevelofaccomplishment,andhisabilitytobean
inspiringleader.JohnMorphy,seniorvicepresident,chieffinancialofficer,andtreasurercommented,HavingMartymeans
youhavesomeonepeoplewillrespect,andhespendsalotoftimewiththepeopleandcaresaboutthem.Atthesametime,he'll
makedecisionsheneedstomakeonanexpedientbasis.

TorConstantino,aformercolleagueatacommunicationscompany,addedthatPaychexisboundtosucceedwithMucciatthe
head.He'saforceofnaturefromabusinessperspective,Constantinosaid.Hehasaverysavvybackgroundandanexcellent
graspofcustomersandemployeesandhowtogetthemostoutofindividuals.Foratopqualityorganizationtolandsucha
stellarexecutiveasMartyisonlygoingtomeangoodthingsforPaychexinthefuture.

InacceptingtheCEOassignment,Muccisaid,IamexcitedabouttheopportunitytotakePaychextothenextlevelof
performance.Wehavemorethan12,000dedicatedemployeesandanexperiencedmanagementteam,andIlookforwardto
workingtogethertobuildinthecompany'shistoryofsuccess.

Muccisaidheliketobeinvolvedinjustabouteveryfacetoftheorganization,andstayontopofalmosteverything.Board
memberswerelookingforalongtermbuilderforthebusiness,togrowthebusinessanddoitinasteady,continuousrun,said
Mucci,
P.16

whohasbeenwithPaychexsince2002asseniorvicepresidentofoperations.IbelieveIcandothatandIacceptthe
challengetocontinuallybuildthecompanyoverthelonghaul.

MuccisaidthatPaychexwillprosperthroughgrowingitsclientbasethroughbettersalesexecution,aswellashavingtheright
products.Headdedthatthecompanyplannedtogrowitspayrollclientbasethroughacquisitionandsales.Paychexwasalso
exploringwhetherthereweremarketsotherthanpayrollandhumanresourcesoutsourcingitcouldpenetrate.Mucciwondered
iftherewereotherthingslikeofferingaccountingsoftwareandcreditcardprocessingthatsmallbusinessesneed.

IntalkingabouttheCEOrole,Muccisaidthatherelishedhavingresponsibilityforgettingresults.Hepointedoutthathaving
alreadyhadoversightof8,000ofthe12,000employeeshehadagoodsenseofthepeople.

Paychexandtheculturethat'sbeenbuiltoveralmost40yearswillseechangesbutit'llremainmostlythesame.Youdon't
breaksomethingthat'ssuccessful.Igotintothejobtomakeadifference,andthatisjustmoresuccessandthelongtermgrowth
ofthebusiness.Ifittakeschangesinpeopleorprocessesorproducts,we'lldoit.

MucciholdsanMBAfromtheSimonSchooloftheUniversityofRochester,andwaspreviouslyvicepresidentofoperations
forPaychex.HisotherbusinessexperienceincludesbeingtheCEOofatelephonecompany,andthepresidentoftelephone
operationsforFrontierCommunications.

QUESTIONS
1.InwhatwaysdoesMuccihopetomakeanimpactasaleader?

2.WhichleadershiprolesdoesMucciseehimselfasoccupying?

3.HowqualifieddoesMucciappeartobetoholdtheCEOpositionofPaychex?

Source:Storycreatedfromfactsinthefollowingsources:MatthewDaneman,Mucci'sGoal:BuildSalesQuickly,Repeat,
DemocratandChronicleBusiness,October20,2010,pp.5B,6NateDougherty,NumbersGuy:MartinMucciWillFocuson
RestoringSalesGrowthatPaychex,RochesterBusinessJournal(www.rbj.net),October22,2010,pp.16PaychexNames
MartinMucciPresidentandChiefExecutiveOfficer,BusinessWire(www.techzone360.com/news),September30,2010
PaychexNamesMartinMucciCEO,President,FairportEastRochesterPost(www.fairporterpost.com),September30,
2010,p.1.

TheSatisfactionsandFrustrationsofBeingaLeader
Thetermleaderhasapositiveconnotationformostpeople.Tobecalledaleaderisgenerallybetterthantobecalledafollower
orasubordinate.(Thetermfollowerhasvirtuallydisappearedinorganizations,andthetermsubordinatehasfallenoutoffavor.
Thepreferredtermforapersonwhoreportstoaleaderormanageristeammember,groupmember,orassociate.Researchers,
however,continuetousethetermssubordinateandfollowerfortechnicalpurposes.)Yetbeingaleader,suchasateamleader,
vicepresident,orCOO(chiefoperatingofficer),doesnotalwaysbringpersonalsatisfaction.Someleadershipjobsaremorefun
thanothers,suchasbeingtheleaderofasuccessfulgroupwithcheerfulteammembers.

Becausemostofyouarecontemplatingbecomingaleaderormovingfurtherintoaleadershiprole,itisworthwhiletoexamine
someofthepotentialsatisfactionsandfrustrationsmanypeoplefindinbeinganorganizationalleader.

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SatisfactionsofLeaders
Thetypesofsatisfactionsthatyoumightobtainfrombeingaformalleaderdependonyourparticularleadershipposition.
Factorssuchastheamountofmoneyyouarepaidandthetypeofpeopleinyourgroupinfluenceyoursatisfaction.Leaders
oftenexperiencesevensourcesofsatisfaction.

1.Afeelingofpowerandprestige.Beingaleaderautomaticallygrantsyousomepower.Prestigeisforthcomingbecausemany
peoplethinkhighlyofpeoplewhoareleaders.Insomeorganizations,toplevelleadersareaddressedasMr.,Mrs.,orMs.,
whereaslowerrankingpeoplearereferredtobytheirsurnames.Yetmostleadersencourageotherstoaddressthembytheirfirst
names.
2.Achancetohelpothersgrowanddevelop.Aleaderworksdirectlywithpeople,oftenteachingthemjobskills,servingasa
mentor,andlisteningtopersonalproblems.Partofaleader'sjobistohelpotherpeoplebecomemanagersandleaders.Aleader
oftenfeelsasmuchofapeoplehelperasdoesahumanresourcemanageroracounselor.KipTindell,founderoftheContainer
Store,saysthatoneofthemostrewardingaspectsofhisjobisenrichingpeople'slives.30

3.Highincome.Leaders,ingeneral,receivehigherpaythanteammembers,andexecutiveleadersinmajorbusiness
corporationstypicallyearnseveralmilliondollarsperyear.Ahandfulofbusinessexecutivesreceivecompensationofover
$100millionperyearandseveralhavereceivedover$150millionascompensationforbeingfired.Ifmoneyisanimportant
motivatororsatisfier,beingaleaderhasabuiltinsatisfaction.Insomesituationsateamleaderearnsvirtuallythesameamount
ofmoneyasotherteammembers.Occupyingateamleadershipposition,however,isastartingpointonthepathtohigh
payingleadershippositions.

4.Respectandstatus.Aleaderfrequentlyreceivesrespectfromgroupmembers.Heorshealsoenjoysahigherstatusthan
peoplewhoarenotoccupyingaleadershiprole.Statusaccompaniesbeingappointedtoaleadershippositiononoroffthejob.
Whenanindividual'spersonalqualificationsmatchtheposition,hisorherstatusisevenhigher.

