mecânica dos fluidos

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mecânica dos fluidos

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1 [2]

Problem 7.2 [2]

Problem 7.3 [2]

Solution:

A y I x

A* = y* = t* = t I* = x* =

L2 L L4 L

t*

Hence A = L2 A * y = Ly* t= I = L4 I * x = Lx*

2 y * 4 1 4 y *

Substituting into the governing equation L L A *

2 2

+ EL 4 LI * =0

t *2 L x *4

2 y * E 4 y *

A* + I * =0

t *2 L2 2 x *4

The final dimensionless equation is

E

The dimensionless group is 2 2

L

Problem 7.4 [2]

Problem 7.5 [4]

Problem 7.6 [2]

Solution:

r r

DV V r r

= + V V

Dt t

Nondimensionalizing the velocity vector, pressure, angular velocity, spatial measure, and time, (using a typical velocity magnitude V

and angular velocity magnitude ):

r r

r V p r x V

V* = p* = * = x* = t* = t

V p L L

Hence

r r r r L

V =VV * p = p p * = * x = Lx* t= t*

V

r

V V * V r r r r 1 p

V + V V * * V * +2V * V * = p *

L t * L L

r

V * r r L r r p

+ V * * V * +2 * V = p *

t * V V 2

p L

V 2 V

The second term on the left of the governing equation is the Coriolis force due to a rotating coordinate system. This is a very

significant term in atmospheric studies, leading to such phenomena as geostrophic flow.

Problem 7.7 [2]

Solution:

u p x r V

u* = p* = x* = r* = t* = t

V p L L L

Hence

L

u =V u* p = p p * x = Lx* r = Dr* t= t*

V

u V u * 1 1 p * 1 2 u * 1 u *

=V = p + V 2 +

t L t * L x * D r *2 r * r *

u * p p * L 2 u * 1 u *

= + +

t * V 2 x * DV D r *2 r * r *

p L

V 2 DV D

Problem 7.8 [2]

Solution:

x y u v c t c0

x* = y* = u* = v* = c* = t* = * =

L L c0 c0 c0 L L c0

Note that the stream function indicates volume flow rate/unit depth!

Hence

Lt *

x = Lx* y = Ly* u = c0 u * v = c0 v * c = c0 c * t= = L c0 *

c0

Substituting into the governing equation

( ) ( )

2 2

+

L +

L u * c * + v * c * + 2 u * v * =0

L t *

2

t x *2 L y *2 L x * y *

2 * (u *2 + v *2 ) 2 * 2 * 2 *

( ) ( )

2 2

+ + u *2

c * + v *2

c * + 2 u * v * =0

t *2 t x *2 y *2 x * y *

Problem 7.9 [2]

Problem 7.10 [2]

Given: That drag depends on speed, air density and frontal area

Solution:

c F V A n = 4 parameters

F V A

e r = 3 primary dimensions

ML L M

L2

t2 t L3

f V A m = r = 3 repeat parameters

1 = V a b Ac F

( )

a b

L M c ML

= 3 L2 = M 0 L0 t 0

t L t2

Summing exponents,

M: b +1 = 0 b = 1

L : a 3b + 2c + 1 = 0 c = 1

t: a2=0 a = 2

Hence

F

1 =

V 2 A

h Check using F, L, t as primary dimensions

= [1]

F

1 = 2

Ft L2

L2

L4 t 2

F V 2 A V 2

Problem 7.11 [2]

Problem 7.12 [2]

Given: That speed of shallow waves depends on depth, density, gravity and surface tension

Solution:

c V D g n = 5 parameters

V D g

e r = 3 primary dimensions

L M L M

t L

L3 t2 t 2

f g D m = r = 3 repeat parameters

a b

L M

1 = g a b D cV = 2 3 (L ) = M 0 L0t 0

c L

t L t

M: b=0 b=0

1 V

Summing exponents, L : a 3b + c + 1 = 0 c = Hence 1 =

2 gD

1

t: 2a 1 = 0 a=

2

a b

L M

2 = g a b D c = 2 3 (L ) 2 = M 0 L0t 0

c M

t L t

M: b +1 = 0 b = 1

Summing exponents, L : a 3b + c = 0 c = 2 Hence 2 =

gD 2

t: 2 a 2 = 0 a = 1

L F

h Check using F, L, t as primary dimensions = 1

t = [1]1

2 = L = [1]

L Ft 2 2

L 2 L

2 L t 2 L4

t

1 = f ( 2 )

V

The relation between drag force speed V is = f

2

V = gD f

2

gD g D gD

Problem 7.13 [2]

Problem 7.14 [2]

Problem 7.15 [2]

Solution:

c W p g n = 5 parameters

W p g

e r = 3 primary dimensions

ML M L M

t 2 L

L3 t2 t 2

f g p m = r = 3 repeat parameters

a b

L M

3 (L ) 2 = M L t

c ML

1 = g p W = 2

a b c 0 0 0

t L t

M: b +1 = 0 b = 1

W

Summing exponents, L : a 3b + c + 1 = 0 c = 3 Hence 1 =

g p 3

t: 2a 2 = 0 a = 1

a b

L M

2 = g p = 2 3 (L ) 2 = M 0 L0t 0

a b c c M

t L t

M: b +1 = 0 b = 1

Summing exponents, L : a 3b + c = 0 c = 2 Hence 2 =

gp 2

t: 2 a 2 = 0 a = 1

F

= [1] = [1]

F L

h Check using F, L, t as primary dimensions 1 = 2 =

L Ft 2 3 L Ft 2 2

L L

t 2 L4 t 2 L4

1 Wp

Note: Any combination of 1 and 2 is a group, e.g., = , so 1 and 2 are not unique!

2

Problem 7.16 [2]

Problem 7.17 [2]

Problem 7.18 [2]

Solution:

c T F e n = 6 parameters

T F e

e r = 3 primary dimensions

ML2 1 ML M M

2 L

t t t2 Lt t2

f F e m = r = 3 repeat parameters

a c

ML b 1 ML

2

1 = F a eb cT = 2 (L ) 2 = M 0 L0t 0

t t t

Summing exponents,

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

T

L: a+b+2=0 b = 1 Hence 1 =

Fe

t: 2a c 2 = 0 c=0

a c

ML b1 M

2 = F e = 2 (L )

a b c

= M 0 L0t 0

t t Lt

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

e2

Summing exponents, L: a + b 1 = 0 b=2 Hence 2 =

F

t : 2a c 1 = 0 c = 1

a c

ML b1 M

3 = F e = 2 (L ) 2 = M 0 L0t 0

a b c

t t t

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

e

Summing exponents, L: a+b=0 b =1 Hence 3 =

F

t : 2a c 2 = 0 c = 0

Ft 2 1 F

L L

= [1] = [1] = [1]

FL L2

t L

1 = 2 = 3 =

FL F F

1 T

Note: Any combination of 1, 2 and 3 is a group, e.g., = , so 1, 2 and 3 are not unique!

2 e3

Problem 7.19 [2]

Problem 7.20 [2]

Problem 7.21 [2]

Problem 7.22 (In Excel) [2]

Given: That drain time depends on fluid viscosity and density, orifice diameter, and gravity

Solution:

We will use the workbook of Example 7.1, modified for the current problem

The number of primary dimensions is: r =3

The number of repeat parameters is: m =r =3

The number of groups is: n -m =2

the repeating parameters, and of up to

four other parameters (for up to four groups).

The spreadsheet will compute the exponents a , b , and c for each.

M L t

1 -3

g 1 -2

d 1

GROUPS:

M L t M L t

t 0 0 1 1 -1 -1

1: a = 0 2: a = -1

b = 0.5 b = -0.5

c = -0.5 c = -1.5

M L t M L t

0 0 0 0 0 0

3: a = 0 4: a = 0

b = 0 b = 0

c = 0 c = 0

Hence 1 = t

g and 2 =

2 with 1 = f ( 2 )

d 1 3

gd 3

2

g 2d 2

d 2

The final result is t= f 2 3

g gd

Problem 7.23 [2]

Solution:

Apply the Buckingham procedure

c P p D d di do n = 8 parameters

P p D d di do

e r = 3 primary dimensions

ML2 M 1 M

3 L L L L

t Lt 2 t L3

f D m = r = 3 repeat parameters

a c

M b 1 ML

2

1 = D P = 3 (L ) 3 = M L t

a b c 0 0 0

L t t

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

P

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b + 2 = 0 b = 5 Hence 1 =

D 5 3

t: c3=0 c = 3

a c

M b 1 M

2 = D p = 3 (L )

a b c

= M 0 L0t 0

2

L t Lt

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

p

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b 1 = 0 b = 2 Hence 2 =

D 2 2

t: c2=0 c = 2

d d d

The other groups can be found by inspection: 3 = 4 = i 5 = o

D D D

h Check using F, L, t as primary dimensions

FL F

= [1] = [1] = [1]

t L2 L

1 = 2

2 = 2

3 = 4 = 5 =

Ft 5 1 Ft 2 1 L

L 3 L 2

L4 t L4 t

1 P

Note: Any combination of 1, 2 and 3 is a group, e.g., = , so the s are not unique!

2 pD 3

Problem 7.24 [2]

Problem 7.25 [2]

Problem 7.26 [2]

Problem 7.27 [3]

Problem 7.28 [2]

Problem 7.29 [3]

Problem 7.30 (In Excel) [3]

Given: That dot size depends on ink viscosity, density, and surface tension, and geometry

Find: groups

Solution:

We will use the workbook of Example 7.1, modified for the current problem

The number of primary dimensions is: r =3

The number of repeat parameters is: m =r =3

The number of groups is: n -m =4

the repeating parameters, and of up to

four other parameters (for up to four groups).

The spreadsheet will compute the exponents a , b , and c for each.

M L t

1 -3

V 1 -1

D 1

GROUPS:

M L t M L t

d 0 1 0 1 -1 -1

1: a = 0 2: a = -1

b = 0 b = -1

c = -1 c = -1

M L t M L t

1 0 -2 L 0 1 0

3: a = -1 4: a = 0

b = -2 b = 0

c = -1 c = -1

1 =

d VD L

Hence 2 = 3 = 4 =

D VD V D

2

D

Problem 7.31 [3]

Problem 7.32 (In Excel) [3]

Given: Speed depends on mass, area, gravity, slope, and air viscosity and thickness

Find: groups

Solution:

We will use the workbook of Example 7.1, modified for the current problem

The number of primary dimensions is: r =3

The number of repeat parameters is: m =r =3

The number of groups is: n -m =4

the repeating parameters, and of up to

four other parameters (for up to four groups).

The spreadsheet will compute the exponents a , b , and c for each.

M L t

g 1 -2

1

m 1

GROUPS:

M L t M L t

V 0 1 -1 1 -1 -1

1 : a = -0.5 2 : a = -0.5

b = -0.5 b = 1.5

c = 0 c = -1

M L t M L t

0 0 0 A 0 2 0

3: a = 0 4 : a = 0

b = 0 b = -2

c = 0 c = 0

3

V V2 2 2 3 4 =

A

Hence 1 = 2 = 3 =

1 1 g 1

m2 g 2

g 2 2 g 2m

Problem 7.33 (In Excel) [3]

Given: Bubble size depends on viscosity, density, surface tension, geometry and pressure

Find: groups

Solution:

We will use the workbook of Example 7.1, modified for the current problem

The number of primary dimensions is: r =3

The number of repeat parameters is: m =r =3

The number of groups is: n -m =3

the repeating parameters, and of up to

four other parameters (for up to four groups).

The spreadsheet will compute the exponents a , b , and c for each.

M L t

1 -3

p 1 -1 -2

D 1

GROUPS:

M L t M L t

d 0 1 0 1 -1 -1

1: a = 0 2: a = -0.5

b = 0 b = -0.5

c = -1 c = -1

M L t M L t

1 0 -2 0 0 0

3 : a = 0 4: a = 0

b = -1 b = 0

c = -1 c = 0

d 2

Hence 1 = 2 = 3 =

D 1 1

pD 2 Dp

2 p 2 D

Problem 7.34 [2]

Given: That the power of a washing machine agitator depends on various parameters

Solution:

Apply the Buckingham procedure

c P H D h max f n = 8 parameters

P H D h max f

e r = 3 primary dimensions

ML2 1 1 M M

3 L L L

t t t L3 Lt

f D max m = r = 3 repeat parameters

a c

M b 1 ML

2

1 = a D bmax

c

P = 3 (L ) 3 = M 0 L0t 0

L t t

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

P

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b + 2 = 0 b = 5 Hence 1 =

D max

53

t: c3=0 c = 3

a c

M b1 M

2 = D = 3 (L )

a b c

max = M 0 L0t 0

L

t Lt

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b 1 = 0 b = 2 Hence 2 =

D max

2

t: c 1 = 0 c = 1

H h f

The other groups can be found by inspection: 3 = 4 = 5 =

D D max

h Check using F, L, t as primary dimensions

FL Ft

1 = t = [1] 2 = L2 = [1] 3 = 4 = 5 = [1]

Ft 2 5 1 Ft 2 2 1

L 3 L

L4 t L4 t

1 P

Note: Any combination of s is a group, e.g., = , so the s are not unique!

2 D 3max

2

Problem 7.35 (In Excel) [3]

Given: Time to speed up depends on inertia, speed, torque, oil viscosity and geometry

Find: groups

Solution:

We will use the workbook of Example 7.1, modified for the current problem

The number of primary dimensions is: r =3

The number of repeat parameters is: m =r =3

The number of groups is: n -m =5

the repeating parameters, and of up to

four other parameters (for up to four groups).

The spreadsheet will compute the exponents a , b , and c for each.

M L t

-1

D 1

T 1 2 -2

GROUPS:

Two groups can be obtained by inspection: /D and L /D . The others are obtained below

M L t M L t

t 0 0 1 1 -1 -1

1: a = 1 2: a = 1

b = 0 b = 3

c = 0 c = -1

M L t M L t

I 1 2 0 0 0 0

3: a = 2 4: a = 0

b = 0 b = 0

c = -1 c = 0

t L D 3 I 2

D D T T

Note that the 1 group can also be easily obtained by inspection

Problem 7.36 [3]

Problem 7.37 [2]

Solution:

Apply the Buckingham procedure

c c N p D p g n = 9 parameters

d Select primary dimensions M, L, t

c N p D p g

e r = 3 primary dimensions

1 M 1 M M L M

L3 1 L

Lt 2 t L3 L3 t2 Lt

f D m = r = 3 repeat parameters

a c

M b1 M

1 = D p = 3 (L )

a b c

= M 0 L0t 0

L t Lt

2

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

p

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b 1 = 0 b = 2 Hence 1 =

D 2 2

t: c2=0 c = 2

a c

M b1 M

2 = D = 3 (L ) = M 0 L0t 0

a b c

L t Lt

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b 1 = 0 b = 2 Hence 2 =

D 2

t: c 1 = 0 c = 1

p g

The other groups can be found by inspection: 3 = cD 3 4 = N 5 = 6 =

D 2

h Check using F, L, t as primary dimensions

F Ft

1 = L2 = [1] 2 = L2 = [1] 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = [1]

Ft 2 2 1 Ft 2 2 1

L 2 L

L4 t L4 t

1 p

Note: Any combination of s is a group, e.g., = , so the s are not unique!

2

Problem 7.38 [3]

Problem 7.39 [3]

Problem 7.40 [3]

Problem 7.41 [4]

Problem 7.42 [3]

Problem 7.43 [3]

Given: That the cooling rate depends on rice properties and air properties

Solution:

c dT/dt c k L cp V n = 8 parameters

dT dt c k L cp V

e r = 4 primary dimensions

T L2 ML L2 M M L

L

t t 2T t 2T t 2T L3 Lt t

f V L cp m = r = 4 repeat parameters

Then n m = 4 dimensionless groups will result. By inspection, one group is c/cp. Setting up a dimensional equation,

d

c L T

a b

dT L M 2

1 = V L c

a

= 3 (L ) 2

b c d

p = T 0 M 0 L0t 0

dt t L t T t

Summing exponents,

T: d + 1 = 0 d =1

M: b=0 b=0

L : a 3b + c + 2d = 0 a + c = 2 c = 1

t: a 2d 1 = 0 a = 3

dT Lc p

Hence 1 =

dt V 3

k

By a similar process, we find 2 = and 3 =

L c p

2 LV

Hence

c

dT Lc p

= f , k ,

dt V 3 c p L2 c LV

p

Problem 7.44 [4]

Problem 7.45 [2]

Find: Two groups by inspection; One that is a standard fluid mechanics group; Dimensionless groups

Solution:

Two obvious groups are u/U and y/. A dimensionless group common in fluid mechanics is U/ (Reynolds number)

c u y U dU/dx n = 6 parameters

u y U dU dx

e m = r = 3 primary dimensions

L L 1 L2

L L

t t t t

f U m = r = 2 repeat parameters

1 =

u

2 =

y

3 =

(dU dy )

4 =

U U U

Problem 7.46 [3]

Problem 7.47 [3]

Find: Required water model water speed; drag on protype based on model drag

Solution:

kg 5 N s kg 3 N s

From Appendix A (inc. Fig. A.2) air = 1.24 air = 1.8 10 w = 999 w = 10

3 2 3 2

m m m m

m

The given data is Vair = 5 Lratio = 20 Fw = 2 kN

s

For dynamic similarity we assume =

w air

3

w air Lair w air m 10 1.24 20

Lratio = 5

m

Then Vw = Vair = Vair Vw = 6.90

air w Lw air w s 1.8 10 5 999 s

Fair Fw

=

For the same Reynolds numbers, the drag coefficients will be the same so we have 1 2 1 2

A V A V

2 air air air 2 w w w

2

Aair Lair 2

where = = Lratio

Aw Lw

2

2 Vair

air 2

Fair = Fw L 1.24 202 5

Hence the prototype drag is = 2000 N Fair = 522 N

w ratio Vw 999 6.9

Problem 7.48 [5]

Problem 7.49 [2]

Problem 7.50 [3]

Problem 7.51 [2]

Find: Model propeller speed using Froude number and Reynolds number

Solution:

V V L

Basic equations Fr = Re =

g L

Vm Vp Vm Lm

Using the Froude number Frm = = Frp = or = (1)

g Lm g Lp Vp Lp

Vm Lm m

But the angular velocity is given by V = L so = (2)

Vp Lp p

Lm m Lm

Comparing Eqs. 1 and 2 = m Lp

Lp p Lp =

p Lm

Lp

The model rotation speed is then m = p 10

Lm m = 125 rpm m = 395 rpm

1

Vm Lm Vp Lp Vm L p m Lp

Using the Reynolds number Rem = = Rep = or = = (3)

m p Vp L m p Lm

(We have assumed the viscosities of the sea water and model water are comparable)

Lm m Lp 2

Comparing Eqs. 2 and 3 = m Lp

Lp p Lm =

p

Lm

2

Lp 2

m = 125 rpm

The model rotation speed is then m = p 10

m = 12500 rpm

Lm 1

Of the two models, the Froude number appears most realistic; at 12,500 rpm serious cavitation will occur. Both flows will likely have

high Reynolds numbers so that the flow becomes independent of Reynolds number; the Froude number is likely to be a good indicator

of static pressure to dynamic pressure for this (although cavitation number would be better).

Problem 7.52 [3]

Problem 7.53 [3]

Problem 7.54 [2]

Solution:

F

= f

, V = F ( Re , M)

From Buckingham

2

V D

2 V D c

satisified because M<<)

Vp Dp Vm Dm

Hence Rep = = Rem =

p m

m D p

Vm = Vp

p D m

2 2

5 ft 4 ft

From Table A.7 at 68oF m = 1.08 10 From Table A.9 at 68oF p = 1.62 10

s s

2

1.08 10 5

ft

s 10 ft

Vm = 5

ft ft

Vm = 20.0

s 2 1 s

1.62 10 6 ft

4 ft

s

2 2

Fm Fp p V p D p

Then = Fp = Fm

2 2 2 2 m. V 2 D 2

m Vm Dm p V p D p m m

0.00234 slug ft 2

3

ft s

5 2

Fp = 0.85 lbf 10 ft

Fp = 0.231 lbf

slug

20 ft 1 ft

3

1.94

s 6

ft

Problem 7.55 [2]

Find: Model test speed for dynamic similarity; ratio of model to prototype forces

Solution:

We would expect F = F ( l , s , V , , ) where F is the force (lift or drag), l is the chord and s the span

F V l , l

= f

From Buckingham

2

V l s s

m Vm lm p Vp lp

For dynamic similarity =

m p

p lp m

Hence Vm = Vp

m lm p

3 N s 5 N s

From Table A.8 at 20oC m = 1.01 10 From Table A.10 at 20oC p = 1.81 10

2 2

m m

1.21 kg 1.01 10 3 N s

3 2

m m 10 m m

Vm = 7.5 Vm = 5.07

s kg 1 5 N s s

998

3 1.81 10 2

m m

2

Fm Fp Fm m Vm lm sm 998 5.07

2

1 1

Then = = = = 3.77

2

m Vm lm sm

2

p Vp lp sp

Fp p

Vp

2 l s

p p 1.21 7.5 10 10

Problem 7.56 [3]

Problem 7.57 [3]

Find: Model flow rate for dynamic similarity (ignoring Re); Power of prototype

Solution:

Q P

and where Q is flow rate, is angular speed,

From Buckingham 3 3 5

D D d is diameter, and is density (these

groups will be discussed in Chapter 10

Qm Qp

=

For dynamic similarity 3 3

m Dm p Dp

3

m Dm

Hence Qm = Qp

p Dp

3 3 3

m 2000 1 m

Qm = 0.4 Qm = 0.125

s 800 2 s

kg kg

From Table A.8 at 20oC p = 998 From Table A.10 at 20oC m = 1.21

3 3

m m

Pm Pp

Then =

3 5 3 5

m m Dm p p Dp

3 5

p p Dp

Pp = Pm

m m

Dm

3 5

800

998 2

Pp = 75 W Pp = 127 kW

1.21 2000 1

Problem 7.58 [2]

Solution:

The functional dependence is F = F ( D , V , , h , , ) where F represents lift or drag

= f

F V D D h

From Buckingham , ,

2

V D

2 V D

m Vm Dm p Vp Dp p D p m

( 1) ( 1)

m 4 m

For dynamic similarity = Vm = Vp Vm = 5 Vm = 20

m p m D m p s 1 s

m Dm p Dp Dp Vm

m = 100 rpm

4 20

Also = m = p m = 1600 rpm

Vm Vp Dm Vp 1 5

Problem 7.59 [3]

Problem 7.60 [2]

Solution:

p , l , e

= f

From Example 7.2

V

2 V D D D

H2O Oil

= H2O Oil H2O

For dynamic similarity H2O VH2O DH2O Oil VOil DOil so VH2O = Voil = VOil

H2O Oil Oil

2 2

5 m 6 m

From Fig. A.3 at 25oC Oil = 8 10 From Table A.8 at 15oC H2O = 1.14 10

s s

2

6 m

1.14 10

s m m

Hence VH2O = 1 VH2O = 0.0142

2 s s

5 m

8 10

s

2

pOil pH2O H2O VH2O

Then = pH2O = pOil

2 2 2

Oil VOil H2O VH2O Oil VOil

2

1 0.0142

pH2O = 450 kPa pH2O = 98.6 Pa

0.92 1

Problem 7.61 [3]

Problem 7.62 [3]

Problem 7.63 [2]

Solution:

Vm Dm Vp Dp Dp 1

For dynamic similarity = or Vm = Vp = V = 0.08 Vp

m m Dm 12.5 p

km km 1000 m 1 hr m

From Wikipedia 1 knot = 1.852 = 1.852 = 0.514

hr hr km 3600 s s

m

0.514

s m m m

Hence for Vp = 15 knot = 15 knot Vp = 7.72 Vm = 0.08 7.72 Vm = 0.618

1 knot s s s

m

0.514

s m m m

Vp = 25 knot = 25 knot Vp = 12.86 Vm = 0.08 12.86 Vm = 1.03

1 knot s s s

Problem 7.64 [2]

Find: Wind tunnel speed and wing frequency; select a better model fluid

Solution:

For dynamic similarity the following dimensionless groups must be the same in the insect and model (these are Reynolds number

and Strouhal number, and can be obtained from a Buckingham analysis)

= =

air m Vinsect Vm

2

slug 4 ft

From Table A.9 (68oF) air = 0.00234 air = 1.62 10

3 s

ft

ft Linsect 1

The given data is insect = 50 Hz Vinsect = 4 =

s Lm 10

Linsect m Linsect ft 1 ft

Hence in the wind tunnel Vm = Vinsect = Vinsect = 4 Vm = 0.4

Lm air Lm s 10 s

Vm Linsect 0.4 1

Also m = insect = 50 Hz m = 0.5 Hz

Vinsect Lm 4 10

It is unlikely measurable wing lift can be measured at such a low wing frequency (unless the measured lift was averaged, using

an integrator circuit). Maybe try hot air (200oF) for the model

2 2

4 ft 4 ft

For hot air try hot = 2.4 10 instead of air = 1.62 10

s s

Vinsect Linsect Vm Lm Linsect hot 4

ft 1 2.4 10 ft

Hence = Vm = Vinsect = 4 Vm = 0.593

air hot Lm air s 10 1.62 10 4 s

Vm Linsect 0.593 1

Also m = insect = 50 Hz m = 0.741 Hz

V insect Lm 4 10

2

5 ft

w = 1.08 10

Hot air does not improve things much. Try modeling in water

s

Vinsect Linsect Vm Lm Linsect w 5

ft 1 1.08 10 ft

Hence = Vm = Vinsect = 4 Vm = 0.0267

air w Lm air s 10 1.62 10 4 s

Vm Linsect Vm 0.0267 1

Also m = insect = insect Lratio = 50 Hz m = 0.033 Hz

Vinsect Lm Vinsect 4 10

This is even worse! It seems the best bet is hot (very hot) air for the wind tunnel. Alternatively, choose a much smaller wind

tunnel model, e.g., a 2.5 X model would lead to Vm = 1.6 ft/s and m = 8 Hz

Problem 7.65 [3]

Problem 7.66 [2]

Solution:

Vm Lm Vp Lp Vm Vp

For dynamic similarity = (1) = (2) (from Buckingham ; the first

m p g Lm g Lp is the Reynolds number, the

second the Froude number)

Vm g Lm Lm

Hence from Eq 2 = =

Vp g Lp Lp

3

2

V m Lm Lm Lm Lm

Using this in Eq 1 m = p = p = p

V p Lp Lp Lp

Lp

3

2 2 2 2

6 m 6 m 1 7m

From Table A.8 at 10oC p = 1.3 10 m = 1.3 10 m = 1.16 10

s s 5 s

Problem 7.67 [4]

Problem 7.68 [3]

Find: Factors for kinematic similarity; Model speed; ratio of protype and model drags; minimum pressure for no cavitation

Solution:

m Vm Lm p Vp Lp p L p m

For dynamic similarity = Vm = Vp

m p m L m p

slug 7 lbf s

p = 0.00234 p = 3.79 10

3 2

ft ft

slug 5 lbf s

m = 1.94 m = 2.10 10

3 2

ft ft

ft

88 5

0.00234 5 2.10 10

s ft

Vm = 60 mph Vm = 29.4

60 mph 1.94 1 3.79 10 7 s

Fm Fp

Then =

2 2 2 2

m Vm Lm p V p L p

2 2

Fp p V p L p 2 2 Fp

=

0.00234 88 5

Hence = = 0.270

Fm

m Vm Lm

2 2 1.94 29.4 1 Fm

pmin pv 1 2

For Ca = 0.5 = 0.5 so we get pmin = pv + V for the water tank

1 2 4

V

2

2 2 2

29.4

lbf s

1 ft slug 1 ft

pmin = 0.339 psi + 1.94 pmin = 3.25 psi

4 ft

3 s slug ft in

12

This is the minimum allowable pressure in the water tank; we can use it to find the required tank pressure

Cp = 1.4 = ptank = pmin + V = pmin + 0.7 V

1 2 2

V

2

2 2 2

29.4

lbf s

slug ft 1 ft

ptank = 3.25 psi + 0.7 1.94 ptank = 11.4 psi

ft

3 s slug ft 12 in

Problem 7.69 [3]

Problem 7.70 [3]

Problem 7.71 [3]

Find: Drag coefficient; Drag on prototype; Model speed for dynamic similarity

Solution:

For kinematic similarity we need to ensure the geometries of model and prototype are similar, as is the incoming flow field

Fm

The drag coefficient is CD =

1 2

m Vm Am

2

kg 5 N s

For air (Table A.10) at 20oC m = 1.21 p = 1.81 10

3 2

m m

3 2 2

m s 1 N s

CD = 2 350 N CD = 1.028

1.21 kg 75 m 2 kg m

0.1 m

This is the drag coefficient for model and prototype

2

1 2 Ap Lp 2

For the rig Fp = p Vp Ap CD with = = 100 Ap = 10 m

2 Am

Lm

2 2

1 kg km 1000 m 1 hr 2 N s

Fp = 1.21 90 10 m 1.028 Fp = 3.89 kN

2

m

3 hr 1 km 3600 s kg m

m Vm Lm p Vp Lp p L p m Lp

For dynamic similarity = Vm = Vp = Vp

m p m L m p Lm

km 1000 m 1 hr 10 m

Vm = 90 Vm = 250

hr 1 km 3600 s 1 s

N m kg m m

c = 1.40 286.9 ( 20 + 273) K c = 343

kg K 2

s N s

Vm 250

Hence we have M= = = 0.729 which indicates compressibility is significant - this model speed is

c 343 impractical (and unnecessary)

Problem 7.72 [4]

Problem 7.73 [3]

Problem 7.74 [2]

Problem 7.75 (In Excel) [3]

Solution:

V m (m/s) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

F m (N) 2.2 4.8 8.7 13.3 19.6 26.5 34.5 43.8 54.0

1 2 2

Fm = AmCDVm or Fm = kmVm

2

From the trendline, we see that

k m = 0.0219 N/(m/s)2

figures, confirming the relation is quadratic)

Also, k p = 1110 k m

Hence,

2

kp = 24.3 N/(m/s) F p = k p V m2

F p (kN)

137 243 380 547 744 972 1231 1519

(Trendline)

Lift vs Speed for an Airplane Model

60

50 y = 0.0219x1.9954

R2 = 0.9999

F m (N)

40

30

20

Model

10

Power Curve Fit

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

V m (m/s)

Airplane Prototype

1600

1400

1200

F p (kN)

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

V p (m/s)

Lift vs Speed for an Airplane Model

(Log-Log Plot)

100

y = 0.0219x1.9954

R2 = 0.9999

F m (N)

10

Model

Power Curve Fit

1

10 100

V m (m/s)

10000

1000

F p (kN)

100

10

1

10 100 1000

V p (m/s)

Problem 7.76 [2]

Problem 7.77 [3]

D D

For drag we can use CD = As a suitable scaling area for A we use L 2 CD =

1 1

V 2

A V 2 L2

2 2

Model: L= 1 m

3

= Ns/m2

Wave Drag

1.01E-03

The data is:

3.0E-05

V (m/s) 3 6 9 12 15 18 20

2.5E-05

D Wave (N) 0 0.125 0.5 1.5 3 4 5.5

D Friction (N) 0.1 0.35 0.75 1.25 2 2.75 3.25 2.0E-05

CD 1.5E-05

Fr 0.958 1.916 2.873 3.831 4.789 5.747 6.386

Re 2.97E+06 5.94E+06 8.91E+06 1.19E+07 1.49E+07 1.78E+07 1.98E+07

1.0E-05

C D(Wave) 0.00E+00 6.94E-06 1.23E-05 2.08E-05 2.67E-05 2.47E-05 2.75E-05

C D(Friction) 2.22E-05 1.94E-05 1.85E-05 1.74E-05 1.78E-05 1.70E-05 1.63E-05 5.0E-06

0.0E+00

The friction drag coefficient becomes a constant, as expected, at high Re .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The wave drag coefficient appears to be linear with Fr , over most values

Fr

Ship: L= 50 m

V (knot) 15 20

V (m/s) 7.72 10.29 1 Friction Drag

D= V 2 L2 C D

Fr 0.348 0.465 2

Re 3.82E+08 5.09E+08 3.0E-05

Hence for the ship we have very high Re , and low Fr . 2.5E-05

-5

From the graph we see the friction C D levels out at about 1.75 x 10

2.0E-05

From the graph we see the wave C D is negligibly small

CD 1.5E-05

C D(Wave) 0 0

C D(Friction) 1.75E-05 1.75E-05 1.0E-05

5.0E-06

D Wave (N) 0 0

D Friction (N) 1303 2316 0.0E+00

0.0.E+00 5.0.E+06 1.0.E+07 1.5.E+07 2.0.E+07 2.5.E+07

D Total (N) 1303 2316 Re

Problem 7.78 (In Excel) [4]

Find: groups; plot pressure head vs flow rate for range of speeds

Solution:

We will use the workbook of Example 7.1, modified for the current problem

The number of primary dimensions is: r =3

The number of repeat parameters is: m =r =3

The number of groups is: n -m =2

the repeating parameters, and of up to

four other parameters (for up to four groups).