5.Goodopportunitiesforadvancement.Onceyoubecomealeader,youradvancementopportunitiesincrease.Obtaininga
leadershippositionisavitalfirststepforcareeradvancementinmanyorganizations.Stafforindividualcontributorpositions
helpbroadenaperson'sprofessionalexperience,butmostexecutivesrisethroughamanagerialpath.

6.Afeelingofbeinginonthings.Asidebenefitofbeingaleaderisthatyoureceivemoreinsideinformation.Forinstance,asa
manageryouareinvitedtoattendmanagementmeetings.Inthosemeetingsyouaregiveninformationnotpassedalongto
individualcontributors.Onesuchtidbitmightbeplansforexpansionordownsizing.

7.Anopportunitytocontrolmoneyandotherresources.Aleaderisofteninthepositionofhelpingtoprepareadepartment
budgetandauthorizeexpenses.Eventhoughyoucannotspendthismoneypersonally,knowingthat

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yourjudgmentonfinancialmattersistrusteddoesprovidesomesatisfaction.Manyleadersinbothprivateandpublic
organizationscontrolannualbudgetsofseveralmilliondollars.

DissatisfactionsandFrustrationsofLeaders
Aboutoneoutoftenpeopleintheworkforceisclassifiedasasupervisor,administrator,ormanager.Noteveryoneofthese
peopleisatrueleader.Yettheproblemsthesepeopleexperienceoftenstemfromtheleadershipportionsoftheirjob.Many
individualcontributorsrefusetoacceptaleadershiprolebecauseofthefrustrationstheyhaveseenleadersendure.These
frustrationsincludethefollowing:

1.Toomuchuncompensatedovertime.Peopleinleadershipjobsareusuallyexpectedtoworklongerhoursthanother
employees.Suchunpaidhoursarecalledcasualovertime.Peopleinorganizationalleadershippositionstypicallyspendabout
fiftyfivehoursperweekworking.Duringpeakperiodsofpeakdemands,thisfigurecansurgetoeightyhoursperweek.

2.Toomanyheadaches.Itwouldtakeseveralpagestolistallthepotentialproblemsleadersface.Beingaleaderisagoodway
todiscoverthevalidityofMurphy'slaw:Ifanythingcangowrong,itwill.Aleaderissubjecttoabatchofproblems
involvingpeopleandthings.Manypeoplefindthataleadershippositionisasourceofstress,andmanymanagersexperience
burnout.

3.Facingaperformorperishmentality.Manyleadersfaceanenormousamountofpressuretoeitherperformorbefired.
Thesepressuresoftencanbefoundincompaniesownedbyprivateequity(orbuyout)firms.Theheadofeachcompanyowned
byanequityfirmisexpectedtomakethecompanyprofitablethroughsuchmeansasslashingcosts,boostingsalesin
internationalmarkets,andpayingdowndebt.ThereisalsoconsiderablepressureontheCEOtoimproveoperationsbymaking
themmoreefficient.31

4.Notenoughauthoritytocarryoutresponsibility.Peopleinmanagerialpositionscomplainrepeatedlythattheyareheld
responsibleforthingsoverwhichtheyhavelittlecontrol.Asaleader,youmightbeexpectedtoworkwithanillperforming
teammember,yetyoulackthepowertofirehimorher.Oryoumightbeexpectedtoproducehighqualityservicewithtoo
smallastaffandnoauthoritytobecomefullystaffed.

5.Loneliness.AsformerSecretaryofStateandfivestargeneralColinPowellsays,Commandislonely.Thehigheryourise
asaleader,thelonelieryouwillbeinacertainsense.Leadershiplimitsthenumberofpeopleinwhomyoucanconfide.Itis
awkwardtoconfidenegativefeelingsaboutyouremployertoateammember.Itisequallyawkwardtocomplainaboutone
groupmembertoanother.Somepeopleinleadershippositionsfeellonelybecausetheymissbeingoneofthegang.

6.Toomanyproblemsinvolvingpeople.Amajorfrustrationfacingaleaderisthenumberofhumanresourceproblems
requiringaction.Theloweryourleadershipposition,themoresuchproblemsyouface.Forexample,the

P.19

officesupervisorspendsmoretimedealingwithproblememployeesthandoesthechiefinformationofficer.Ifyoudonotlike
dealingwithpeopleproblems,youarenotsuitedforaleadershipormanagementposition.32

7.Toomuchorganizationalpolitics.Peopleatalllevelsofanorganization,fromtheofficeassistanttothechairpersonofthe
board,mustbeawareofpoliticalfactors.Yetyoucanavoidpoliticsmoreeasilyasanindividualcontributorthanyoucanasa
leader.Asaleaderyouhavetoengageinpoliticalbyplayfromthreedirections:below,sideways,andupward.Politicaltactics
suchasformingalliancesandcoalitionsareanecessarypartofaleader'srole.Anothertroublesomeaspectoforganizational
politicsisthattherearepeoplelurkingwhowanttotakeyououtofthegame,particularlyifyouarechangingthestatusquo.
Theseenemieswithinmightattackyoudirectlyinanattempttoshifttheissuetoyourcharacterandstyleandavoiddiscussing
thechangesyouareattemptingtoimplement.Oryoursuperiorsmightdivertyoufromyourgoalsbykeepingyou
overwhelmedwiththedetailsofyourchangeeffort.33Inaddition,backstabbersmayagreewithyouinpersonbutbadmouth
youtoothers.

8.Thepursuitofconflictinggoals.Amajorchallengefacingleadersistonavigateamongconflictinggoals.Thecentraltheme
ofthesedilemmasisattemptingtograntotherstheauthoritytoactindependently,yetstillgettingthemalignedorpulling
togetherforacommonpurpose.34Manyofthetopicsrelatingtotheseconflictinggoalsarediscussedatlaterpointsinthetext.

9.Beingperceivedasunethical,especiallyifyouareacorporateexecutive.Themanycorporatefinancialscandalsmade
publicinrecentyearshaveledtoextremeperceptionsthatCEOs,inparticular,aredishonest,unethical,andalmostcriminalin
theirbehavior.Evenif95percentofcorporateleadersarehonestanddevotedtotheirconstituents,theleaderstillhastodeal
withthepossibilityofbeingperceivedasdishonest.

AFrameworkforUnderstandingLeadership
Manydifferenttheoriesandexplanationsofleadershiphavebeendevelopedbecauseoftheinterestinleadershipasapractice
andasaresearchtopic.Severalattemptshavebeenmadetointegratethelargenumberofleadershiptheoriesintoone
comprehensiveframework.35Theframeworkpresentedherefocusesonthemajorsetsofvariablesthatinfluenceleadership
effectiveness.Thebasicassumptionunderlyingtheframeworkcanbeexpressedintermsofasimpleformulawithaprofound
meaning:

L=f(l,gm,s)

Theformulameansthattheleadershipprocessisafunctionoftheleader,groupmembers(orfollowers),andothersituational
variables.BruceJ.Avolioemphasizesthatleadershipisafunctionofboththeleaderandtheledandthecomplexityofthe
context(settingandenvironment).36Inotherwords,leadership

P.20

FIGURE12A
FrameworkforUnderstandingLeadership.ManagingToday!byStephenP.Robbins,1997.Reprintedbypermissionof
PrenticeHall,Inc.UpperSaddleRiver,N.J.

doesnotexistintheabstractbuttakesintoaccountfactorsrelatedtotheleader,thepersonorpersonsbeingled,andavariety
offorcesintheenvironment.Acharismaticandvisionaryleadermightbejustwhatatroubledorganizationneedstohelpit
achieveworldclasssuccess.Yetagroupofparttimetelemarketersmightneedamoredirectandfocusedtypeofleadertohelp
themwhentheirtelephonecallsmostlymeetwithabruptrejectionfromthepeoplesolicited.

ThemodelpresentedinFigure12extendsthissituationalperspective.Accordingtothismodel,leadershipcanbestbe
understoodbyexaminingitskeyvariables:leadercharacteristicsandtraits,leaderbehaviorandstyle,groupmember
characteristics,andtheinternalandexternalenvironment.Attherightsideoftheframework,leadershipeffectivenessrefersto
attainingdesirableoutcomessuchasproductivity,quality,andsatisfactioninagivensituation.Whetherornottheleaderis
effectivedependsonthefoursetsofvariablesinthebox.

Beginningatthetopofthecircle,leadercharacteristicsandtraitsreferstotheinnerqualities,suchasselfconfidenceand
problemsolvingability,thathelpaleaderfunctioneffectivelyinmanysituations.Leaderbehaviorandstylereferstothe
activitiesengagedinbytheleader,includingcharacteristicapproach,thatrelatetohisorhereffectiveness.Aleaderwho
frequentlycoachesgroupmembersandpracticesparticipativeleadership,forexample,mightbeeffectiveinmany
circumstances.

Groupmembercharacteristicsreferstoattributesofthegroupmembersthatcouldhaveabearingonhoweffectivethe
leadershipattemptwillbe.Intelligentandwellmotivatedgroupmembers,forexample,helptheleaderdoanoutstandingjob.
Theinternalandexternalenvironmentalsoinfluencesleadershipeffectiveness.Aleaderinaculturallydiverseenvironment,
forexample,willneedtohavemulticulturalskillstobeeffective.Allofthetopicsinthistextfitsomewhereintothismodel,
andthefitwillbemoreobviousatsomeplacesthanatothers.Table12outlineshowtheelementsoftheleadershipmodelline
upwithchaptersinthetext.

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TABLE12RelationshipbetweenChapterTopicsandtheFrameworkforUnderstandingLeadership
COMPONENTOFTHEMODEL RELEVANTCHAPTERORCHAPTERS
Leadercharacteristicsandtraits Chapter3,PersonalAttributesofLeaders
Chapter4,TheCharismaticandTransformationalAspectsofLeaders
Chapter5,TheMoralAspectsofLeadership
Chapter12,CommunicatingwithOthersandResolvingConflict
Chapter13,TheCreativeandInnovativeAspectsofLeaders
Leaderbehaviorandstyle Chapter5,TheMoralAspectsofLeadership
Chapter6,EnhancingTeamworkwithintheGroup
Chapter8,LeadershipActions,Attitudes,andStyles
Chapter10,HowLeadersExertInfluence
Groupmembercharacteristics Chapter7,TheLeaderasaMotivatorandCoach
Chapter9,HowLeadersRespondtotheSituationatHand
Internalandexternalenvironment Chapter2,GlobalandCrossCulturalLeadership
Chapter11,HowLeadersAttainandMaintainPower
Chapter14,ThinkingStrategicallyandManagingKnowledge
Chapter15,TheDevelopmentofLeadersandSuccessionPlanning

TABLE12RelationshipbetweenChapterTopicsandtheFrameworkforUnderstandingLeadershipCengage
Learning2013

ThearrowsconnectingthefoursetsofvariablesinFigure12suggestareciprocalinfluenceamongthem.Someofthese
linkagesarestrongerthanothers.Themostpronouncedlinkageisthataleader'scharacteristicsandtraitswilltypically
influencetheleader'sstyle.Ifagivenindividualisextraverted,warm,andcaring,itwillbenaturalforthatpersontoadopta
peopleorientedleadershipstyle.Anotherlinkageisthatthegroupmembers'characteristicsmightinfluencetheleader'sstyle.If
themembersarecapableandselfsufficient,theleaderislikelytochoosealeadershipstylethatgrantsfreedomtothegroup.It
willbeeasierfortheleadertoempowerthesepeople.Afinallinkageisthattheinternalandexternalenvironmentcan
influenceormediatetheleader'straitstosomeextent.Inanenvironmentinwhichcreativityandrisktakingarefostered,
leadersaremorelikelytogiveexpressiontotheirtendenciestowardcreativeproblemsolvingandrisktaking.

Akeypointofthismodelisthatleadershipisamultilevelphenomenon.Theleaderinteractswithgroupmembersoneata
time,andalsowiththe

P.22

group.Atthesametime,leadershiptakesplaceinthecontextoftheorganizationandtheexternalenvironment.Asnotedby
leadershipscholarsFrancisJ.YammarinoandFredDanjsereau,leadershipinvolvesamovementfromonelevel(personlevel)
toahigherlevel(leaderfollowergrouplevel).37Afterthatcometheorganizationalandsocietallevels.Abriefexampleof
leadershipasamultilevelphenomenonfollows:

TeamleaderAshleydecidestocoachteammemberLionhowtoexpressherideasmoreforciblywhenmakinga
PowerPointpresentation.AshleyrecognizesthatLiisshy,soshemovesslowlywithhercoaching.Ashleyalso
recognizesthatsheisworkingwithasupportiveteam,soshethinksthattheteamwillbeencouragingtowardLi
inwhateverprogressshemakes.Inaddition,Ashleyrecognizesthattheorganizationasawholeencourages
assertiveness,soshefeelsjustifiedincoachingLitowardbeingmoreassertiveinherpresentations.Yetatthe
sametimeAshleyunderstandsthatLiwasraisedinaculture(societylevel)thatvalueshumilityandtimidityso
shedoesnotpushLitoofasttomakeimprovements.

SkillDevelopmentinLeadership
Leadershipskillsareinhighdemand.Executiveswhorecruitcandidatesforhighlevelmanagementjobslistleadershipskills
asthetopattributestheywant.Leadershipskillsarealsosoughtincandidatesforentrylevelprofessionalpositions.38
Althoughstudentsofleadershipwillfindthisinformationencouraging,developingleadershipskillsismorecomplexthan
developingastructuredskillsuchasinsertinganadditionalmemorycardintoacomputer.Nevertheless,youcandevelop
leadershipskillsbystudyingthistextbook,whichfollowsagenerallearningmodel:

1.Conceptualinformationandbehavioralguidelines.Eachchapterinthistextbookpresentsusefulinformationabout
leadership,includingasectiontitledGuidelinesforActionandSkillDevelopment.

2.Conceptualinformationdemonstratedbyexamplesandbriefdescriptionsofleadersinaction.Studentscanlearnmuch
fromreadingabouthoweffective(orineffective)leadersoperate.