The spreadsheet will compute the exponents a , b , and c for each.

M L t

1 -3

-1

D 1

GROUPS:

M L t M L t

p 1 -1 -2 Q 0 3 -1

1: a = -1 2: a = 0

b = -2 b = -1

c = -2 c = -3

M L t M L t

0 0 0 0 0 0

3: a = 0 4: a = 0

b = 0 b = 0

c = 0 c = 0

p Q

Hence 1 = and 2 = with 1 = f(2).

2 D 2 D 3

Based on the plotted data, it looks like the relation between 1 and 2 may be parabolic

2

p Q Q

Hence = a + b + c

D

2 2

D 3 D 3

The data is

p (kPa) 361 349 328 293 230 145 114 59

= 999 kg/m3

= 750 rpm

D = 1 m (D is not given; use D = 1 m as a scale)

p /(2D 2) 0.0586 0.0566 0.0532 0.0475 0.0373 0.0235 0.0185 0.00957

0.07

0.06

p /( D )

2 2

0.05

Parabolic Fit

0.03

0.01 R2 = 0.9981

0.00

0.0000 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010 0.0012 0.0014

Q /(D 3)

a = 0.0582

b = 13.4

c = -42371

and Q Q

2

p = 2 D 2 a + b + c

D 3 D 3

Finally, data at 500 and 1000 rpm can be calculated and plotted

= 500 rpm

p (kPa) 159 162 161 156 146 115 68 4

= 1000 rpm

p (kPa) 638 645 649 644 606 531 460 374

700 Pump Data at 750 rpm

600 Pump Curve at 500 rpm

Pump Curve at 1000 rpm

p (kPa)

500

400

300

200

100

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

3

Q (m /hr)

Problem 7.79 [3]

Solution:

Q D 2 Q D 2

= f = f

h P

From Buckingham , and ,

2 2

D

D3 3 5 D3

D

Qm Qp hm hp Pm Pp

Neglecting viscous effects = then = and =

3 3 2 2 2 2 3 5 3 5

m Dm p Dp m Dm p Dp m Dm p Dp

3 3 3

Qm m Dm 1000 Dm Dm

Hence if = = = 2 (1)

Qp p Dp 500

Dp Dp

2 22 2 2

hm m Dm 1000 Dm Dm

= = = 4 (2)

then hp 2

p Dp

2 500 D 2 Dp

2

p

3 35 5 5

Pm m Dm 1000 Dm Dm

=

and

= = 8 (3)

Pp 3

p Dp

5 500 D 5 Dp

5

p

3

kg m J

We can find Pp from Pp = Q h = 1000 0.75 15 = 11.25 kW

3 s kg

m

1 1

5 5

Pm Dm 1 Pm 5

Dm = 0.25 m

1 2.25

From Eq 3 = 8 so Dm = Dp Dm = 0.120 m

Pp

Dp

5 8 Pp

8 11.25

3 3

Qm Dm Dm 3 3 3

2

m 0.12 m

From Eq 1 = 2 so Qm = Qp 2 Qm = 0.75 Qm = 0.166

Qp

Dp Dp s 0.25 s

2 2

hm Dm Dm 2

4

J 0.12 J

From Eq 2 = 4 so hm = hp 4 hm = 15 hm = 13.8

hp

Dp Dp kg 0.25 kg

Problem 7.80 [3]

Solution:

There are two problems here: Determine Ft = f1 (D, ,V , , ) and also T = f 2 (D, ,V , , ) . Since is to be ignored, do not

select it as a repeat parameter; instead select D, , as repeats.

c Ft D V n = 6 parameters

Ft D V

e r = 3 primary dimensions

M L 1 L M M

t 2 L

t t Lt L3

f D m = r = 3 repeat parameters

a c

M b 1 ML

1 = D Ft = 3 (L ) 2 = M L t

a b c 0 0 0

L t t

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

Ft

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b + 1 = 0 b = 4 Hence 1 =

D 4 2

t: c2=0 c = 2

a c

M b 1 L

2 = D V = 3 (L ) = M 0 L0t 0

a b c

L

t t

M: a=0 a=0

V

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b + 1 = 0 b = 1 Hence 2 =

D

t: c 1 = 0 c = 1

a c

3 = a D b c =

M

3

(L )b 1 M = M 0 L0t 0

L t Lt

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

Summing exponents, L: 3a + b 1 = 0 b = 2 Hence 3 =

D 2

t: c 1 = 0 c = 1

h Check using F, L, t as primary dimensions

L Ft

= [1] 2 = t = [1] = [1]

F 2

1 = 3 = 2L

Ft 2 4 1 L

1 Ft 21

L 2 L

L4 t t L4 t

V

1 = f1 ( 2 , 3 )

Ft

Then = f1 , 2

D 4 2

D D

Ft V

If viscous effects are neglected = g1

D

4 2

D

Vm V

For dynamic similarity = p

Dmm D p p

Dm V p 1 400

so p = m = 2000 rpm = 533 rpm

D p Vm 10 150

Ft m Ft p

Under these conditions = (assuming m = p)

Dmm D p4 p2

4 2

D p4 p2 10 533

4 2

4

Dm m

1 2000

a c

M b 1 ML

2

4 = D T = 3 (L ) 2 = M L t

a b c 0 0 0

L

t t

M: a +1 = 0 a = 1

T

Summing exponents, L : 3a + b + 2 = 0 b = 5 Hence 4 =

D 5 2

t: c2=0 c = 2

V

4 = f 2 ( 2 , 3 )

T

Then = f 2 , 2

D

5 2

D D

T V

If viscous effects are neglected = g2

D

5 2

D

Tm Tp

For dynamic similarity =

Dmm D 5p p2

5 2

D 5p p2

10 533

5 2

4

Dm m

1 2000

Problem 7.81 [3]

Problem 7.82 [2]

Solution:

3

3 5

V2 D

5

d = D ( We) = D

Given relation

3

5

V 2 D 2

6

m m

Dm 5 5

dm

Dm Vm

For dynamic similarity = = where dp stands for dprototype not the original dp!

dp 3

Dp Vp

5

V 2 D

p p

Dp

2 6

dm 5 5 dm

=

1 4

Hence = 0.075

dp 10 1 dp

The small scale droplets are 7.5% of the size of the large scale

Problem 7.83 [2]

Problem 7.84 [3]

Problem 7.85 [3]

Problem 7.86 [4]

Solution:

Open-Ended Problem Statement: Frequently one observes a flag on a pole "flapping" in the wind. Explain why this occurs. What

dimensionless parameters might characterize the phenomenon? Why?

Discussion: The natural wind contains significant fluctuations in air speed and direction. These fluctuations tend to disturb the flag

from an initially plane position.

When the flag is bent or curved from the plane position, the flow nearby must follow its contour. Flow over a convex surface tends to

be faster, and have lower pressure, than flow over a concave curved surface. The resulting pressure forces tend to exaggerate the

curvature of the flag. The result is a seemingly random "flapping" motion of the flag.

The rope or chain used to raise the flag may also flap in the wind. It is much more likely to exhibit a periodic motion than the flag

itself. The rope is quite close to the flag pole, where it is influenced by any vortices shed from the pole. If the Reynolds number is

such that periodic vortices are shed from the pole, they will tend to make the rope move with the same frequency. This accounts for

the periodic thump of a rope or clank of a chain against the pole.

The vortex shedding phenomenon is characterized by the Strouhal number, St = fD/V, where f is the vortex shedding frequency, D is

the pole diameter, and D is the wind speed. The Strouhal number is constant at approximately 0.2 over a broad range of Reynolds

numbers.

Problem 7.87 [5] Part 1/2

7.2

7.2

Problem 7.87 [5] Part 2/2

Problem 8.1 [1]

Solution:

V D 2

The governing equations are Re = Recrit = 2300 Q = D V

4

2

4 ft

The given data is D = 6 in From Table A.9 = 1.62 10

s

Llaminar = 0.06 Recrit D or, for turbulent, Lturb = 25D to 40D

Q

D

2

D Recrit D

4

Hence Recrit = or Q =

4

2 3

4 ft 1 ft

Q = 2300 1.62 10 ft Q = 0.146

4 s 2 s

For laminar flow Llaminar = 0.06 Recrit D Llaminar = 0.06 2300 6 in Llaminar= 69.0 ft

Problem 8.2 [2]

Problem 8.3 [3]

Find: Flow rate for turbulence in each section; Which become fully developed

Solution: 2

4 ft

From Table A.9 = 1.62 10

s

1 1

The given data is L = 5 ft D1 = 1 in D2 = in D3 = in

2 4

V D Q D Re D

Re = = or Q =

2 4

D

4

Then the flow rates for turbulence to begin in each section of pipe are

Recrit D1 4 ft

2

1

3

ft

Q1 = Q1 = 2300 1.62 10 ft Q1 = 0.0244

4 4 s 12 s

Recrit D2 3

ft Recrit D3 ft

3

Q2 = Q2 = 0.0122 Q3 = Q3 = 0.00610

4 s 4 s

Hence, smallest pipe becomes turbulent first, then second, then the largest.

For pipe 3 Re3 = 2300 Llaminar = 0.06 Re3 D3 Llaminar = 2.87 ft Llaminar < L: Not fully developed

or, for turbulent, Lmin = 25 D3 Lmin = 0.521 ft Lmax = 40 D3 Lmax = 0.833 ft Lmax/min < L: Not fully developed

4 Q3

For pipes 1 and 2 Llaminar = 0.06 D1 Llaminar = 2.87 ft Llaminar < L: Not fully developed

D 1

4 Q3

Llaminar = 0.06 D2 Llaminar = 2.87 ft

D 2

Llaminar < L: Not fully developed

For the middle pipe transitioning to turbulence (Q2)

Llaminar > L: Fully developed

Lmax/min < L: Not fully developed

4 Q2

For pipes 1 and 3 L1 = 0.06 D1 L1 = 5.75 ft

D 1

Lmax/min < L: Not fully developed

Llaminar > L: Fully developed

Lmax/min < L: Not fully developed

Lmax/min < L: Not fully developed

Lmax/min < L: Not fully developed

Problem 8.4 [2]

Find: Plots of average velocity and volume and mass flow rates for turbulence for air and water

Solution:

2 2

kg 5 m kg 6 m

From Tables A.8 and A.10 air = 1.23 air = 1.45 10 w = 999 w = 1.14 10

3 s 3 s

m m

V D

The governing equations are Re = Recrit = 2300

Recrit

For the average velocity V =

D

2 2

5 m m

2300 1.45 10 0.0334

s s

Hence for air Vair = Vair =

D D

2 2

6 m m

2300 1.14 10 0.00262

s s

For water Vw = Vw =

D D

2 2 Recrit Recrit

For the volume flow rates Q = A V = D V = D = D

4 4 D 4

2 2

5 m m

Hence for air Qair = 2300 1.45 10 D Qair = 0.0262 D

4 s s

2 2

6 m m

For water Qw = 2300 1.14 10 D Qw = 0.00206 D

4 s s

Finally, the mass flow rates are obtained from volume flow rates

kg

mair = air Qair mair = 0.0322 D

m s

kg

mw = w Qw mw = 2.06 D

m s

The relations needed are

air = 1.45E-05 m /s

w = 999 kg/m3 2

w = 1.14E-06 m /s

D (m) 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.05 1.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0

V air (m/s) 333.500 33.350 3.335 0.667 3.34E-02 1.33E-02 6.67E-03 4.45E-03 3.34E-03

V w (m/s) 26.2 2.62 0.262 5.24E-02 2.62E-03 1.05E-03 5.24E-04 3.50E-04 2.62E-04

Q air (m3/s) 2.62E-06 2.62E-05 2.62E-04 1.31E-03 2.62E-02 6.55E-02 1.31E-01 1.96E-01 2.62E-01

Q w (m3/s) 2.06E-07 2.06E-06 2.06E-05 1.03E-04 2.06E-03 5.15E-03 1.03E-02 1.54E-02 2.06E-02

m air (kg/s) 3.22E-06 3.22E-05 3.22E-04 1.61E-03 3.22E-02 8.05E-02 1.61E-01 2.42E-01 3.22E-01

m w (kg/s) 2.06E-04 2.06E-03 2.06E-02 1.03E-01 2.06E+00 5.14E+00 1.03E+01 1.54E+01 2.06E+01

1.E+04

1.E+02

V (m/s)

Velocity (Air)

Velocity (Water)

1.E+00

1.E-02

1.E-04

1.E-04 1.E-03 1.E-02 1.E-01 1.E+00 1.E+01

D (m)

Flow Rate for Turbulence in a Pipe

1.E+01

1.E-01

Q (m3/s)

Flow Rate (Water)

1.E-03

1.E-05

1.E-07

1.E-04 1.E-03 1.E-02 1.E-01 1.E+00 1.E+01

D (m)

1.E+02

m flow (kg/s)

1.E+00

Mass Flow Rate (Air)

Mass Flow Rate (Water)

1.E-02

1.E-04

1.E-06

1.E-04 1.E-03 1.E-02 1.E-01 1.E+00 1.E+01

D (m)

Problem 8.5 [4] Part 1/2

Problem 8.5 [4] Part 2/2

Problem 8.6 [2]

Problem 8.7 [2]

Problem 8.8 [3]

Problem 8.9 [2]

y

2h

x

Find: Shear stress on upper plate; Volume flow rate per width

Solution:

h dp y

2 2

1

du

Basic equation yx = u ( y) = (from Eq. 8.7)

dy 2 dx h

2

h dp 2 y dp

yx = = y

Then 2 dx 2 dx

h

1 m 3 N

At the upper surface y=h yx = 1.5 mm 1.25 10 yx = 1.88 Pa

1000 mm 2

m m

h

h 2

h b dp y 2 3

2 h b dp

The volume flow rate is Q = u dA = u b dy = 1 dy Q =

h 2 dx h 3 dx

h

3 2 2

= 1.5 mm

Q 2 1 m 3 N m Q 6m

1.25 10 2 = 5.63 10

b 3 1000 mm 0.5 N s b s

m m

Problem 8.10 [2]

Problem 8.11 [3]

D p1

F

a

Solution:

3 3

Q a p D a p

Basic equation = Q = (from Eq. 8.6c; we assume laminar flow and

l 12 L 12 L verify this is correct after solving)

F 4 F

For the system p = p1 patm = =

A 2

D

2

4500 lbf

4 1 12 in

p = p = 358 psi

4 in 1 ft

lbf s 3 lbf s

At 120oF (about 50oC), from Fig. A.2 = 0.06 0.0209 = 1.25 10

2 2

ft ft

3 2 2 3 3

4 in 0.001 in

1 ft lbf 144 in ft 1 5 ft in

Q = 358 2 Q = 1.25 10 Q = 0.0216

12 in

1.25 10 lbf s 2 in

12 2 3 s s

in 1 ft

3 2

Q Q 1 5 ft 1 1 12 in ft

Check Re: V = = V = 1.25 10 V = 0.143

A a D s .001 in 4 in 1 ft s

2 2

V a 5 ft 4 ft

Re = = 6 10 10.8 = 6.48 10 (at 120oF, from Fig. A.3)

s s

ft 1 ft s

Re = 0.143 0.001 in Re = 0.0184 so flow is very much laminar

s 12 in 6.48 10 4 ft2

3 2

Q 4 5 ft 1 12 in 4 ft

Vp = Vp = 1.25 10 Vp = 1.432 10

D 2 s 4 in 1 ft s

4

The piston motion is negligible so our assumption of flow between parallel plates is reasonable

Problem 8.12 [3]

Problem 8.13 [3]

Problem 8.14 [3]

Solution:

2 x

p ( x) = pi 1

For a laminar flow (we will verify this assumption later), the pressure gradient is constant

W

where pi = 700 kPa is the inlet pressure (gage)

Hence the total force in the y direction due to pressure is F = b where b is the pad width into the paper

p dx

W

2

pi 1

2 x bW

F = b dx F = pi

W 2

W

2

2

2 F m 50000 N

This must be equal to the applied load F. Hence W = W = 2 W = 0.143 m

pi b 3 m

700 10 N

3

dp p 2 p 700 10 N 1 MPa

The pressure gradient is then = = = 2 = 9.79

dx W W m

2 0.143 m m

2

3

Q h dp

The flow rate is given = (Eq. 8.6c)

l 12 dx

1

3

12 Q

l N s

Hence, for h we have h = At 35oC, from Fig. A.2 = 0.15

dp 2

m

dx

1

3

3 6 3

h = 12 0.15 N s 1 mL 10 m 1 min

m

h = 1.452 10

5

m

9.79 106 N 2 min m 1 mL 60 s

m

2

V D D Q h Q 1 Q 4m

Check Re: Re = = = = = 1.6 10 (at 35oC, from Fig. A.3)

A bh l s

6 3

s 1 mL 10 m 1 min 4

Re = Re = 1.04 10 so flow is very

4 2 min m 1 mL 60 s

1.6 10 m much laminar

Problem 8.15 [4]

Problem 8.16 [2]

Solution:

4 3

u v w

+ + =0 (5.1c)

x y z

1 4 5 3 6 4 3

u u u u p 2u 2u 2u

+ u + v + w = g x + 2 + 2 + 2 (5.27a)

t x y z x x y z

1 4 5 3 4 5 3

v v v v p v v v 2 2 2

+ u + v + w = g y + 2 + 2 + 2 (5.27b)

t x y z y x y z

1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

w w w w p w w w 2 2 2

+u +v +w = g z + 2 + 2 + 2 (5.27c)

t x y z z x y z

(2) Incompressible flow; = constant.

(3) No flow or variation of properties in the z direction; w= 0 and /z = 0.

(4) Fully developed flow, so no properties except pressure p vary in the x direction; /x = 0.

(5) See analysis below.

(6) No body force in the x direction; gx = 0

Assumption (1) eliminates time variations in any fluid property. Assumption (2) eliminates space variations in density. Assumption

(3) states that there is no z component of velocity and no property variations in the z direction. All terms in the z component of the

NavierStokes equation cancel. After assumption (4) is applied, the continuity equation reduces to v/y = 0. Assumptions (3) and (4)

also indicate that v/z = 0 and v/x = 0. Therefore v must be constant. Since v is zero at the solid surface, then v must be zero

everywhere. The fact that v = 0 reduces the NavierStokes equations further, as indicated by (5). Hence for the y direction

p

= g

y

which indicates a hydrostatic variation of pressure. In the x direction, after assumption (6) we obtain

2u p

=0

y 2 x

Integrating twice

1 p 2 c1

u= y + y + c2

2 x

To evaluate the constants, c1 and c2, we must apply the boundary conditions. At y = 0, u = 0. Consequently, c2 = 0. At y = a, u = 0.

Hence

1 p 2 c1

0= a + a

2 x

which gives

1 p

c1 = a

2 x

and finally

a 2 p y y

2

u=

2 x a a

Problem 8.17 [5]

Problem 8.18 [5]

Problem 8.19 [3]

Given: Laminar velocity profile of power-law fluid flow between parallel plates

Find: Expression for flow rate; from data determine the type of fluid

Solution:

1 n+ 1

n n

u =

h p n h

1

y

The velocity profile is

k L n + 1 h

h h

The flow rate is then Q = w u dy or, because the flow is symmetric Q = 2 w u dy

h 0

n+ 1 2 n+ 1

n n

1 y

n y

The integral is computed as dy = y 1

h 2 n + 1 h

1 1

2 n+ 1

n n

n 2

Q = 2 w

h p

Q =

n h n h p 2 n w h

Using this with the limits h 1 ( 1)

k L n + 1 2 n + 1 k L 2 n + 1

The data is

p (kPa) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Q (L/min) 0.451 0.759 1.01 1.15 1.41 1.57 1.66 1.85 2.05 2.25

Non-Newtonian Fluid

10.0

Data

Q (L/min)

1.0

y = 0.0974x0.677

R2 = 0.997

0.1

10 p (kPa) 100

Problem 8.20 [2]

Problem 8.21 [2]

Problem 8.22 [2]

U1

d

y

U2 x

Solution:

Using the analysis of Section 8-2, the sum of forces in the x direction is

dy dy dx dx

+ b dx + p p p + p b dy = 0

y 2 y 2 x 2 x 2

2

d dp d u

Simplifying = =0 or =0

dy dx 2

dy

Integrating twice u = c1 y + c2

U1 + U2

Boundary conditions: u ( 0) = U1 c2 = U1 u ( y = d ) = U2 c1 =

d

( )

y

Hence u ( y) = U1 + U2 U1 u ( y) = 75 y 0.25 (u in m/s, y in m)

d

d

Q = b U1 + U2 U1 dx

( )

y

The volume flow rate is Q = u dA = b

u dy

0

d

3

m

Q = b d

( U2 U1 ) Q

= 10 mm

1 m 1

( 0.5 0.25)

m

Q = 0.00125

s

2 b 1000 mm 2 s m

Problem 8.23 [3]

Solution:

Using the analysis of Section 8-2, the sum of forces in the x direction is

dy dy dx dx

+ b dx + p p p + p b dy = 0

y 2 y 2 x 2 x 2

2

d dp d u

Simplifying = =0 or =0

dy dx 2

dy

Applying this to fluid 1 (lower fluid) and fluid 2 (upper fluid), integrating twice yields u1 = c1 y + c2 u2 = c3 y + c4

The fourth BC comes from the fact that the stress at the interface generated by each fluid is the same

du1 du2

y=h 1 = 2

dy dy

Using these four BCs 0 = c2 c1 h + c2 = c3 h + c4 U = c3 2 h + c4 1 c1 = 2 c3

Hence c2 = 0

From the 2nd and 3rd equations c1 h U = c3 h and 1 c1 = 2 c3

1 U

Hence c1 h U = c3 h = h c1 c1 =

2 1

h 1 +

2

U

Hence for fluid 1 (we do not need to complete the analysis for fluid 2) u1 = y

1

h 1 +

2

ft

20

s ft

Evaluating this at y = h, where u1 = uinterface uinterface = uinterface = 15

1 + 1 s

3

Problem 8.24 [3]

Given: Properties of two fluids flowing between parallel plates; applied pressure gradient

Solution:

dp Pa

Given data k= = 1000 h = 2.5 mm

dx m

N s N s

1 = 0.5 2 = 2 1 2 = 1

2 2

m m

Following the analysis of Section 8-2, analyse the forces on a differential CV of either fluid

+ d dy d dy dx dz + p dp dx p +

dp dx

dy dz = 0

dy 2 dy 2 dx 2 dx 2

d dp 2

d

Simplifying = =k so for each fluid u =k

dy dx 2

dy

Applying this to fluid 1 (lower fluid) and fluid 2 (upper fluid), integrating twice yields

k 2 k 2

u1 = y + c1 y + c2 u2 = y + c3 y + c4

2 1 2 2

y=0 u1 = u2 (2)

y=h u2 = 0 (3)

The fourth BC comes from the fact that the stress at the interface generated by each fluid is the same

du1 du2

y=0 1 = 2 (4)

dy dy

k 2

Using these four BCs 0= h c1 h + c2

2 1

c2 = c4

k 2

0= h + c3 h + c4

2 2

1 c1 = 2 c3

c1 =

(

k h 2 1 ) c2 = c4 =

k h

2

c3 =

(

k h 2 1 )

(

2 1 2 + 1 ) 2 + 1 (

2 2 2 + 1 )

The velocity distributions are then

u1 =

k 2

y + y h

( )

2 1 k h

2

k 2 ( )

2 1 k h

2

u2 = y + y h

2 1

(

2 + 1) 2 + 1 2 2

( )

2 + 1

2 + 1

2

k h 3m

uinterface = uinterface = 4.17 10

2 + 1 s

The plots of these velocity distributions are shown in the associated Excel workbook, as is the determination of the maximum

velocity.

3 m

From Excel umax = 4.34 10

s

The data is

k = -1000 Pa/m

h = 2.5 mm

1 = 0.5 N.s/m2

2 = 1.0 N.s/m2

y (mm) u 1 x 103 (m/s) u 2 x 103 (m/s) The lower fluid has the highest velocity

-2.50 0.000 NA We can use Solver to find the maximum

-2.25 0.979 NA (Or we could differentiate to find the maximum)

-2.00 1.83 NA

-1.75 2.56 NA y (mm) u max x 103 (m/s)

-1.50 3.17 NA -0.417 4.34

-1.25 3.65 NA

-1.00 4.00 NA

Velocity Distribution Between Parallel Plates

-0.75 4.23 NA

-0.50 4.33 NA

2.5

-0.25 4.31 NA

0.00 4.17 4.17 2.0

0.25 NA 4.03 1.5

y (mm)

0.75 NA 3.57 0.5 Upper Velocity

u x 103 (m/s)

1.00 NA 3.25 0.0

1.25 NA 2.86 -0.5 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

1.50 NA 2.42 -1.0

1.75 NA 1.91 -1.5

2.00 NA 1.33 -2.0

2.25 NA 0.698 -2.5

2.50 NA 0.000

Problem 8.25 [2]

Solution:

a y y

2 2

U y

From Eq. 8.8, the velocity distribution is u= + p

a 2 x a a

2

U a

= + p 2

du y 1

The shear stress is yx =

dy a 2 x 2 a

a

U a 2 U

(a) For yx = 0 at y = a 0 = + p p =

a 2 x x a

2

a 2 U y y

2 2 2

= 2

U y u y y

The velocity distribution is then u=

a 2 2 a a U a a

a

U a 2 U

(b) For yx = 0 at y = 0 0 = p p =

a 2 x x a

2

2 U y y

2 2 2

=

U y a u y

The velocity distribution is then u= +

a 2 a2 a a U a

y /a (a) u /U (b) u /U

0.0 0.000 0.000 Zero-Stress Velocity Distributions

0.1 0.190 0.010

0.2 0.360 0.040 1.00 Zero Stress Upper Plate

0.3 0.510 0.090

0.4 0.640 0.160 Zero Stress Lower Plate

0.75

0.5 0.750 0.250

y /a

0.7 0.910 0.490 0.50

0.8 0.960 0.640

0.9 0.990 0.810 0.25

1.0 1.00 1.000

0.00

0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00

u /U

Problem 8.26 [2]

Solution:

For a distance R from the center of a disk spinning at speed

1 m 2 rad 1 min m

V = R V = 25 mm 8500 rpm V = 22.3

1000 mm rev 60 s s

2

V a V a 5 m

The gap Reynolds number is Re = = = 1.45 10 from Table A.10 at 15oC

s

m 6 s

Re = 22.3 0.25 10 m Re = 0.384

s 5 2

1.45 10 m

The flow is definitely laminar

du V 5 N s

The shear stress is then = = = 1.79 10 from Table A.10 at 15oC

dy a 2

m

5 N s m 1

= 1.79 10 22.3 = 1.60 kPa

2 s 6

m 0.25 10 m

2 5 2

The power required is P = T where torque T is given by T = A R with A = ( 5 mm) A = 2.5 10 m

N 5 2 1 m 2 rad 1 min

P = A R P = 1600 2.5 10 m 25 mm 8500 rpm P = 0.890 W

m

2 1000 mm rev 60 s

Problem 8.27 [2]

Problem 8.28 [2]

Problem 8.29 [2]

Find: Expression for shear stress; Maximum shear; volume flow rate/mm width; Reynolds number

Solution:

g sin( ) y

2

From Example 5.9 u ( y) = hy

2

du

For the shear stress = = g sin( ) ( h y)

dy

2

kg m N s

max = 1.2 1000 9.81 sin( 15 deg) 0.007 m max = 21.3 Pa

3 2 kg m

m s

This stress is in the x direction on the wall

h

g sin( ) y

h 2 3

The flow rate is g sin( ) w h

Q = u dA = w u ( y) dy = w h y dy Q =

0 2 3

0

3 3

m mm

2 2

Q 1 kg m 3 m N s 4 s Q s

= 1.2 1000 9.81 sin( 15 deg) ( 0.007 m ) = 2.18 10 = 217

w 3 3 2 1.60 N s kg m m w mm

m s

3

mm

Q Q s 1 mm

The average velocity is V = = V = 217 V = 31.0

A w h mm 7 mm s

V h

The gap Reynolds number is Re =

2 2

kg mm m 1 m

Re = 1.2 1000 31 7 mm Re = 0.163

3 s 1.60 N s 1000 mm

m

The flow is definitely laminar

Problem 8.30 [3]

Solution:

2

4 m

Given data h = 2.5 mm = 30 deg 1 = 2 10 2 = 2 1

s

(The lower fluid is designated fluid 1, the upper fluid 2)

From Example 5.9 (or Exanple 8.3 with g replaced with gsin), a free body analysis leads to (for either fluid)

2 g sin ( )

d

u =

2

dy

Applying this to fluid 1 (lower fluid) and fluid 2 (upper fluid), integrating twice yields

g sin( ) 2 g sin( ) 2

u1 = y + c1 y + c2 u2 = y + c3 y + c4

2 1 2 2

y=h u1 = u2 (2)

The third BC comes from the fact that there is no shear stress at the free surface

du2

y = 2 h 2 =0 (3)

dy

The fourth BC comes from the fact that the stress at the interface generated by each fluid is the same

du1 du2

y=h 1 = 2 (4)

dy dy

Using these four BCs c2 = 0

g sin ( ) 2 g sin ( ) 2

h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h + c4

2 1 2 2

g sin ( ) 2 h + 2 c3 = 0

g sin ( ) h + 1 c1 = g sin ( ) h + 2 c3

2 g sin ( ) h

Hence, after some algebra c1 = c2 = 0

1

c3 =

2 g sin ( ) h (

2 2 1

c4 = 3 g sin ( ) h

)

2 2 1 2

g sin ( ) (

4 y h y

2 ) u2 = 3 h

(

g sin ( ) 2 2 1 ) 2

+ 4 y h y

2 1 2 2 1

u1 =

g sin ( ) (

4 y h y

2 ) u2 =

(

g sin ( ) 2 2 1

3 h

) 2

+ 4 y h y

2 1 2 2 1

(Note that these result in the same expression if 1 = 2, i.e., if we have one fluid)

2

3 g h sin ( ) m

uinterface = uinterface = 0.23

2 1 s

2

ufreesurface = g h sin ( )

(3 2 + 1) ufreesurface = 0.268

m

2 1 2 s

h = 2.5 mm

= 30 deg

2

1 = 2.00E-04 m /s

2

2 = 4.00E-04 m /s

0.000 0.000 Velocity Distributions down an Incline

0.250 0.0299

0.500 0.0582

5.0

0.750 0.0851

1.000 0.110

1.250 0.134 4.0

1.500 0.156 Lower Velocity

y (mm)

1.750 0.177

2.000 0.196 3.0 Upper Velocity

2.250 0.214

2.500 0.230 0.230

2.750 0.237 2.0

3.000 0.244

3.250 0.249 1.0

3.500 0.254

3.750 0.259

4.000 0.262 0.0

4.250 0.265

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

4.500 0.267

4.750 0.268 u (m/s)

5.000 0.268

Problem 8.31 [3]

Find: Shear stress on lower plate; Plot shear stress; Flow rate for pressure gradient; Pressure gradient for zero shear; Plot

Solution:

a dp y y

2 2

U y

From Section 8-2 u ( y) = +

a 2 dx a a 3

a ft

a

U a

u ( y) dy = w U dy =

y Q y 1 ft 0.1 s

For dp/dx = 0 u = U = Q = 5 ft Q = 0.0208

a l 0 a 2 2 s 12 ft

0

du U 7 lbf s

For the shear stress = = when dp/dx = 0 = 3.79 10 (Table A.9)

dy a 2

ft

The shear stress is constant - no need to plot!

2

7 lbf s ft 12 1 ft 6

= 3.79 10 5 = 1.58 10 psi

2 s 0.1 ft 12 in

ft

Q will decrease if dp/dx > 0; it will increase if dp/dx < 0.