3.Experientialexercises.Thetextbookprovidesanopportunityforpracticeandpersonalizationthroughcases,roleplays,and
selfassessmentquizzes.Selfquizzesareemphasizedherebecausetheyareaneffectivemethodofhelpingyoupersonalizethe
information,therebylinkingconceptualinformationtoyourself.Forexample,youwillreadabouttheimportanceof
assertivenessinleadershipandalsocompleteanassertivenessquiz.

4.Feedbackonskillutilization,orperformance,fromothers.Feedbackexercisesappearatseveralplacesinthetext.
Implementingsomeoftheskillsoutsideoftheclassroomwillprovideadditionalopportunitiesforfeedback.

5.Practiceinnaturalsettings.Skilldevelopmentrequiresactivepractice.Agivenskillhastobepracticedmanytimesin
naturalsettingsbeforeit

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becomesintegratedcomfortablyintoaleader'smodeofoperation.Abasicprincipleoflearningisthatpracticeisnecessaryto
developandimproveskills.Suppose,forexample,thatyoureadaboutgivingadviceintheformofquestions,asdescribedin
Chapter7.Ifyoupracticethisskillatleastsixtimesinlivesettings,youwillprobablyhaveacquiredanimportantnewskillfor
coachingothers.

LeadershipSkillBuildingExercise12givesyoutheopportunitytobegindevelopingyourleadershipskillssystematically.

LeadershipSkillBuildingExercise12:MyLeadershipPortfolio

Here,weaskyoutobegindevelopingaleadershipportfoliothatwillbeapersonaldocumentofyourleadership
capabilitiesandexperiences.Ineachchapter,wewillrecommendnewentriesforyourportfolio.Atthesametime,we
encourageyoutouseyourimaginationindeterminingwhatconstitutesasuitableadditiontoyourleadershipportfolio.

Wesuggestyoubeginyourportfoliowithapersonalmissionstatementthatexplainsthetypeofleadershipyouplanto
practice.Anexamplemightbe,Iintendtobecomeawellrespectedcorporateprofessional,akeymemberofahappyand
healthyfamily,andacontributortomycommunity.Iaspiretoleadmanypeopletowardconstructiveactivities.Includeyour
jobrsuminyourportfolio,anddevoteaspecialsectiontoleadershipexperiences.Theseexperiencescanbefromthejob,
communityandreligiousactivities,andsports.(SeeLeadershipSelfAssessmentQuiz12.)

LeadershipSelfAssessmentQuiz12:TheLeadershipExperienceAudit

Instructions:Readersofthisbookvaryconsiderablyintheirleadership,managerial,andsupervisoryexperience.
Yetevenreaderswhohavenotyetoccupiedaformalleadershippositionmayhavehadatleastatasteofbeingaleader.Use
thefollowingchecklisttorecordanypossibleleadershipexperiencesyoumighthavehadinthepastorhavenow.

Heldaformalleadershipposition,suchasvicepresident,departmenthead,manager,assistantmanager,teamleader,
groupleader,orcrewchief
Seizedtheopportunityonthejobtotakecareofaproblem,althoughnotassignedsuchresponsibility
Headedacommitteeortaskforce
Wascaptainorcocaptainofanathleticteam
Heldofficeinaclubathighschool,careerschool,orcollege
Waseditorofacampusnewspaperorsectionofthenewspapersuchassports
Organizedastudygroupforacourse
Organizedanongoingactivitytosellmerchandiseatpeople'shomes,suchasforAvon,MaryKay,orTupperware

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Workedinmultilevelsalesandrecruitedandguidednewmembers
Organizedacharitydriveforaschoolorreligiousorganization
Organizedavacationtripforfriendsorfamily
Tookchargeduringacrisis,suchasbyhelpingpeopleoutofaburningbuildingorafloodedhouse
Washeadofachoiroraband
Headedacitizens'groupmakingdemandsonacompanyorthegovernment
Organizedagroupoffriendstohelpoutpeopleinneed,suchasphysicallydisabledseniorcitizens
Other

Interpretation:Themoreexperiencesyouchecked,themoreleadershipexperienceyoualreadyhaveunderyourbelt.
Leadershipexperienceofanytypecanbevaluableinlearningtoworkwellwithpeopleandcoordinatetheirefforts.Many
CEOsinavarietyoffieldsgottheirstartasassistantfastfoodrestaurantmanagers.

Followership:BeinganEffectiveGroupMember
Tobeaneffectiveleader,oneneedsgoodfollowers.Leaderscannotexistwithoutfollowers.Aswementionedattheoutsetof
thisbook,thewordfollowerssuffersfrompoliticalincorrectness,yetitisaneutraltermasusedbyleadershipresearchers.A
pointofviewthatrepresentsamodernviewofleadership,asexplainedbyJ.RichardHackmanandRuthWageman,isthat
leadersarealsofollowersandfollowersalsoexhibitleadership.Eachbossisalsoasubordinate,suchasateamleaderreporting
toamiddlemanager.39Andeachsubordinatewilloftencarryoutaleadershiprole,suchasheadingupashorttermprojector
evenorganizingthisyear'sholidayparty.Anotherperspectiveonfollowersisthattheyarethepeoplewhogetthingsdone
thatthebrightideasofleaderswouldgonowherewithoutthedoers.40

Mostofthetopicsinourstudyofleadershipareaimedatinspiring,motivating,andinfluencinggroupmemberstowantto
achieveorganizationalgoals.Itisalsovaluable,however,tofocusonthreekeyaspectsofbeinganeffectivegroupmember:
typesoffollowers,thepersonalcharacteristicsofproductivefollowers,andtheimportanceofcollaborationbetweenleaders
andfollowers.

TypesofFollowers
Amajorchallengeinbeingaleaderistorecognizethatfollowersdiffersubstantiallyintalentandmotivation.Similarly,a
challengeinbecominganeffectivefolloweristounderstandyourbasicapproachtobeingagroupmember.BarbaraKellerman
offersatypologythathelpsexplainhowfollowersdifferfromoneanother.Shefocusesonthedefiningfactorofthelevelof
engagementwiththeleaderorgrouptoarriveatfivetypesoffollower,as

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FIGURE13FollowersClassifiedbyLevelof
Engagement.CengageLearning2013

illustratedinFigure13.Atoneendofthecontinuumisfeelinganddoingnothing.Attheotherendisbeingpassionately
committedanddeeplyinvolved.41

1.Isolatesarecompletelydetached,andpassivelysupportthestatusquobynottakingactiontobringaboutchanges.Theydo
notcaremuchabouttheirleadersandjustdotheirjobwithouttakinganinterestintheoverallorganization.Isolatesneed
coaching,yetsometimesfiringthemistheonlysolution.

2.Bystandersarefreeriderswhoaretypicallydetachedwhenitfitstheirselfinterests.Atameeting,abystanderismorelikely
tofocusontherefreshmentsandtakingpeeksathisorherpersonaltextmessages.Bystandershavelowinternalmotivation,so
theleaderhastoworkhardtofindtherightmotivatorstosparkthebystanderintoaction.

3.Participantsshowenoughengagementtoinvestsomeoftheirowntimeandmoneytomakeadifference,suchastakingthe
initiativetolearnnewtechnologythatwouldhelpthegroup.Participantsaresometimesfor,andsometimesagainst,theleader
andthecompany.Theleaderhastoreviewtheirworkandattitudescarefullytodeterminewhetherornottheparticipantis
beingconstructive.

4.Activistsareconsiderablyengaged,heavilyinvestedinpeopleandprocesses,andeagertodemonstratetheirsupportor
opposition.Theyfeelstrongly,eitherpositivelyornegatively,abouttheirleaderandtheorganizationandactaccordingly.An
activistmightbeenthusiasticaboutreachingcompanygoals,orsoconvincedthatthecompanyisdoingthewrongthingthat
heorsheblowsthewhistle(reportsthecompanytoanoutsideagency).Theleaderhastostayawareofwhethertheactivistis
fororagainstthecompany.
5.Diehardsaresuperengagedtothepointthattheyarewillingtogodownfortheirowncause,orwillingtoousttheleaderif
theyfeelheorsheisheadedinthewrongdirection.Diehardscanbeanassetoraliabilitytotheleader.Diehardshaveaneven
strongertendencytobewhistleblowersthandoactivists.

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Adiehard,forexample,mighttakeitonherowntotesttheleadquantityofpaintinchildren'sfurnituresoldbythecompany.
Leadershavetostayintouchwithdiehardstoseeiftheirenergyisbeingpointedintheserviceoftheorganization.

Thecategorizationoffollowersjustpresentedaddsatouchofrealismtounderstandingthechallengingroleofaleader.Not
everybodyinthegroupissuperchargedandeagertocollaboratetowardattainingorganizationalgoals.

EssentialQualitiesofEffectiveFollowers

AsobservedbyRobertE.Kelley,effectivefollowerssharefouressentialqualities:42

1.Selfmanagement.Thekeytobeingagoodfolloweristothinkforoneselfandtoworkwellwithoutclosesupervision.
Effectivegroupmembersseethemselvesasbeingascapableastheirleaders.

2.Commitment.Effectivefollowersarecommittedtosomethingbeyondthemselves,beitacause,product,department,
organization,idea,orvalue.Toacommittedgroupmember,theleaderfacilitatesprogresstowardachievingagoal.

3.Competenceandfocus.Effectivefollowersbuildtheircompetenceandfocustheireffortsformaximumimpact.Competence
centersonmasteringskillsthatwillbeusefultotheorganization.Lesseffectivegroupmembersrarelytaketheinitiativeto
engageintraininganddevelopment.

4.Courage.Effectivefollowersestablishthemselvesasindependent,criticalthinkersandfightforwhattheybelieveisright.A
goodfollower,forexample,mightchallengethecompany'spolicyoftakingninetydaystomakegoodonaccountspayable,or
ofrecruitingkeypeoplealmostexclusivelyfrompeoplewithdemographiccharacteristicssimilartothoseoftopmanagement.

Thislistisillustrative,sincealmostanypositivehumanqualitywouldcontributedirectlyorindirectlytobeinganeffective
groupmemberorfollower.Anotherwayofframingthequalitiesofeffectivefollowersistosaythatsuchfollowersdisplaythe
personalcharacteristicsandqualitiesofleaders.Althoughleaderscannotbeexpectedtochangethepersonalitiesofgroup
members,theycantakestepstoencouragethesequalities.Interventionssuchascoaching,empowerment,supportive
communication,andfrequentfeedbackwouldsupporteffectivefollowership.

CollaborationBetweenLeadersandFollowers
Akeyroleforfollowersistocollaboratewithleadersinachievingorganizationalgoals.Asdescribedbyleadershipguru
WarrenBennis,thepostbureaucraticorganization(atypeoforganizationthatcameafterthebureaucraticera,suchasteam
basedorganizations)requiresanewkindofalliancebetweenleadersandtheled.Whenhighlevelleadersdonotmakeallof
thedecisionsbutsolicitinputfromknowledgeablegroupmembers,leadersandfollowersworktogethermoreclosely.43

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Arelatedpointhereisthatthenewleaderandtheledarecloseallies.Greatleadersaremadebygreatgroupsevery
organizationalmemberneedstocontributeenergyandtalenttohelpleaderscarryouttheirrolessuccessfully.

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:Summary
Leadershipistheabilitytoinspireconfidenceinandsupportamongthepeoplewhoareneededtoachieveorganizational
goals.Leadingisamajorpartofamanager'sjob,butamanageralsoplans,organizes,andcontrols.Leadershipissaidtodeal
withchange,inspiration,motivation,andinfluence.Incontrast,managementdealsmorewithmaintainingequilibriumandthe
statusquo.Leadershipisoftenregardedasapartnershiporcollaborationbetweenleadersandgroupmembers.

Manypeopleattributeorganizationalperformancetoleadershipactions.Someresearchevidencesupportsthiswidelyaccepted
view.Forexample,onestudyshowedthatleadershipactionscanaffectperformance,butonlyiftheleaderisperceivedtobe
responsibleandinspirational.Othersarguethatcertainfactorsintheworkenvironment,calledsubstitutesforleadership,make
theleader'srolealmostsuperfluous.Amongthesefactorsarecloseknitteamsofhighlytrainedworkers,intrinsicsatisfaction
withwork,computertechnology,andprofessionalnorms.Anotherantileadershipargumentisthattheleaderisirrelevantin
mostorganizationaloutcomesbecausethesituationismoreimportantandtheleaderhasunilateralcontroloveronlyafew
resources.Moreover,sincenewleadersarechosenwhosevaluesarecompatiblewiththoseofthefirm,thosevaluesactuallyare
moreimportant.

Complexitytheoryarguesthatleadersandmanagerscandolittletoalterthecourseofthecomplexorganizationalsystem.The
system,ratherthantheleader,dictatesthatallcompaniesultimatelydie.

Examiningtherolescarriedoutbyleaderscontributestoanunderstandingoftheleadershipfunction.Tensuchleadershiproles
arethefigurehead,spokesperson,negotiator,coachandmotivator,teambuilder,teamplayer,technicalproblemsolver,
entrepreneur,strategicplanner,andexecutor.Animportantimplicationoftheserolesisthatmanagersateverylevelcanexert
leadership.

Leadershippositionsoftenaresatisfyingbecausetheyoffersuchthingsaspower,prestige,theopportunitytohelpothers,high
income,andtheopportunitytocontrolresources.Atothertimesbeingaleadercarrieswithitanumberoffrustrations,suchas
facingaperformorperishmentality,insufficientauthority,havingtodealwithhumanproblems,andtoomuchorganizational
politics.Theleaderalsohasthedifficulttaskofbalancingworkers'needtobeindependentwiththeirneedtocommittoa
commonpurpose.

Theframeworkforunderstandingleadershippresentedhereisbasedontheideathattheleadershipprocessisafunctionofthe
leader,groupmembers,andothersituationalvariables.Accordingtothemodel,leadershipcanbestbeunderstoodby
examiningitskeyvariables:leadercharacteristicsandtraits,leaderbehaviorandstyle,groupmembercharacteristics,andthe
internalandexternalenvironment.Leadershipeffectivenessisdependentonallfoursetsofvariables.Anotherpointofthe
modelisthatleadershipismultilevel,involvingtheindividual,thesmallgroup,andtheorganization.Thesocietyandculture
mightalsoneedtobetakenintoaccount.