+ a

du U dp y 1

For non- zero dp/dx: = =

dy a dx a 2

+ a =

U dp 1 1 U a dp

At y = 0.25a, we get ( y = 0.25 a) =

a dx 4 2 a 4 dx

lbf

2 2

4 U

5

dp 7 lbf s ft 12 ft 4 psi

Hence this stress is zero when = = 4 3.79 10 = 0.109 = 7.58 10

dx

a

2

ft

2 s 0.1 ft ft ft

0.1

0.075

y (in)

0.05

0.025

4 4 4 4

110 0 110 210 310

Problem 8.32 [3]

Find: Location and magnitude of maximum velocity; Volume flow in 10 s; Plot velocity and shear stress

Solution:

b dp y y

2 2

U y

From Section 8-2 u ( y) = +

b 2 dx b b

2

du U b dp 2 y 1 U 1 dp

For umax set du/dx = 0 =0= + = + ( 2 y b)

dy b 2 dx b 2 a b 2 dx

b U 3 N s

Hence u = umax at y= From Table A.8 at 15oC = 1.14 10

2 dp 2

b m

dx

0.0025 m 3 N s m 1 m 3

3

y = 1.14 10 0.25 y = 1.90 10 m y = 1.90 mm

2 2 s 0.0025 m 175 N

m

b dp y y

2 2

U y

Hence umax = + with y = 1.90 mm

b 2 dx b b

2 2

m 1.90 1

2 m m

umax = 0.25 + ( 0.0025 m) umax = 0.278

s 2.5 2 3 3

1.14 10 N s m 2.5 2.5 s

b

b dp y y

b 2 2 3

Q U y U b b dp

= u ( y) dy = w +

dy =

w 0

0

b 2 dx b b 2 12 dx

2 2

Q 1 m 1 3 m 175 N Q 4 m

= 0.25 0.0025 m ( 0.0025 m) = 5.12 10

w 2 s 12 3 3 w s

1.14 10 N s m

2 3

Q 4 m 3 2 3 m

Flow = t = 5.12 10 10 s Flow = 5.12 10 m = 5.12 10

w s m

dp y y

2 2

u y b du U b dp y

The velocity profile is = + For the shear stress = = + 2 1

U b 2 U dx b b dy b 2 dx b

1

0.8

0.6

y/b

0.4

0.2

u/U

0.8

0.6

y/b

0.4

0.2

Problem 8.33 [4] Part 1/2

Problem 8.33 [4] Part 2/2

Problem 8.34 [4]

Problem 8.35 [3]

Problem 8.36 [2]

Solution:

The Navier-Stokes equations are (using the coordinates of Example 8.3, so that x is vertical, y is horizontal)

4 3

u v w

+ + =0 (5.1c)

x y z

1 4 5 3 4 3

u u u u p 2u 2u 2u

+ u + v + w = g x + 2 + 2 + 2 (5.27a)

t x y z x x y z

1 4 5 3 6 4 5 3

v v v v p v v v 2 2 2

+ u + v + w = g y + 2 + 2 + 2 (5.27b)

t x y z y x y z

1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

w w w w p w w w 2 2 2

+u +v +w = g z + 2 + 2 + 2 (5.27c)

t x y z z x y z

(2) Incompressible flow; = constant.

(3) No flow or variation of properties in the z direction; w= 0 and /z = 0.

(4) Fully developed flow, so no properties except possibly pressure p vary in the x direction; /x = 0.

(5) See analysis below.

(6) No body force in the y direction; gy = 0

Assumption (1) eliminates time variations in any fluid property. Assumption (2) eliminates space variations in density. Assumption

(3) states that there is no z component of velocity and no property variations in the z direction. All terms in the z component of the

NavierStokes equation cancel. After assumption (4) is applied, the continuity equation reduces to v/y = 0. Assumptions (3) and (4)

also indicate that v/z = 0 and v/x = 0. Therefore v must be constant. Since v is zero at the solid surface, then v must be zero

everywhere. The fact that v = 0 reduces the NavierStokes equations further, as indicated by (5). Hence for the y direction

p

=0

y

which indicates the pressure is a constant across the layer. However, at the free surface p = patm = constant. Hence we conclude that p

= constant throughout the fluid, and so

p

=0

x

In the x direction, we obtain

2u

+ g = 0

y 2

Integrating twice

1 c

u= gy 2 + 1 y + c2

2

To evaluate the constants, c1 and c2, we must apply the boundary conditions. At y = 0, u = 0. Consequently, c2 = 0. At y = a, du/dy =

0 (we assume air friction is negligible). Hence

(y = ) =

du 1 c1

= g + =0

dy y =

which gives

c1 = g

and finally

g g 2 y 1 y

2

1

u= gy 2 + y=

2 2

Problem 8.37 [4]

Problem 8.38 [4]

Problem 8.39 [5]

Problem 8.40 (In Excel)

Find: Plot; find flow rate for maximum efficiency; explain curve

Solution:

q

0.00 0.0% Efficiency of a Viscous Pump

0.05 7.30%

0.10 14.1% 35%

0.15 20.3%

30%

0.20 25.7%

0.25 30.0% 25%

0.30 32.7%

20%

0.35 33.2%

0.40 30.0% 15%

0.45 20.8% 10%

0.50 0.0%

5%

0%

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50

q

For the maximum efficiency point we can use Solver (or alternatively differentiate)

q The efficiency is zero at zero flow rate because there is no output at all

0.333 33.3% The efficiency is zero at maximum flow rate p = 0 so there is no output

The efficiency must therefore peak somewhere between these extremes

Problem 8.41 [5]

Problem 8.42 [5] Part 1/2

Problem 8.42 [5] Part 2/2

Problem 8.43 [5]

Problem 2.59

Problem 8.44 [3]

Solution:

2

The given data is D = 50 mm L = 1 m I = 0.055 kg m = 1 mm

N s

= 0.1 i = 60 rpm f = 10 rpm

2

m

D

The equation of motion for the slowing bearing is I = Torque = A

2

where is the angular acceleration and is the viscous stress, and A = D L is the surface area of the bearing

U D

As in Example 8.2 the stress is given by = =

2

3

d D D D L

Hence I = I = D L =

dt 2 2 4

3

d D L

Separating variables = dt

4 I

3

D L

t

4 I

Integrating and using IC = 0 ( t) = i e

3

D L

t

4 I

The time to slow down to f = 10 rpm is obtained from solving f = i e

4 I f

so t = ln t = 10 s

3

D L i

Problem 8.45 [2]

Problem 8.46 [2]

Problem 8.47 [2]

d

p1 D

F

L

Solution:

4

p d

Basic equation Q = (Eq. 8.13c; we assume laminar flow and verify this is correct after solving)

128 L

F 4 F

For the system p = p1 patm = =

A 2

D

2

7.5 lbf

4 1 12 in

p = p = 67.9 psi

0.375 in 1 ft

5 lbf s 4 lbf s

At 68oF, from Table A.7 H2O = 2.1 10 = 5 H2O = 1.05 10

2 2

ft ft

2 4 2

lbf 144 in

0.005 in

1 ft ft 1 12 in

Q = 67.9

128 2 2 12 in

1.05 10 lbf s

4 1 in 1 ft

in 1 ft

3 3 3

7 ft 3 in in

Q = 8.27 10 Q = 1.43 10 Q = 0.0857

s s min

3 2 2

Q Q 4 7 ft 1 12 in ft

Check Re: V = = V = 8.27 10 V = 6.07

A d

2 s .005 in 1 ft s

4

V d slug

Re = = 1.94 (assuming saline is close to water)

3

ft

2

slug ft 1 ft ft slug ft

Re = 1.94 6.07 0.005 in Re = 46.7

3 s 12 in 4 2

ft 1.05 10 lbf s s lbf

Flow is laminar

Problem 8.48 [3]

Find: "Resistance" of tube; maximum flow rate and pressure difference for which electrical analogy

holds for (a) kerosine and (b) castor oil

Solution:

The given data is L = 100 mm D = 0.3 mm

3 N s kg kg

Kerosene: = 1.1 10 = 0.82 990 = 812

2 3 3

m m m

N s kg kg

Castor oil: = 0.25 = 2.11 990 = 2090

2 3 3

m m m

The governing equation for the flow rate for laminar flow in a tube is Eq. 8.13c

4

p D

Q =

128 L

128 L

or p = Q (2)

4

D

By analogy, current I is represented by flow rate Q, and voltage V by pressure drop p.

Comparing Eqs. (1) and (2), the "resistance" of the tube is

128 L

R=

4

D

The "resistance" of a tube is directly proportional to fluid viscosity and pipe length, and strongly dependent on the inverse of

diameter

V D

The analogy is only valid for Re < 2300 or < 2300

Q

D

2

D

4 2300 D

Writing this constraint in terms of flow rate < 2300 or Qmax =

4

The corresponding maximum pressure gradient is then obtained from Eq. (2)

2

128 L 32 2300 L

pmax = Qmax =

4 3

D D

3

7m

(a) For kerosine Qmax = 7.34 10 pmax = 406 kPa

s

3

5m

(b) For castor oil Qmax = 6.49 10 pmax = 8156 MPa

s

The analogy fails when Re > 2300 because the flow becomes turbulent, and "resistance" to flow is then no longer linear with

flow rate

Problem 8.49 [4]

Problem 8.50 [4]

Problem 8.51 [4] Part 1/2

Problem 8.51 [4] Part 2/2

Problem 8.52 [4] Part 1/2

Problem 8.52 [4] Part 2/2

Problem 8.53 [4]

Problem 8.52

Problem 8.54 [3]

Solution:

lbf s lbf s

Given data D = 0.2 in L = 50 ft p = 1 psi 1 = 0.02 2 = 0.03

2 2

ft ft

From Section 8-3 for flow in a pipe, Eq. 8.11 can be applied to either fluid

2

r c1

u= p + ln ( r) + c2

4 x

Applying this to fluid 1 (inner fluid) and fluid 2 (outer fluid)

2 2

r p c1 r p c3

u1 = + ln ( r) + c2 u2 = + ln ( r) + c4

4 1 L 1 4 2 L 2

D D

We need four BCs. Two are obvious r= u2 = 0 (1) r= u1 = u2 (2)

2 4

The third BC comes from the fact that the axis is a line of symmetry

du1

r=0 =0 (3)

dr

The fourth BC comes from the fact that the stress at the interface generated by each fluid is the same

D du1 du2

r= 1 = 2 (4)

4 dr dr

2 2 2

D D D

2 p + c3 ln D + c = 0

4 p c1

D

ln + c2 =

4 p + c3 ln D + c

Using these four BCs 4 + 4

4 2 L 2 2 4 1 L 1 4 4 2 L 2 4

c1 D p 4 c1 D p 4 c3

lim =0 + = +

r 0 1 r 8 L D 8 L D

Hence, after some algebra

(

D p 2 + 3 1

2

) c3 = 0 c4 =

2

D p

64 L 1 2 16 L 2

The velocity distributions are then

2 D 2 (2 + 3 1)

p 2 D

2

r

u1 ( r) = r p

4 1 L

2 4 2

u2 ( r) =

4 2 L 2

(Note that these result in the same expression if 1 = 2, i.e., if we have one fluid)

Evaluating either velocity at r = D/4 gives the velocity at the interface

2 2 2 2

3 D p 3 0.2 lbf 144 in ft 1 3 ft

uinterface = uinterface = ft 1 uinterface = 1.25 10

64 2 L 64 12 2 2 0.03 lbf s 50 ft s

in 1 ft

( )

2

D p 2 + 3 1 1 0.2

2 2

umax = umax =

lbf 0.03 + 3 0.02 ft 1

ft 1 umax = 1.88 10

3 ft

64 1 2 L 64 12 2 0.02 0.03 lbf s 50 ft s

in

0.1

Inner fluid

0.075 Outer fluid

r (in)

0.05

0.025

4 3 3 3

0 510 110 1.510 210

Velocity (ft/s)

Problem 8.55 [2]

Solution:

Basic equation (Eq. 4.18a)

With these assumptions the x momentum equation becomes

p1

2

D

+ w D L p2

2

D

=0 or w =

(p2 p1) D =

p D

4 4 4 L 4 L

1 3 N 1 m 1

w = 35 10 150 mm

4 2 1000 mm 10 m w = 131 Pa

m

Since w is negative it acts to the left on the fluid, to the right on the pipe wall

Problem 8.56 [3]

Solution:

Basic equation (Eq. 4.18a)

2

D

Fglue = p1 where p1 is the tank pressure

4

Second, solve for when flow is occuring:

Assumptions 1) Horizontal pipe 2) Steady flow 3) Fully developed flow

With these assumptions the x momentum equation becomes

2 2

D D

p1 + w D L p2 =0

4 4

Here p1 is again the tank pressure and p2 is the pressure at the pipe exit; the pipe exit pressure is patm = 0 kPa gage. Hence

2

D

Fpipe = Fglue = w D L = p1

4

We conclude that in each case the force on the glue is the same! When the cap is on the glue has to withstand the tank pressure;

when the cap is off, the glue has to hold the pipe in place against the friction of the fluid on the pipe, which is equal in magnitude to the

pressure drop.

2

1 m 3 N

Fglue = 2.5 cm 250 10 2 Fglue = 123 N

4 100 cm

m

Problem 8.57 [2]

Solution:

Basic equation (Eq. 4.18a)

With these assumptions the x momentum equation becomes H

W H

( )

L

p1 W H + w 2 L ( W + H) p2 W H = 0 or w = p2 p1 w = p

2 ( W + H) L

2 1 +

H

W

1 ft

2 1 in

1 lbf 144 in 12 in 1 lbf 3

w = 1 w = 0.195 w = 1.35 10 psi

2 2 2 30 ft 1 ft 2

in ft 9.5 in ft

12 in

1 +

30 ft

Since w < 0, it acts to the left on the fluid, to the right on the channel wall

Problem 8.58 [2]

Solution:

kPa kPa

Given data p1 = 4.5 p2 = 11 D = 30 mm

x m x m

R D

w = p = p

2 x 4 x

D

w1 = p w1 = 33.8 Pa

4 x 1

D

w2 = p w2 = 82.5 Pa

4 x 2

Because both flows are at the same nominal flow rate, the higher pressure drop must correspond to the turbulent flow,

because, as indicated in Section 8-4, turbulent flows experience additional stresses. Also indicated in Section 8-4 is that

for both flows the shear stress varies from zero at the centerline to the maximums computed above at the walls.

The stress distributions are linear in both cases: Maximum at the walls and zero at the centerline.

Problem 8.59 [3]

Problem 8.60 [3]

Problem 8.61 [3]

Find: Trendlines for each set; values of n for each set; plot

Solution:

0.898 0.996 0.898 0.997

0.794 0.981 0.794 0.998

0.691 0.963 0.691 0.975

0.588 0.937 0.588 0.959

0.486 0.907 0.486 0.934

0.383 0.866 0.383 0.908

0.280 0.831 0.280 0.874

0.216 0.792 0.216 0.847

0.154 0.742 0.154 0.818

0.093 0.700 0.093 0.771

0.062 0.650 0.062 0.736

0.041 0.619 0.037 0.690

0.024 0.551

1.0

u/U

0.1

0.01 0.10 1.00

y/R

At Re = 50,000 At Re = 500,000

2 2

with R = 0.998 (high confidence) with R = 0.999 (high confidence)

n = 6.21 n = 8.55

Problem 8.62 [3]

Problem 8.63 [3] Part 1/2

Problem 8.63 [3] Part 2/2

Problem 8.64 [3]

Solution:

=

A

V 3dA

(8.26b)

m& V 2

From Section 8-2, for flow between parallel plates

2

2

u = umax 1 y 3 y

= V 1

a 2 a

2 2

3

since umax = V .

2

Substituting

a a

V 3dA u 3dA 1 u

= dA =

1

3 2

u

3

2 u

2 3

= A

m& V 2

= A

V AV 2 A AV wa a V wdy = a 0 V dy

2

Then

2 a u umax y 3

3 3 31

= (1 2 ) d

1

=

3

d

a 2 0 umax V a 2 0

2

y

where =

a

2

Evaluating,

(1 )

2 3

= 1 3 2 + 3 4 6

The integral is then

31 3 1

0 (1 3 + 3 )d = 2

3 3 3 5 1 7 27 16

= 2 4 6

+ 5 7 = 8 35 = 1.54

3

2 0

Problem 8.65 [3]

Problem 8.66 [3]

Solution:

3

V dA

Equation 8.26b is =

2

mrate Vav

where V is the velocity, mrate is the mass flow rate and Vav is the average velocity

1

n

V = U 1

r

For the power-law profile (Eq. 8.22)

R

2.

For the mass flow rate mrate = R Vav

2 2 3

Hence the denominator of Eq. 8.26b is mrate Vav = R Vav

3

n

V dA = 2 r U 1 dr

3 3 r

We next must evaluate the numerator of Eq. 8.26b

R

R

3

n 2 2 3

2 r U3 1 r dr = 2 R n U

R ( 3 + n) ( 3 + 2 n)

0

r dr

To integrate substitute m = 1 dm =

R R

Then r = R ( 1 m) dr = R dm

R

3 0

3

n

2 r U3 1 r dr = 2 R ( 1 m) m n R dm

R 1

0

1

3 3

+1

3 n n

Hence

V dA = 2 R m m R dm

0

3

2 2

2 R n U

3

V d A =

( 3 + n) ( 3 + 2 n)

3 2 2 3

V dA

2 R n U

( 3+ n) ( 3+ 2 n)

Putting all these results together = =

2 2 3

mrate Vav R Vav

3 2

U

=

2 n

Vav ( 3 + n) ( 3 + 2 n)

To plot versus ReVav we use the following parametric relations

Vav 2

2 n

= (Eq. 8.24)

U ( n + 1) ( 2 n + 1)

Vav

ReVav = ReU

U

3 2

=

U 2 n

Vav ( 3 + n) ( 3 + 2 n)

(Eq. 8.27)

A value of ReU leads to a value for n; this leads to a value for Vav/U; these lead to a value for ReVav and

The plots of , and the error in assuming = 1, versus ReVav are shown in the associated Excel workbook

Re U n V av/U Re Vav Error

1.00E+04 5.50 0.776 7.76E+03 1.09 8.2%

2.50E+04 6.22 0.797 1.99E+04 1.07 6.7%

5.00E+04 6.76 0.811 4.06E+04 1.06 5.9%

7.50E+04 7.08 0.818 6.14E+04 1.06 5.4%

1.00E+05 7.30 0.823 8.23E+04 1.05 5.1%

2.50E+05 8.02 0.837 2.09E+05 1.05 4.4%

5.00E+05 8.56 0.846 4.23E+05 1.04 3.9%

7.50E+05 8.88 0.851 6.38E+05 1.04 3.7%

1.00E+06 9.10 0.854 8.54E+05 1.04 3.5%

2.50E+06 9.82 0.864 2.16E+06 1.03 3.1%

A value of Re U leads to a value for n ; 5.00E+06 10.4 0.870 4.35E+06 1.03 2.8%

this leads to a value for V av/U ; 7.50E+06 10.7 0.873 6.55E+06 1.03 2.6%

these lead to a value for Re Vav and 1.00E+07 10.9 0.876 8.76E+06 1.03 2.5%

vs Reynolds Number

1.10

1.08

1.05

1.03

1.00

1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07

Re Vav

Error in assuming = 1

vs Reynolds Number

10.0%

7.5%

Error

5.0%

2.5%

0.0%

1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07

Re Vav

Problem 8.67 [2]

Solution:

p V1

2

p2 V2

2

hlT

1

Basic equation + + z1 + + z2 = = HlT

g 2 g g 2 g g

2 2

p1 p2 V1 V2

Then HlT = + + z1 z2

g 2 g

( )

3 2 2 2

+ 1.75 3.5

3 N m kg m s 1 2 2 m s

HlT = ( 70 45) 10 + ( 2.25 3) m HlT = 1.33 m

2 1000 kg 2 9.81 m 2 s 9.81 m

m s N

2

m N s N m

In terms of energy/mass hlT = g HlT hlT = 9.81 1.33 m hlT = 13.0

2 kg m kg

s

Problem 8.68 [2]

Find: Head loss for horizontal pipe; inlet pressure for different alignments; slope for gravity feed

Solution:

kg

Given or available data D = 50 mm = 1000

3

m

The governing equation between inlet (1) and exit (2) is

p V1

2 p V2

2

1 2

+ 1 2 + g z1 + 2 2 + g z2 = hlT (8.29)

z1 = z2 V1 = V2

p1 p2 J

Equation 8.29 becomes hlT = hlT = 588

kg

For an inclined pipe with the same flow rate, the head loss will be the same as above; in addition we have the following new data

z1 = 0 m z2 = 25 m

p1 = p2 + g z2 z1 + hlT p1 = 833 kPa

For a declining pipe with the same flow rate, the head loss will be the same as above; in addition we have the following new data

z1 = 0 m z2 = 25 m

p1 = p2 + g z2 z1 + hlT p1 = 343 kPa

For a gravity feed with the same flow rate, the head loss will be the same as above; in addition we have the following new data

p1 = 0 kPa (Gage)

hlT

Equation 8.29 becomes z2 = z1 z2 = 60 m

g

Problem 8.69 [2]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 h

1 2 lT

Basic equation g + + z

1 g + + z2 = g = HlT

2 g 2 g

(

2 p1 p2)

( ) ( )

2 2 2 2 2

Then V2 V1 = 2 V1 V1 = 3 V1 = + 2 g z1 z2 2 g HlT

(

2 p1 p2 )

V1 =

3 (

+ g z1 z2 g HlT

)

2

3

kg m 9.81 m

( 2) m 9.81 1 m

3 N m m m

V1 = 50 10 + V1 = 3.70

3 2 1000 kg 2 2 2 s

m s N s s

Problem 8.70 [2]

Solution:

(

2 g z1 z2 )

L + 8 + 1

f

D

where L = 680 ft D = 4 in z1 z2 = 80 ft

ft

With f = 0.0308, we obtain V2 = 8.97 and Q = 351 gpm

s

ft 1 ft

We need to recompute with f = 0.04 V2 = 2 32.2 80 ft V2 = 7.88

s

2

0.04

680

+ 8 + 1

s

4

12

2

D

Hence Q = V2 A = V2

4

2

ft 4 7.48 gal 60 s

Q = 7.88 ft Q = 309 gpm

s 4 12 3 1 min

1 ft

(From Table G.2 1 ft3 = 7.48 gal)

Hence the flow is decreased by ( 351 309) gpm = 42 gpm

Problem 8.71 [2]

Given: Increased friction factor for water tower flow, and reduced length

Solution:

(

2 g z1 z2 )

L + 8 + 1

f

D

where now we have L = 380 ft D = 4 in z1 z2 = 80 ft

ft 1 ft

We need to recompute with f = 0.04 V2 = 2 32.2 80 ft V2 = 10.5

s

2

0.04

380

+ 8 + 1

s

4

12

2

D

Hence Q = V2 A = V2

4

2

ft 4 7.48 gal 60 s

Q = 10.5 ft Q = 411 gpm

s 4 12 3 1 min

1 ft

(From Table G.2 1 ft3 = 7.48 gal)

Problem 8.72 [2]

Solution:

p 2 p 2 h

1 V1 2 V2 lT

Basic equation + + z1 + + z2 = = HlT

g 2 g g 2 g g

oil oil

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) at 1 and 2 is approximately 1 4) SG = 0.9 (Table A.2)

p1 p2

Then HlT = + z1 z2

SGoil H2O g

3 2

3 N 1 m kg m s

HlT = ( 8250 350) 10 + ( 45 115) m HlT = 825 m

2 0.9 1000 kg 2 9.81 m

m s N

2

m N s kN m

In terms of energy/mass hlT = g HlT hlT = 9.81 825 m hlT = 8.09

2 kg m kg

s

Problem 8.73 [2]

Problem 8.74 [2]

Problem 8.75 [2]

Problem 8.76 [3]

Solution:

p V3

2 p V4

2 h

3 4 lT

Basic equations g + 2 g + z3 g + 2 g + z4 = g = HlT for flow from 3 to 4

p V3

2 p V2

2 h

3 2 pump

g + 2 g + z3 g + 2 g + z2 = = Hpump for flow from 2 to 3

g

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) at 1 and 2 is approximately 1 4) V2 = V3 = V4 (constant area pipe)

p3 p2

Then for the pump Hpump =

g

3 2

3 N m kg m s

Hpump = ( 450 150) 10 Hpump = 30.6 m

2 1000 kg 2 9.81 m

m s N

2

m N s N m

In terms of energy/mass hpump = g Hpump hpump = 9.81 30.6 m hpump = 300

2 kg m kg

s

p3 p4

For the head loss from 3 to 4 HlT = + z3 z4

g

3 2

3 N m kg m s

HlT = ( 450 0) 10 + ( 0 35) m

2 1000 kg 2 9.81 m HlT = 10.9 m

m s N

2

m N s N m

In terms of energy/mass hlT = g HlT hlT = 9.81 10.9 m hlT = 107

2 kg m kg

s

Problem 8.77 [2]

Problem 8.78 [2]

Problem 8.79 [2]

Solution:

p Pa kg

Given data D = 75 mm = 0.075 mrate = 0.075

L m s

kg 4 N s

From Appendix A = 1000 = 4 10

3 2

m m

The governing equations between inlet (1) and exit (2) are

p V1

2 p V2

2

1 2

+

1 2 + g z

1 +

2 2 + g z2 = hl (8.29)

2

L V

hl = f (8.34)

D 2

2 D

(p1 p2) =

2 D p

2 2 L

L V V

mrate m

For the velocity V = V = 0.017

2 s

D

4

2 D p

Hence f = f = 0.0390

2 L

V

V D

The Reynolds number is Re = Re = 3183

(From Eq. 8.37, at this Reynolds number the friction factor for a smooth pipe is f = 0.043; the friction factor computed

above thus indicates that, within experimental error, the flow corresponds to turbulent flow in a smooth pipe)

Problem 8.80 [3]

Solution:

Using the add-in function Friction factor from the web site

e/D = 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.04

Re f

500 0.1280 0.1280 0.1280 0.1280 0.1280 0.1280 0.1280 0.1280 0.1280 0.1280

1.00E+03 0.0640 0.0640 0.0640 0.0640 0.0640 0.0640 0.0640 0.0640 0.0640 0.0640

1.50E+03 0.0427 0.0427 0.0427 0.0427 0.0427 0.0427 0.0427 0.0427 0.0427 0.0427

2.30E+03 0.0473 0.0474 0.0474 0.0477 0.0481 0.0489 0.0512 0.0549 0.0619 0.0747

1.00E+04 0.0309 0.0310 0.0312 0.0316 0.0324 0.0338 0.0376 0.0431 0.0523 0.0672

1.50E+04 0.0278 0.0280 0.0282 0.0287 0.0296 0.0313 0.0356 0.0415 0.0511 0.0664

1.00E+05 0.0180 0.0185 0.0190 0.0203 0.0222 0.0251 0.0313 0.0385 0.0490 0.0649

1.50E+05 0.0166 0.0172 0.0178 0.0194 0.0214 0.0246 0.0310 0.0383 0.0489 0.0648

1.00E+06 0.0116 0.0134 0.0147 0.0172 0.0199 0.0236 0.0305 0.0380 0.0487 0.0647

1.50E+06 0.0109 0.0130 0.0144 0.0170 0.0198 0.0235 0.0304 0.0379 0.0487 0.0647

1.00E+07 0.0081 0.0122 0.0138 0.0168 0.0197 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0647

1.50E+07 0.0076 0.0121 0.0138 0.0167 0.0197 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0647

1.00E+08 0.0059 0.0120 0.0137 0.0167 0.0196 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0647

1.000

0.100

f

e/D =

0 0.0001

0.010 0.0002 0.0005

0.001 0.002

0.005 0.01

0.02 0.04

0.001 Re

1.0E+02 1.0E+03 1.0E+04 1.0E+05 1.0E+06 1.0E+07 1.0E+08

Problem 8.81

e/D = 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05

Re f0

1.00E+04 0.0310 0.0311 0.0313 0.0318 0.0327 0.0342 0.0383 0.0440 0.0534 0.0750

2.50E+04 0.0244 0.0247 0.0250 0.0258 0.0270 0.0291 0.0342 0.0407 0.0508 0.0731

5.00E+04 0.0208 0.0212 0.0216 0.0226 0.0242 0.0268 0.0325 0.0395 0.0498 0.0724

7.50E+04 0.0190 0.0195 0.0200 0.0212 0.0230 0.0258 0.0319 0.0390 0.0494 0.0721

1.00E+05 0.0179 0.0185 0.0190 0.0204 0.0223 0.0253 0.0316 0.0388 0.0493 0.0720

2.50E+05 0.0149 0.0158 0.0167 0.0186 0.0209 0.0243 0.0309 0.0383 0.0489 0.0717

5.00E+05 0.0131 0.0145 0.0155 0.0178 0.0204 0.0239 0.0307 0.0381 0.0488 0.0717

7.50E+05 0.0122 0.0139 0.0150 0.0175 0.0201 0.0238 0.0306 0.0380 0.0487 0.0716

1.00E+06 0.0116 0.0135 0.0148 0.0173 0.0200 0.0237 0.0305 0.0380 0.0487 0.0716

5.00E+06 0.0090 0.0124 0.0140 0.0168 0.0197 0.0235 0.0304 0.0379 0.0487 0.0716

1.00E+07 0.0081 0.0122 0.0139 0.0168 0.0197 0.0235 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

5.00E+07 0.0066 0.0120 0.0138 0.0167 0.0196 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

1.00E+08 0.0060 0.0120 0.0137 0.0167 0.0196 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

e/D = 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05

Re f

1.00E+04 0.0309 0.0310 0.0312 0.0316 0.0324 0.0338 0.0376 0.0431 0.0523 0.0738

2.50E+04 0.0245 0.0248 0.0250 0.0257 0.0268 0.0288 0.0337 0.0402 0.0502 0.0725

5.00E+04 0.0209 0.0212 0.0216 0.0226 0.0240 0.0265 0.0322 0.0391 0.0494 0.0720

7.50E+04 0.0191 0.0196 0.0200 0.0212 0.0228 0.0256 0.0316 0.0387 0.0492 0.0719

1.00E+05 0.0180 0.0185 0.0190 0.0203 0.0222 0.0251 0.0313 0.0385 0.0490 0.0718

2.50E+05 0.0150 0.0158 0.0166 0.0185 0.0208 0.0241 0.0308 0.0381 0.0488 0.0716

5.00E+05 0.0132 0.0144 0.0154 0.0177 0.0202 0.0238 0.0306 0.0380 0.0487 0.0716

7.50E+05 0.0122 0.0138 0.0150 0.0174 0.0200 0.0237 0.0305 0.0380 0.0487 0.0716

1.00E+06 0.0116 0.0134 0.0147 0.0172 0.0199 0.0236 0.0305 0.0380 0.0487 0.0716

5.00E+06 0.0090 0.0123 0.0139 0.0168 0.0197 0.0235 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

1.00E+07 0.0081 0.0122 0.0138 0.0168 0.0197 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

5.00E+07 0.0065 0.0120 0.0138 0.0167 0.0196 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

1.00E+08 0.0059 0.0120 0.0137 0.0167 0.0196 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

The error can now be computed

e/D = 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05

Re Error (%)

1.00E+04 0.29% 0.36% 0.43% 0.61% 0.88% 1.27% 1.86% 2.12% 2.08% 1.68%

2.50E+04 0.39% 0.24% 0.11% 0.21% 0.60% 1.04% 1.42% 1.41% 1.21% 0.87%

5.00E+04 0.63% 0.39% 0.19% 0.25% 0.67% 1.00% 1.11% 0.98% 0.77% 0.52%

7.50E+04 0.69% 0.38% 0.13% 0.35% 0.73% 0.95% 0.93% 0.77% 0.58% 0.38%

1.00E+05 0.71% 0.33% 0.06% 0.43% 0.76% 0.90% 0.81% 0.64% 0.47% 0.30%

2.50E+05 0.65% 0.04% 0.28% 0.64% 0.72% 0.66% 0.48% 0.35% 0.24% 0.14%

5.00E+05 0.52% 0.26% 0.51% 0.64% 0.59% 0.47% 0.31% 0.21% 0.14% 0.08%

7.50E+05 0.41% 0.41% 0.58% 0.59% 0.50% 0.37% 0.23% 0.15% 0.10% 0.06%

1.00E+06 0.33% 0.49% 0.60% 0.54% 0.43% 0.31% 0.19% 0.12% 0.08% 0.05%

5.00E+06 0.22% 0.51% 0.39% 0.24% 0.16% 0.10% 0.06% 0.03% 0.02% 0.01%

1.00E+07 0.49% 0.39% 0.27% 0.15% 0.10% 0.06% 0.03% 0.02% 0.01% 0.01%

5.00E+07 1.15% 0.15% 0.09% 0.05% 0.03% 0.02% 0.01% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00%

1.00E+08 1.44% 0.09% 0.06% 0.03% 0.02% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