Leadershipskillscanbedevelopedbyfollowingagenerallearningmodelthatinvolvesacquiringconceptualknowledge,
readingexamples,doingexperientialexercises,obtainingfeedback,andpracticinginnaturalsettings.

Amajorchallengefacingleadersisthatfollowersdiffersubstantiallyincharacteristics,includinglevelofengagementfrom
feelinganddoingnothingtototalpassion,commitment,andinvolvement.Tobeaneffectiveleader,oneneedsgoodfollowers
with

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characteristicssuchasselfmanagement,commitment,competenceandfocus,andcourage.Akeyroleforfollowersisto
collaboratewithleadersinachievingorganizationalgoals.Thepostbureaucraticorganizationrequiresanewkindofalliance
betweenleadersandtheled.

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:KeyTerms
leadership
partnership
substitutesforleadership
leadershipeffectiveness

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:GuidelinesforActionandSkillDevelopment

Vastamountsofinformationhavebeengatheredaboutleadersandleadership,andmanydifferentleadership
theorieshavebeendeveloped.Manyleadershipresearchfindingsandtheoriesareconfusingandcontradictory.Nevertheless,
fromthisthicketofinformationemergemanyusefulleadershipconceptsandtechniquestoguideyoutowardbecomingamore
effectiveleader.

Asyouworktowardleadershipeffectiveness,firstbefamiliarwiththeapproachestoleadershipdescribedinthistext.Then
choosetheformulationthatseemsbesttofittheleadershipsituationyouface.Forexample,ifyouareleadingateam,review
theinformationaboutteamleadership.Typically,aneffectiveleaderneedstocombineseveralleadershipapproachestomeet
thedemandsofagivensituation.Forinstance,aleadermightneedtocombinecreativeproblemsolvingandemotionalsupport
tomemberstohelptheteamreboundfromacrisis.

Theeclectic(choosingfromamongmany)approachwerecommendislikelytobemoreeffectivethanacceptinganideasuch
astherearesixsecretstoleadershipsuccess.
DiscussionQuestionsandActivities
1.Whatforcesintheenvironmentorinsocietyhaveledtothesurgeininterestthesubjectofleadershipinrecentyears?

2.Giveanexampleofhowyouhaveexertedleadershiponoroffthejobinasituationinwhichyoudidnothaveaformal
leadershipposition.Explainwhyyoudescribeyouractivityasleadership.

3.Whatwouldabossofyourshavetodotodemonstratethatheorsheisaneffectiveleaderandaneffectivemanager?

4.Identifyabusinessorsportsleaderwhoyouthinkishighlyeffective,andexplainwhyyouthinkheorsheishighly
effective.

5.Basedonaninformalsurvey,manypeoplewhowerevotedthemostlikelytosucceedintheirhighschoolyearbooks
becameleaderslateronintheircareer.Howcanyouexplainthisfinding?

6.Toplevelleadersofmajorbusinesscorporationsreceivesomeofthehighestcompensationpackagesintheworkforce.Why
arebusinessleaderspaidsomuch?

7.Ifsomuchusefulinformationisavailableaboutleadership,whydowestillfindsomanymanagerswhocannotgainthe
respectoftheirsubordinates?

8.Whichofthetenleadershiprolesdoyouthinkyouarethemostsuitedforatthisstageinyourcareer?Explainyour
reasoning.

9.Atwentyfiveyearoldmanagerofabranchofafastfoodrestaurantwastoldbyherbossthatshewasnotaneffectiveleader.
Shereplied,For$25,000ayear,howcanyouexpectmetobeaneffectiveleader?Whatdoyouthinkofherargument?

10.Inwhatwaymightbeinganeffectivefollowerhelpprepareapersonforbecominganeffectiveleader?

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TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:LeadershipCaseProblemA:MikeTodmanMakesa
SplashatWhirlpool
Bythetimethefinancialcrisishit,thebrutaleconomyforceditsexecutiveleadershipteamtostayfocusedonarecently
draftedstrategicplantoturnitsbusinessaround.MichaelA.Todman,presidentofWhirlpoolInternational,recalledthe
overarchinggoal:Let'scontrolthethingswecan.Wehadalreadychangedourbusinessmodel,andwehadtomakesome
reallytoughdecisions.

Seniormanagementconcentratedonthreepriorities:aligningcoststomeetthedemandsoftheturbulentbusinessclimate
managingcashforgreaterliquidityandmaximizingmarketsharebytargetingconsumersinamoreeffective,efficientmanner.
Asaresult,thecompanyabandonedbrandadvertising,shiftingtopromotionalandpointofsalesmethods.Wespentourtime
talkingdirectlytothemsoweusedmoredigitalmedia,Todmansaid.

Tounderscoretheurgency,managementalsorampedupinternalcommunications.Itwascriticaltomakeandimplement
decisionsatafasterpaceand,atthesametime,secureemployeebuyin.Soboardmembersmetonceamonthinsteadofsix
timesayearwhilemanagersspentmoretimemeetingwiththerankandfile.Philosophically,ourapproachistobestraight,be
honest,tellpeopleexactlywhatisgoingon,saidTodman.

Duringthechallengingfinancialperiod,TodmanfocusedontheNorthAmericanmarket.Healsocompletedtheintegrationof
MaytagintotheWhirlpoolproductline.Todmanfocusedonrevampingtheproductlinebyclosingcostlyplantsand
educatingtheentirestaffonbothcompaniesbeforeintroducingthenewmodels.TodmanoverseesbrandsinEurope,Latin
America,andAsiawithdutiesthatincludemanagementofglobalinformationsystemsandglobalstrategicinitiatives,
includingefficiencyandinnovation.

JeffFettig,WhirlpoolCorp.CEDOandchairman,said,Mikehasanumberofstrengths.First,he'sgotgreatexpertiseinbeing
agloballeader.Heknowshowtooperateeffectivelywithdifferentculturesanddifferentpeople.Healsoknowsouroperations
verywellourstrengthsandweaknesses,whatwecandoandwhatwecan'tdosohe'sinstrumentalinhelpingustosetthe
rightprioritiesandthenrunningdisciplinedoperationstohelpusdeliverourexpectedresults.

BornandraisedinSt.Thomas,U.S.VirginIslands,Todmanhasbeendescribedasarobustmanwithagentledemeanorthat's
noteasilyruffled.Hiscolleaguesdescribehimasconsistent,engaging,andextremelypersonable.AWhirlpoolexecutivesaid
aboutTodman:He'sabletoanalyzereallycomplexbusinessproblemsandmaketherightdecisionssothatthecompanycan
makemoney.

CommunicationisanintegralpartofTodman'smanagementstyle:dissectingtrendinformation,disseminatingcompanygoals
andobjectives,andpushingemployeestothinkmorebroadly,morecreatively,butasaninterconnectedunitthatfunctions
acrosstheglobe.It'satwentyfourhourjob,hesaysofmanagingthevarioustimezonesthroughphonecallsandvideo
conferencing.Todmanspendstwoweeksoutofeverymonthinthemarketplacevisitingtheteamaswellascustomers.I
understandhowconsumersarelivingandthatkeepsyouonthepulse.

Todmanhasabachelor'sdegreeinbusinessadministrationfromGeorgetownUniversity.HejoinedWhirlpoolin1993in
Londonasdirectoroffinance,eventuallyrunningthecustomerservicebusinessinEurope.Forhisleadershiproleinhelping
bolsterWhirlpool'sfinancialperformancethroughhisstrategicvisioninaccessingglobalmarketsandabilitytoeffectively
driveinnovation,Todmanwasselectedasthe2010BlackEnterpriseCorporateExecutiveoftheYear.

Questions
1.InwhatwayisMichaelA.Todmanexercisingleadership?

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2.IdentifyatleastthreeleadershiprolesTodmanemphasizesaspresidentofWhirlpool,International.

3.TowhatextentdoesitappearthatTodmanisshowingagoodbalancebetweenstrategicthinkingandfocusingonpeople?

4.WhatadvicemightyouofferTodmantobeevenmoresuccessfulastheheadofWhirlpool?

Source:BlackenterprisebySCOTTCopyright2010.ReproducedwithpermissionofBLACKENTERPRISEMAGAZINE.

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:AssociatedRolePlay:DealingwithDissent
CEOMikeTodmanisconductingatownhallmeetingwithabout200employeesataWhirlpoolfactoryintheUnitedStates.
Fiveminutesintothemeeting,anemployeeholdingupaU.S.flagsaysinaloudvoice,ExcusemeMr.Todman,butIobject
stronglytosomethingyouandtheotherexecutivesaredoing.Wearemanufacturingtoomanyofourproductsoverseas.We
arekillingjobsforAmericans.OnestudentplaystheroleofTodman,whowantstolistentoemployeeconcernsbutisnot
abouttochangecompanystrategy.Anotherstudentplaystheroleofthedissenterwhothinksofhimselfasatruepatriot.

Runtheroleplayinfrontoftheclassforaboutfiveminutes.Thecourseinstructorandotherstudentswillprovidefeedbackon
howwellthedissentergotacrosshisorherpointandhowwellCEOTodmandealtwiththesituation.

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:LeadershipCaseProblemB:TheSubprimeDepartment
Blues
MaryChenhadbeenthemanagerofthesubprimemortgagedepartmentofalargebankforseveralyears.Althoughher
departmentwassmall,sheandtoplevelmanagementthoughtthattheirmissionwasimportant.AsChenexplainsit,Wemake
itpossibleforpeoplewithlessthanprimecreditratingstobecomehomeowners.Wecreatemortgagesforhonest,hardworking
peoplewhoformanyreasonsdonothaveexcellentcreditrecords.Soourgroupisdoingsomegoodinthisworld,despiteafew
foreclosureshereandthere.

Asinterestratesclimbedonadjustableratemortgages(ARMs),thenumberoflatepayerstripled,andthenumberof
foreclosuresdoubled.Everydaythemediapoundedthesubprimelenders,blamingthemforapotentialrecessionandasharp
declineinthestockmarket.

Supervisingthepeopleinherdepartmentbecameincreasinglymoredifficult.AsChensaid,Asthesubprimemessprogressed,
Isawfewersmilesinmydepartment.Workerswerecallinginsickmorefrequently.Onehalfthepeopleinthedepartment
requestedatransfertothemortgagedepartmentthatprovidedmortgagestocustomerswithfirstratecreditrecords.Evenmy
bestworkerslookedstressedout.

MalcolmFlynn,amortgagespecialistwithfouryears'experience,describedtheworkingconditionsinthesubprime
departmentinthesewords:Thisisbad.Wefeelwearelookeduponlikewearedrugdealers.Peoplethinkwearerotten
becausewelentmoneytopeoplewhodidn'thavethemeanstopaybacktheloan.

Mostofuswon'tadmitthekindofworkweareinwhentalkingtopeopleoutsidethebank.Wecometoworkeveryday
hopingtheworkwillbemorefun,butitneveris.

WhenChendiscussedthemoraleproblemsshewasfacingwithinhergroup,hermanageradvisedChentobeabetterleader.
Hermanageralsosaidthatatrueleadercanguideagroupthroughroughtimes.

Chenthoughttoherself,Thisadvicelooksgoodonpaper,butIdon'tknowwhattodonext.

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Questions
1.WhatadvicemightyouofferMaryChentopickupmoraleinherdepartment?

2.WhichleadershiprolesshouldChenemphasizetoleadthegroupoutofitsfunk?

3.TowhatextentdoyoubelievethestatementofChen'smanagerthatatrueleadercanguideagroupthroughroughtimes?

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:AssociatedRolePlay:CheeringUptheTeam
OnestudentplaystheroleofMaryChenwhodecidestoholdamoralebuildingsessionatteno'clockonaFridaymorning.
Sheisservingbagels,doughnuts,freshfruit,andbeverages,includingacoupleofenergydrinks.Chen'sintentistocheerup
thegroup,andhelpthemrecognizehowimportanttheirworkistosociety.Severalotherstudentsplaytherolesofdepartment
memberswithmixedattitudestowardtheirwork.Runtheroleplayforabouteightminutes.Observerswillconcentrateonhow
successfulChenappearstohavebeen,andhoweffectivegroupmemberswereinexpressingtheirfeelings.

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:LeadershipVideoCaseDiscussionQuestions

Toviewthevideosforthisactivity,you'llneedaccesstotheCourseMatethatisavailableforthistext.Toget
access,visitwww.CengageBrain.com.

AfterviewingTheFruitGuys,answerthefollowingquestions.

1.ChrisMittelstaedt,founderandCEOofTheFruitGuys,takesonmanyrolesinhisposition.Ofthetenleadershiproles
identifiedbyHenryMintzbergandotherswhichthreerolesdoyouthinkChrisusesthemostoften?Explain.

2.DoyoubelievethatChrisMittelstaedtreceivesanyofthesatisfactionsofleadersasmentionedinChapter1?Whyorwhy
not?

3.AsChapter1mentions,akeyroleforfollowersistocollaboratewithleadersinachievingorganizationalgoals.Doyou
thinkthatfollowersatTheFruitGuyshavetheopportunitytocollaboratewithcompanyleaderssuchasChrisMittelstaedt?

4.WouldyouenjoyworkingatTheFruitGuys?Whyorwhynot?

TheMeaningandRelevanceofLeadership:Notes
1.Storycreatedfromfactsinthefollowingsources:VivianSequera,VeteranEngineerBehindChileRescue,TheAssociated
Press,October16,2010TerriA.Scandura,LeadershipLessonsfromtheChileanMine,TheMiamiHerald
(www.miamiherald.com),October25,2010PeggyNoonan,VivaChile!TheLeftNoManBehind,TheWallStreetJournal,
October1617,2010,p.A17TimPadgettAnthonyEspositio,andAaronHelsen,5:TheChileanMiners,Time,December
27,2010January3,2011,p.105.2.W.KanKimandRenA.Maubourgne,ParablesofLeadership,HarvardBusiness
Review,JulyAugust1992,p.123.3.DerivedfromaliteraturereviewinBernardM.Bass(withRuthBass),TheBass
HandbookofLeadership:Theory,Research,andManagerialApplications,FourthEdition(NewYork:TheFreePress,2008),
pp.1523.4.JeffreyZaslow,JoeMontana:Leadership,SaystheLegendaryQuarterbackofFourSuperBowls,MeansBeing
WillingtoTaketheBlame,USAWeekend,January30February1,1998,p.15.