0.100

f0

e/D = 0

0.010 e/D = 0.0001

e/D = 0.0002

e/D = 0.0005

e/D = 0.001

e/D = 0.002

e/D = 0.005

e/D = 0.01

e/D = 0.02

e/D = 0.05

0.001

1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08

Re

Problem 8.82

e/D = 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05

Re f0

1.00E+04 0.0309 0.0310 0.0311 0.0315 0.0322 0.0335 0.0374 0.0430 0.0524 0.0741

2.50E+04 0.0244 0.0245 0.0248 0.0254 0.0265 0.0285 0.0336 0.0401 0.0502 0.0727

5.00E+04 0.0207 0.0210 0.0213 0.0223 0.0237 0.0263 0.0321 0.0391 0.0495 0.0722

7.50E+04 0.0189 0.0193 0.0197 0.0209 0.0226 0.0254 0.0316 0.0387 0.0492 0.0720

1.00E+05 0.0178 0.0183 0.0187 0.0201 0.0220 0.0250 0.0313 0.0385 0.0491 0.0719

2.50E+05 0.0148 0.0156 0.0164 0.0183 0.0207 0.0241 0.0308 0.0382 0.0489 0.0718

5.00E+05 0.0131 0.0143 0.0153 0.0176 0.0202 0.0238 0.0306 0.0381 0.0488 0.0717

7.50E+05 0.0122 0.0137 0.0148 0.0173 0.0200 0.0237 0.0305 0.0381 0.0488 0.0717

1.00E+06 0.0116 0.0133 0.0146 0.0172 0.0199 0.0236 0.0305 0.0380 0.0488 0.0717

5.00E+06 0.0090 0.0123 0.0139 0.0168 0.0197 0.0235 0.0304 0.0380 0.0487 0.0717

1.00E+07 0.0081 0.0122 0.0139 0.0168 0.0197 0.0235 0.0304 0.0380 0.0487 0.0717

5.00E+07 0.0066 0.0120 0.0138 0.0167 0.0197 0.0235 0.0304 0.0380 0.0487 0.0717

1.00E+08 0.0060 0.0120 0.0138 0.0167 0.0197 0.0235 0.0304 0.0380 0.0487 0.0717

e/D = 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05

Re f

1.00E+04 0.0309 0.0310 0.0312 0.0316 0.0324 0.0338 0.0376 0.0431 0.0523 0.0738

2.50E+04 0.0245 0.0248 0.0250 0.0257 0.0268 0.0288 0.0337 0.0402 0.0502 0.0725

5.00E+04 0.0209 0.0212 0.0216 0.0226 0.0240 0.0265 0.0322 0.0391 0.0494 0.0720

7.50E+04 0.0191 0.0196 0.0200 0.0212 0.0228 0.0256 0.0316 0.0387 0.0492 0.0719

1.00E+05 0.0180 0.0185 0.0190 0.0203 0.0222 0.0251 0.0313 0.0385 0.0490 0.0718

2.50E+05 0.0150 0.0158 0.0166 0.0185 0.0208 0.0241 0.0308 0.0381 0.0488 0.0716

5.00E+05 0.0132 0.0144 0.0154 0.0177 0.0202 0.0238 0.0306 0.0380 0.0487 0.0716

7.50E+05 0.0122 0.0138 0.0150 0.0174 0.0200 0.0237 0.0305 0.0380 0.0487 0.0716

1.00E+06 0.0116 0.0134 0.0147 0.0172 0.0199 0.0236 0.0305 0.0380 0.0487 0.0716

5.00E+06 0.0090 0.0123 0.0139 0.0168 0.0197 0.0235 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

1.00E+07 0.0081 0.0122 0.0138 0.0168 0.0197 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

5.00E+07 0.0065 0.0120 0.0138 0.0167 0.0196 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

1.00E+08 0.0059 0.0120 0.0137 0.0167 0.0196 0.0234 0.0304 0.0379 0.0486 0.0716

The error can now be computed

e/D = 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05

Re Error (%)

1.00E+04 0.01% 0.15% 0.26% 0.46% 0.64% 0.73% 0.55% 0.19% 0.17% 0.43%

2.50E+04 0.63% 0.88% 1.02% 1.20% 1.22% 1.03% 0.51% 0.11% 0.14% 0.29%

5.00E+04 0.85% 1.19% 1.32% 1.38% 1.21% 0.84% 0.28% 0.00% 0.16% 0.24%

7.50E+04 0.90% 1.30% 1.40% 1.35% 1.07% 0.65% 0.16% 0.06% 0.17% 0.23%

1.00E+05 0.92% 1.34% 1.42% 1.28% 0.94% 0.52% 0.09% 0.09% 0.18% 0.22%

2.50E+05 0.84% 1.33% 1.25% 0.85% 0.47% 0.16% 0.07% 0.15% 0.19% 0.21%

5.00E+05 0.70% 1.16% 0.93% 0.48% 0.19% 0.00% 0.13% 0.18% 0.20% 0.20%

7.50E+05 0.59% 0.99% 0.72% 0.30% 0.07% 0.07% 0.16% 0.18% 0.20% 0.20%

1.00E+06 0.50% 0.86% 0.57% 0.20% 0.01% 0.10% 0.17% 0.19% 0.20% 0.20%

5.00E+06 0.07% 0.17% 0.01% 0.11% 0.15% 0.18% 0.19% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20%

1.00E+07 0.35% 0.00% 0.09% 0.15% 0.18% 0.19% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20%

5.00E+07 1.02% 0.16% 0.18% 0.19% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20%

1.00E+08 1.31% 0.18% 0.19% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20%

0.100

f

e/D = 0

0.010 e/D = 0.0001

e/D = 0.0002

e/D = 0.0005

e/D = 0.001

e/D = 0.002

e/D = 0.005

e/D = 0.01

e/D = 0.02

e/D = 0.05

0.001

1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08

Re

Problem 8.83 [2]

Problem 8.84 [2]

Problem 8.85 [2]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 V2

2

1 2

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hlm hlm = K Q = V A

2 2 2

2

o A2 D2 2.5

2

For an included angle of 120 and an area ratio = = = 0.25 we find from Table 8.3K = 0.27

A1

D1 5

p 2 2 2

1 V1 p2 V2 V2 4 Q 4 Q

Hence the energy equation becomes + + 2 = K 2 with V1 = V2 =

2 D

2

D 2

2

1

2

8 Q ( 1 + K) 1

p2 = p1 ( 1 + K) V2 V1 = p2

2 2

2 4 4

2 D2 D1

2

kg 0.003 mm 1 m

3 3 2

3 N 8

1 1 N s

p2 = 200 10 1000 ( 1 + 0.27)

2

m

2

3

m

s 1000 mm ( 0.025 m)

4 4 kg m

( 0.05 m)

Repeating the above analysis for an included angle of 180o (sudden contraction) K = 0.41

2

kg 0.003 mm 1 m

3 3 2

3 N 8

1 N s

1

p2 = 200 10 1000 ( 1 + 0.41)

2

m

2

3

m

s 1000 mm ( 0.025 m)

4 4 kg m

( 0.05 m)

3 3

m mm

The flow rate has a typo: it is much too small, and should be Q = 0.003 not Q = 0.003

s s

2

kg 0.003 m

3 2

3 N

p2 = 200 10

8

1000 ( 1 + 0.27)

1

1 N s

2 2 3 s 4 4 kg m p2 = 177 kPa

m m ( 0.025 m) ( 0.05 m)

Repeating the above analysis for an included angle of 180o (sudden contraction) K = 0.41

2

kg 0.003 m

3 2

3 N

p2 = 200 10

8

1000 ( 1 + 0.41)

1

1 N s p2 = 175 kPa

2 2 3 s 4 4 kg m

m m ( 0.025 m) ( 0.05 m)

Problem 8.86 [2]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 V1

2

1 2

Basic equations + + g z1 + + g z2 = hlm hlm = K Q = V A p = H2O g h

2 2 2

Hence the energy equation becomes

p 2 2 2

1 V1 p2 V2 V1

+ 2 + 2 = K 2

A1

From continuity V2 = V1 = V1 AR

A2

p 2 2 2 2

Hence 1 V1 p2 V1 AR V1

+ 2 + = K 2

2

( )

2

2 p2 p1 D1 2

75 = 0.111

V1 = AR = = K = 0.8

( )

Solving for V1 so from Fig. 8.14

1 AR K

2

D2 225

2

kg m 5 N s

Also p2 p1 = H2O g h = 1000 9.81 m = 49.1 Pa

3 2 1000 kg m

m s

3

N m 1 kg m m

V1 = 2 49.1 V1 = 20.6

(1 0.111 )

Hence

2 1.23 kg 2 2 s

m 0.8 N s

2

D 1 2 3 3

m 20.6

75 m m m

Q = V1 A1 = V1 Q = Q = 0.0910 Q = 5.46

4 4 1000 s s min

Problem 8.87 [2]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 V2

2

1 2

Basic equations + + g z1 + + g z2 = hlm hlm = K Q = V A

2 2 2

Hence the energy equation becomes

p 2 2 2

1 V1 p2 V2 V2

+ 2 + 2 = K 2

A2

From continuity V1 = V2 = V2 AR

A1

p 2 2 2 2

Hence 1 V2 AR p2 V2 V2

+ + 2 = K 2

2

( )

2

2 p1 p2 D2 1

2

V2 = AR = = = 0.25 K = 0.4

( )

Solving for V2 so from Fig. 8.14

1 AR + K

2

D1 2

2 3

lbf 12 in ft 1 slug ft ft

V2 = 2 0.5 V2 = 7.45

( )

Hence

in

2 1 ft 1.94 slug 2

1 0.25 + 0.4 lbf s

2 s

2

D 2 2 3 3

ft 7.45

1 ft ft ft

Q = V2 A2 = V2 Q = Q = 0.0406 Q = 2.44 Q = 18.2 gpm

4 4 12 s s min

Problem 8.88 [2]

Solution:

Given data D1 = 400 mm D2 = 200 mm

The governing equations between inlet (1) and exit (2) are

p V1

2 p V2

2

1 2

+

1 2 + g z

1 +

2 2 + g z2 = hl (8.29)

2

V2

where hl = K (8.40a)

2

V 2 V 2 V2

2

2 1

p = p1 p2 = + K

2 2 2

2 2

For the sudden contraction V1 D = V2 D2 = Q

4 1 4

2

D1

or V 2 = V 1

D2

V1 D1

2 4

p =

D +

so ( 1 K ) 1

2

2

For the pressure drop we can use the manometer equation

p = g h

V1 D1

2 4

g h =

D +

Hence ( 1 K ) 1

2

2

4

D1

2

Q

In terms of flow rate Q g h = ( 1 + K) 1

2 2 D

D 2 2

1

4

D 4

2

8 Q 1

or g h = ( 1 + K) 1

2 4 D

D1 2

2 4

g D1

where k=

D 4

1

8

D ( 1 + K ) 1

2

2

D2

For K, we need the aspect ratio AR AR = AR = 0.25

D1

Using this in the expression for k, with the other given values

5

2 4

g D1 m

2

k= = 0.12

D 4 s

1

8 ( 1 + K) 1

D2

L

min

For h in mm and Q in L/min k = 228

1

2

mm

The plot of theoretical Q versus flow rate h is shown in the associated Excel workbook

D1 = 400 mm

D1 = 200 mm

K = 0.4 The values for h are quite low;

this would not be a good meter -

k = 228 L/min/mm1/2 it is not sensitive enough.

In addition, it is non-linear.

h (mm) Q (L/min)

0.010 23 Calibration Curve for a

0.020 32 Sudden Contraction Flow Meter

0.030 40

0.040 46 1000

0.050 51

0.075 63

Q (L/mm)

0.100 72

0.150 88

0.200 102 100

0.250 114

0.300 125

0.400 144

0.500 161

0.600 177 10

0.700 191 0.01 0.10 1.00

0.767 200

h (mm)

Problem 8.89 [3]

Find: Expression for minor head loss; compare with Fig. 8.15; plot

Solution:

We analyse the loss at the "sudden expansion" at the vena contracta

The governing CV equations (mass, momentum, and energy) are

Assume: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow at each section 4) Horizontal: no body force

5) No shaft work 6) Neglect viscous friction 7) Neglect gravity

pc A2 p2 A2 = Vc Vc Ac + V2 V2 A2 ( )

Ac

or (using Eq. 1) pc p2 = Vc

A2

(

V2 Vc ) (2)

pc 2 p2 2

The energy equation becomes Qrate = uc +

(

+ Vc Vc Ac + u2 +

) + V 2 V 2 A 2

( )

2 2

Qrate Vc V2 pc p2

or (using Eq. 1) hlm = u2 uc = + (3)

mrate 2

2 2

Vc V2 Ac

Combining Eqs. 2 and 3 hlm =

2

+ Vc

A2

(

V2 Vc )

Vc V2

2 2

2 Ac V2

hlm = 1 + Vc 1

2 Vc A2 Vc

Ac V2

From Eq. 1 Cc = =

A2 Vc

2

Vc

1 Cc + Vc Cc Cc 1 ( )

2 2

Hence hlm =

2

2

Vc

1 Cc + 2 Cc 2 Cc

2 2

hlm =

2

2

Vc

( )

2

hlm = 1 Cc (4)

2

2 2 2 2

V2 Vc V2 Vc 2

But we have hlm = K = K = K Cc (5)

2 2 Vc 2

(1 Cc)

2

Hence, comparing Eqs. 4 and 5 K =

2

Cc

2

K =

So, finally

1

1

Cc

3

A2

where Cc = 0.62 + 0.38

A1

This result, and the curve of Fig. 8.15, are shown in the associated Excel workbook. The agreement is reasonable.

The CV analysis leads to

0.0 0.376 0.50 Sudden Contraction

0.1 0.374

0.2 0.366 0.40 1.0

0.3 0.344

0.4 0.305 0.30 Theoretical Curve

0.8

0.5 0.248 0.20

0.6 0.180 K Fig. 8.15

0.7 0.111 0.10 0.5

0.8 0.052

0.9 0.013 0.01

1.0 0.000 0.00 0.3

is "eyeballed")

Agreement is reasonable 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00

Area Ratio AR

Problem 8.90 [2]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 2

1 2 L V2 V2

Basic equations + + g z1 + + g z2 = hlT hlT = hl + hlm = f + K Q = V A

2 2 D 2 2

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) at 1 and 2 is approximately 1 4) L << so ignore hl 5) Reentrant

Hence between the free surface (Point 1) and the exit (2) the energy equation becomes

2 2 2

V1 V2 V2

+ g z1 = K

2 2 2

A2

From continuity V1 = V2

A1

2 2 2 2

V2 A2 V2 V2

Hence + g h = K

2 A1 2 2

2 g h

Solving for V2 V2 = and from Table 8.2 K = 0.78

A2

2

1 + K A

1

m 1 m

Hence V2 = 2 9.81 1 m V2 = 3.33

2 2 s

1 + 0.78

s 350

3500

2 3 3

350 mm

m 2 1 m 3m m

Q = V2 A2 Q = 3.33 Q = 1.17 10 Q = 0.070

s 1000 mm s min

The flow rate could be increased by (1) rounding the entrance and/or (2) adding a diffuser (both somewhat expensive)

Problem 8.91 [3]

Problem 8.92 [2]

Problem 8.93 [3]

Find: Volume flow rate using hole; Using short pipe section; Using rounded edge

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 2

1 2 L V2 V2

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hlT hlT = hl + hlm = f + K Q = V A

2 2 D 2 2

Hence for all three cases, between the free surface (Point 1) and the exit (2) the energy equation becomes

2 2

V2 V2

g z1 = K

2 2

2 g h

Solving for V2 V2 =

( 1 + K)

From Table 8.2 Khole = 0.5 for a hole (assumed to be square-edged) Kpipe = 0.78 for a short pipe (rentrant)

r 0.01 in

Also, for a rounded edge = = 0.02 so from Table 8.2 Kround = 0.28

D 0.5 in

ft 1 ft

Hence for the hole V2 = 2 32.2 10 ft V2 = 20.7

2 ( 1 + 0.5) s

s

2

ft 0.5 7.48 gal 60 s

Q = V2 A2 Q = 20.7 ft Q = 12.7 gpm

s 4 12 3 1 min

1 ft

ft 1 ft

Hence for the pipe V2 = 2 32.2 10 ft V2 = 19.0

s

2 ( 1 + 0.78) s

2

ft

ft 0.5 7.48 gal 60 s

Q = V2 A2 Q = 19.0 Q = 11.6 gpm

s 4 12 1 ft

3 1 min

Hence the change in flow rate is 11.6 12.7 = 1.1 gpm The pipe leads to a LOWER flow rate

ft 1 ft

Hence for the rounded V2 = 2 32.2 10 ft V2 = 22.4

s

2 ( 1 + 0.28) s

2

ft

ft 0.5 7.48 gal 60 s

Q = V2 A2 Q = 22.4 Q = 13.7 gpm

s 4 12 1 ft

3 1 min

Hence the change in flow rate is 13.7 12.7 = 1.0 gpm The rounded edge leads to a HIGHER flow rate

Problem 8.94 [2]

Solution:

Given data D1 = 100 mm D2 = 150 mm

2 2

V1 V1

hlm = K

2 (

= Cpi Cp )2

(8.44)

1

and Cpi = 1 (8.42)

2

AR

1

K = 1 Cp (1)

2

AR

2

D2

The area ratio AR is AR = AR = 2.25

D1

The pressure recovery coefficient Cp is obtained from Eq. 1 above once we select K; then, with Cp and AR specified, the minimum value of

N/R1 (where N is the length and R1 is the inlet radius) can be read from Fig. 8.15

1

(a) K = 0.2 Cp = 1 K Cp = 0.602

2

AR

N D1

From Fig. 8.15 = 5.5 R1 = R1 = 50 mm

R1 2

N = 5.5 R1 N = 275 mm

1

(b) K = 0.35 Cp = 1 K Cp = 0.452

2

AR

N

From Fig. 8.15 =3

R1

N = 3 R 1 N = 150 mm

Problem 8.95 [3]