P.32

5.BrianM.Carney,OfTaxCutsandTerror,TheWallStreetJournal,June30July1,2007,p.A7.6.JamesKellyandScott
Nadler,LeadingfromBelow,TheWallStreetJournal,March34,2007,p.R4.7.PeterBlock,Stewardship:Choosing
ServiceOverSelfInterest(SanFrancisco:BerrettKoehlerPublishers,1993),pp.2732.8.TamaraL.Friedrichetal.,A
FrameworkforUnderstandingCollectiveLeadership:TheSelectiveUtilizationofLeaderandTeamExpertisewithin
Networks,TheLeadershipQuarterly,December2009,pp.933958.9.Quotedonpage2oftheFebruary2006issueofBlack
Enterprise.10.JamesM.KouzesandBarryZ.Posner,TheLeadershipChallenge,3rded.(SanFrancisco:JosseyBass,2002),p.
20.11.Cisco:MakingtheChangewithWeb2.0,ExecutiveLeadership,February2009,p.1.12.JohnP.Kotter,AForcefor
Change:HowLeadershipDiffersfromManagement(NewYork:TheFreePress,1990)ManagingLeadingTrueLeadership,
ExecutiveLeadership,September2004,p.8EdwinA.LockeandAssociates,TheEssenceofLeadership:TheFourKeysto
LeadingSuccessfully(NewYork:Lexington/Macmillan,1991),p.4.13.HenryMintzberg,Managing(SanFrancisco:Berrett
KoehlerPublishers,2009),p.8.14.DiyaGullapalli,GMOTaps1stCEOin32YearHistory,TheWallStreetJournal,
Februay13,2009,p.C9.15.DukeUniversityExecutiveLeadershipSurvey,CenteronLeadership&Ethics,March2009,pp.
117.16.GaryYukl,HowLeadersInfluenceOrganizationalEffectiveness,TheLeadershipQuarterly,December2008,pp.
708722.17.RichardC.Morais,Impatience,Forbes,June16,2008,pp.128132.18.NitinNohria,WilliamJoyce,and
BruceRoberson,WhatReallyWorks,HarvardBusinessReview,July2003,p.51.19.EllenShubart,SuccessHingeson
VitalSkillsLiketheHumanFactor,TheWallStreetJournal(SpecialAdvertisingSection),March29,2007,p.D6.20.Robert
B.Kaiser,RobertHogan,andS.BartholomewCraig,LeadershipandtheFateofOrganizations,AmericanPsychologist,
FebruaryMarch2008,p.103.21.BruceJ.Avolio,RebeccaJ.Reichard,SeanT.Hannah,FredO.Walumbwa,andAdrian
Chan,AMetaAnalyticReviewofLeadershipImpactResearch:ExperimentalandQuasiExperimentalStudies,The
LeadershipQuarterly,October2009,pp.764784.22.JonP.Howell,DavidE.Bowen,PeterW.Dorfman,StevenKerr,and
PhilipPodaskoff,SubstitutesforLeadership:EffectiveAlternativestoIneffectiveLeadership,OrganizationalDynamics,
Summer1990,p.23.23.JeffreyPfeffer,TheAmbiguityofLeadership,AcademyofManagementReview,April1977,pp.
104112.24.CitedinJerryUseem,ConqueringVerticalLimits,Fortune,February19,2001,p.94.25.ThomasH.Hout,
AreManagersObsolete?HarvardBusinessReview,MarchApril1999,pp.161162.(BooksinReview)26.MaryUhlBien
andRussMarion,editors,ComplexityLeadership:ConceptualFoundations(Charlotte,N.C.:InformationAge,2008).27.J.
RichardHackmanandRuthWageman,AskingtheRightQuestionsaboutLeadership,AmericanPsychologist,January
2007,p.43.28.UpdatedandexpandedfromHenryMintzberg,TheNatureofManagerialWork(NewYork:Harper&Row,
1973)KennethGrahamJr.andWilliamM.Mihal,TheCMDManagerialJobAnalysisInventory(Rochester,N.Y.:Rochester
InstituteofTechnology,CenterforManagementDevelopment,1987),pp.132133MaryJoHatch,MonikaKostera,and
AndrzejK.Komiski,TheThreeFacesofLeadership:Manager,Artist,Priest,OrganizationalDynamics,vol.35,no.1,
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P.33

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ExemplaryLeadershipIsImpossibleWithoutFullInclusion,Initiatives,andCooperationofFollowers,Organizational
Dynamics,Summer1999,pp.7678.(Thisstatementhasbecomeincreasinglytrueovertime.)

Footnotes
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2006,pp.4968DaveUlrich,NormSmallwood,andKateSweetman,TheLeadershipCode:FiveRulestoLeadBy(Boston:
HarvardBusinessPress,2008).
29.ChristopherA.BartlettandSumantraGhosal,ChangingtheRoleofTopManagementBeyondSystemstoPeople,
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30.CitedinJustinFox,EmployeesFirst!Time,July7,2008,p.45.
31.EmilyThornton,PerformorPerish,BusinessWeek,November5,2007,p.40.
32.EileneZimmerman,AreYouCutOutforManagement?TheNewYorkTimes(nytimes.com)January16,2011,p.2.
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34.ThomasA.Stewart,TheNineDilemmasLeadersFace,Fortune,March18,1996,pp.112113.
35.ThreeexamplesareMartinM.Chemers,AnIntegrativeTheoryofLeadership(Mahwah,N.J.:LawrenceErlbaum
Associates,1997),pp.151173FrancisYammarino,FredDansereau,andChristinaJ.Kennedy,AMultipleLevel
MultidimensionalApproachtoLeadership:ViewingLeadershipthroughanElephant'sEye,OrganizationalDynamics,
Winter2001,pp.149162BruceJ.Avolio,PromotingMoreIntegrativeStrategiesforLeadershipTheoryBuilding,
AmericanPsychologist,January2007,pp.533.
36.Avolio,PromotingMoreIntegrativeStrategies,pp.25,31.
37.FrancisJ.YammarinoandFredDansereau,MultiLevelNatureofandMultiLevelApproachestoLeadership,The
LeadershipQuarterly,April2008,p.136.
38.12CommonSkillsSoughtbyEmployers,www.dartmouth.edu,accessedFebruary18,2011RandallS.andKatharine
Hansen,WhatDoEmployersReallyWant?TopSkillsandValuesEmployersSeekfromJobSeekers,QuintessentialCareers
(www.quintcareers),accessedFebruary18,2011.
39.HackmanandWageman,AskingtheRightQuestions,p.45.
40.NancyLublin,Let'sHearitfortheLittleGuysFastCompany,April2010,p.33.
41.BarbaraKellerman,WhatEveryLeaderNeedstoKnowAboutFollowers,HarvardBusinessReview,December2007,
pp.8491.
42.RobertE.Kelley,InPraiseofFollowers,HarvardBusinessReview,NovemberDecember1988,pp.142148.
43.WarrenBennis,TheEndofLeadership:ExemplaryLeadershipIsImpossibleWithoutFullInclusion,Initiatives,and
CooperationofFollowers,OrganizationalDynamics,Summer1999,pp.7678.(Thisstatementhasbecomeincreasinglytrue
overtime.)

P.34
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