Solution: 2 2

p2 p1 V1 V1

( )

1

Basic equations Cp = (8.41) hlm = K = Cpi Cp (8.44) Cpi = 1 (8.42)

1 2 2 2 2

V 1 AR

2

1 2

From Eq. 8.41 p = p2 p1 = V1 Cp (1)

2

1

Combining Eqs. 8.44 and 8.42 we obtain an expression for the loss coefficient K K = 1 Cp (2)

2

AR

The pressure recovery coefficient Cp for use in Eqs. 1 and 2 above is obtained from Fig. 8.15 once compute AR and the dimensionless

length N/R1 (where R1 is the inlet radius)

2

D2 2

AR =

3.5

The aspect ratio AR is AR = AR = 3.06

D1 2

D1 N

R1 = R1 = 1 in Hence =6

2 R1

From Fig. 8.15, with AR = 3.06 and the dimensionless length N/R1 = 6, we find Cp = 0.6

3 2

Q 4 gal 1 ft 1 min 1 ft

V1 = V1 =

750 V1 = 76.6

60 s 2

To complete the calculations we need V1

2 min 7.48 gal s

D ft

4 1 12

1 2

We can now compute the pressure rise and loss coefficient from Eqs. 1 and 2 p = V1 Cp

2

2 2 2

76.6 0.6

lbf s

1 slug ft 1 ft

p = 1.94 p = 23.7 psi

2 ft

3 s slug ft 12 in

1 1

K = 1 Cp K = 1 0.6 K = 0.293

2 2

AR 3.06

Problem 8.96 [4]

Problem 8.97 [3]

Find: Expression for minor head loss; compare with Fig. 8.15; plot

Solution:

The governing CV equations (mass, momentum, and energy) are

Assume: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) Uniform flow at each section 4) Horizontal: no body force

5) No shaft work 6) Neglect viscous friction 7) Neglect gravity

p1 A2 p2 A2 = V1 V1 A1 + V2 V2 A2 ( )

A1

or (using Eq. 1) p1 p2 = V1

A2

(

V2 V1 ) (2)

p1 2 p2 2

The energy equation becomes Qrate = u1 +

(

+ V1 V1 A1 + u2 +

)

+ V 2 V 2 A 2

( )

2 2

Qrate V1 V2 p1 p2

or (using Eq. 1) hlm = u2 u1 = + (3)

mrate 2

2 2

V1 V2 A1

Combining Eqs. 2 and 3 hlm =

2

+ V1

A2

(

V2 V1 )

V1 V2

2 2

2 A1 V2

hlm = 1 + V1 1

2 V1 A2 V1

A1 V2

From Eq. 1 AR = =

A2 V1

2

Hence hlm =

V1

(

1 AR

2) + V12 AR (AR 1)

2

2

hlm =

V1

( 2

1 AR + 2 AR 2 AR

2 )

2

2 2

V1 2 V1

hlm = K = ( 1 AR)

2 2

2

Finally K = ( 1 AR)

This result, and the curve of Fig. 8.15, are shown in the associated Excel workbook. The agreement is excellent

From the CV analysis

AR K CV K Fig. 8.15 Sudden Expansion

0.0 1.00 1.00

0.1 0.81 1.0

0.2 0.64 0.60

0.3 0.49 0.8 Theoretical Curve

0.4 0.36 0.38

K Fig. 8.15

0.5 0.25 0.25

0.6 0.16 0.5

0.7 0.09 0.10

0.8 0.04 0.3

0.9 0.01 0.01

1.0 0.00 0.00

0.0

(Data from Fig. 8.15 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00

is "eyeballed") Area Ratio AR

Agreement is excellent

Problem 8.98 [3]

Problem 8.99 [2]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2

1 2

The governing equation is +

1 2 + g z

1 +

2 2 + g z2 = hlT (8.29)

2

V

hlT = hl + K

2

A1

The mass equation is V1 A1 = V2 A2 so V 2 = V 1

A2

V2 = AR V1 (1)

2 2 2

p1 V1 p1 V1 V1

Equation 8.29 becomes + = + + K

2 2 2

2

or (using Eq. 1)

p

=

p2 p1

=

V1 2

1 AR K ( )

2

2 p

V1 =

( )

Solving for V1

2

1 AR K

2 p

Vinviscid = < V1

( )

If the flow were frictionless, K = 0, so

2

1 AR

2

If the flow were frictionless, K = 0, so pinvscid =

V1

(

1 AR )

2

2

2

compared to p =

V1

(

1 AR K

2 )

2

Hence a given flow rate would generate a larger p for inviscid flow

Problem 8.100 [4]

e

d

Flow

Find: Change in flow rate when short pipe section is added; Minimum pressure; Effect of frictionless flow

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 2

1 2 L V2 V2

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hlT hlT = hl + hlm = f + K Q = V A

2 2 D 2 2

Hence for the nozzle case, between the free surface (Point 1) and the exit (2) the energy equation becomes

2 2

V2 V2

g z1 = Knozzle

2 2

2 g z1

Solving for V2 V2 =

(1 + Knozzle)

For a rounded edge, we choose the first value from Table 8.2 Knozzle = 0.28

ft 1 ft

Hence V2 = 2 32.2 5 ft V2 = 15.9

2 ( 1 + 0.28) s

s

2 3

Q = 15.9

ft 0.5 7.48 gal 60 s ft

Q = V2 A2 ft Q = 9.73 gpm Q = 0.0217

s 4 12 1 ft

3 1 min s

When a small piece of pipe is added the energy equation between the free surface (Point 1) and the exit (3) becomes

2 2 2

V3 V2 V2

g z1 = Knozzle + Ke

2 2 2

A2

From continuity V 3 = V 2 = V2 AR

A3

2 g z1

Solving for V2 V2 =

AR2 + K

nozzle + Ke

2

A2 D2 2

1 = 0.25

We need the AR for the sudden expansion AR = = =

A3

D3 2

ft 1 ft

V2 = 2 32.2 5 ft V2 = 18.5

(0.25 )

Hence

2 2 s

s + 0.28 + 0.6

2 3

ft 0.5 7.48 gal 60 s ft

Q = V2 A2 Q = 18.5 ft Q = 11.32 gpm Q = 0.0252

s 4 12 1 ft

3 1 min s

Q 0.0252 0.0217

Comparing results we see the flow increases from 0.0217 ft3/s to 0.0252 ft3/s = = 16.1 %

Q 0.0217

The flow increases because the effect of the pipe is to allow an exit pressure at the nozzle LESS than atmospheric!

The minimum pressure point will now be at Point 2 (it was atmospheric before adding the small pipe). The energy

equation between 1 and 2 is

p 2 2

2 V2 V2

g z1 + = Knozzle

2 2

V2

2

2 ( nozzle

Solving for p2 p2 = g z1 K + 1)

1

2 lbf s 2

32.2 18.5 ( 0.28 + 1)

slug ft ft lbf

Hence p2 = 1.94 5 ft p2 = 113 p2 = 0.782 psi

3 2 2 s slug ft 2

ft s ft

2 g z1

If the flow were frictionless the the two loss coeffcients would be zero. Instead of V2 =

AR2 + K

nozzle + Ke

2 g z1

We'd have V2 = which is larger

2

AR

If V2 is larger, then p2, through Bernoulli, would be lower (more negative)

Problem 8.101 [2]

Problem 8.102 [4]

Given data: Tabulated or graphical data:

D = 3.18 mm = 998 kg/m

3

= 2

Computed results:

Re = 2300 (Transition Re )

V = 0.723 m/s

= 1 (Turbulent)

f = 0.0473 (Turbulent)

(Using Solver ) 59.9 59.9 0.00%

Problem 8.104 [2]

Problem 8.105 [3]

Solution:

The given data is L = 100 mm D = 0.3 mm

3 N s kg kg

From Fig. A.2 and Table A.2 = 1.1 10 = 0.82 990 = 812 (Kerosene)

2 3 3

m m m

For an electrical resistor V = R I (1)

p V1

2 p V2

2

1 2

+ 1 2 + g z1 + 2 2 + g z2 = hl (8.29)

e

L V

2

1 D 2.51

hl = f (8.34) = 2.0 log + (8.37)

D 2 f 3.7 Re f

Simplifying Eqs. 8.29 and 8.34 for a horizontal, constant-area pipe

2

Q

2

p1 p2 2 D

= f

L V L 4 8 f L 2

= f p = Q

D 2 D 2 or 2 5 (2)

D

By analogy, current I is represented by flow rate Q, and voltage V by pressure drop p.

Comparing Eqs. (1) and (2), the "resistance" of the tube is p 8 f L Q

R= =

Q 2 5

D

The "resistance" of a tube is not constant, but is proportional to the "current" Q! Actually, the dependence is not quite linear,

because f decreases slightly (and nonlinearly) with Q. The analogy fails!

V D

The analogy is hence invalid for Re > 2300 or > 2300

Q

D

2

D

4 2300 D

Writing this constraint in terms of flow rate > 2300 or Q >

4

3

7m

Flow rate above which analogy fails Q = 7.34 10

s

The plot of "resistance" versus flow rate is shown in the associated Excel workbook

Given data: Tabulated or graphical data:

D = 0.3 mm SG ker = 0.82

w = 990 kg/m3

= 812 kg/m3

(Appendix A)

Computed results:

"R" (109

Q (m3/s) V (m/s) Re f

Pa/m3/s)

1.0E-06 14.1 3.4E+03 0.0419 1133

2.0E-06 28.3 6.8E+03 0.0343 1855

4.0E-06 56.6 1.4E+04 0.0285 3085

6.0E-06 84.9 2.0E+04 0.0257 4182

8.0E-06 113.2 2.7E+04 0.0240 5202

1.0E-05 141.5 3.4E+04 0.0228 6171

2.0E-05 282.9 6.8E+04 0.0195 10568

4.0E-05 565.9 1.4E+05 0.0169 18279

6.0E-05 848.8 2.0E+05 0.0156 25292

8.0E-05 1131.8 2.7E+05 0.0147 31900

The "resistance" is not constant; the analogy is invalid for turbulent flow

1.E+06

1.E+04

"R"

(109 Pa/m3/s)

1.E+02

1.E+00

1.0E-06 1.0E-05 1.0E-04

3

Q (m /s)

Given data: Tabulated or graphical data:

D = 10 mm = 998 kg/m3

= 1 (All flows turbulent) (Table A.8)

K ent = 0.5 (Square-edged)

(Table 8.2)

Computed results:

1 0.2 2.1E+03 0.0305 0.704

2 0.4 4.2E+03 0.0394 3.63

3 0.6 6.3E+03 0.0350 7.27

4 0.8 8.4E+03 0.0324 11.9

5 1.1 1.0E+04 0.0305 17.6

6 1.3 1.3E+04 0.0291 24.2

7 1.5 1.5E+04 0.0280 31.6

8 1.7 1.7E+04 0.0270 39.9

9 1.9 1.9E+04 0.0263 49.1

10 2.1 2.1E+04 0.0256 59.1

75

50

d (m)

25

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Q (L/min)

Problem 8.107 [3]

Solution: e

L V

2

64 1 D 2.51

Basic equations hl = f f = Laminar = 2.0 log + Turbulent

D 2 Re f 3.7 Re f

3 2

V =

Q

=

4 Q

V =

4

0.003

m 1

m

Here V = 2.39

A

D

2 s 0.04 m s

V D m s

Then Re = Re = 2.39 0.04 m Re = 1912

s 2

0.00005 m

2

2.39 m

2 2 2

25 m

L V 64 L V 64 s ft

The flow is LAMINAR hl = f hl = hl = hl = 643

D 2 Re D 2 1912 0.04 m 2

s

2

3 2

Q 4 Q 4 m 1 m

V = = V = 0.003 V = 38.2

A

D

2 s 0.01 m s

V D m s

Re = Re = 38.2 0.01 m Re = 7640

s 2

0.00005 m

The flow is TURBULENT For a steel pipe, from table 8.1 e = 0.046 mm

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0389

f 3.7 Re f

2

38.2 m

2 2

L V 25 m s 5 ft

hl = f hl = 0.0389 hl = 7.64 10

D 2 0.01 m 2

s

2

2

5 ft

7.64 10

2

s

The increase in loss is = 1188 This is a HUGH increase! As a percentage increase of

2 118800%. Hence choice of diameter is very important!

ft

643 The increase is because the diameter reduces by a factor of

2

s four and the velocity therefore increases by a factor of 16,

and is squared!

Problem 8.108 [2]

Problem 8.109 [2]

Problem 8.109 [3]

Find: Plot elevation as a function of flow rate; fraction due to minor losses

Solution:

Required Head versus Flow Rate

L = 250 m

D = 50 mm 200

e/D = 0.003

K ent = 0.5

150

K exit = 1.0

z (m)

= 1.01E-06 m2/s

100

3

Q (m /s) V (m/s) Re f z (m) h lm /h lT

0.0000 0.000 0.00E+00 0.000 50

0.0005 0.255 1.26E+04 0.0337 0.562 0.882%

0.0010 0.509 2.52E+04 0.0306 2.04 0.972%

0

0.0015 0.764 3.78E+04 0.0293 4.40 1.01%

0.0000 0.0025 0.0050 0.0075 0.0100

0.0020 1.02 5.04E+04 0.0286 7.64 1.04% 3

Q (m /s)

0.0025 1.27 6.30E+04 0.0282 11.8 1.05%

0.0030 1.53 7.56E+04 0.0279 16.7 1.07%

0.0035 1.78 8.82E+04 0.0276 22.6 1.07%

0.0040 2.04 1.01E+05 0.0275 29.4 1.08% Minor Loss Percentage versus Flow Rate

0.0045 2.29 1.13E+05 0.0273 37.0 1.09%

0.0050 2.55 1.26E+05 0.0272 45.5 1.09% 1.2%

0.0055 2.80 1.39E+05 0.0271 54.8 1.09%

0.0060 3.06 1.51E+05 0.0270 65.1 1.10%

0.0065 3.31 1.64E+05 0.0270 76.2 1.10% 1.1%

0.0070 3.57 1.76E+05 0.0269 88.2 1.10% h lm /h lT

0.0075 3.82 1.89E+05 0.0269 101 1.10% 1.0%

0.0080 4.07 2.02E+05 0.0268 115 1.11%

0.0085 4.33 2.14E+05 0.0268 129 1.11%

0.0090 4.58 2.27E+05 0.0268 145 1.11% 0.9%

0.0095 4.84 2.40E+05 0.0267 161 1.11%

0.0100 5.09 2.52E+05 0.0267 179 1.11%

0.8%

0.0000 0.0025 0.0050 0.0075 0.0100

3

Q (m /s)

Problem 8.110 [2]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 2

1 2 L V1 V1

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hlT hlT = hl + hlm = f + Kexit

2 2 D 2 2

Hence the energy equation between Point 1 and the free surface (Point 2) becomes

p1 V2 2 2

+ ( g z2) = f + Kexit

L V V

2 D 2 2

V

2

L V

2

V

2

Solving for p1 p1 = g z2 + f + Kexit

2 D 2 2

2

slug 5 ft

From Table A.7 (68oF) = 1.94 = 1.08 10

3 s

ft

V D ft 9 s 5

Re = Re = 10 ft Re = 6.94 10 Turbulent

s 12 5 2

1.08 10 ft

e

For commercial steel pipe e = 0.00015 ft (Table 8.1) so = 0.0002

D

e

1 D 2.51

Flow is turbulent: Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0150

f 3.7 Re f

L V

2

For the exit Kexit = 1.0 so we find p1 = g z2 + f

D 2

ft lbf s

2 2

10

4 mile 5280 ft

32.2

slug ft 1 4 lbf

p1 = 1.94 50 ft + .0150 p1 = 4.41 10 p1 = 306 psi

3 2 0.75 ft 1mile 2 s slug ft 2

ft s ft

Problem 8.111 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 Le V 2

1 2 L V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = h h

lT lT = h l + h lm = f + f

2 2 D 2 D 2

Minor

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) is approximately 1 4) Ignore additional length of elbows

3 2

L Q 4 Q 4 L 0.001 m 1 min 1 m

For a flow rate of Q = 350 V = = V = 350 V = 2.97

min A 2 min 1 L 60 s 0.05 m s

D

2

6 m V D m s 5

For water at 20oC = 1.01 10 Re = Re = 2.97 0.05 m Re = 1.47 10

s s 6 2

1.01 10 m

e 4

Flow is turbulent. From Table 8.1 e = 0.15 mm = 6.56 10

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0201

f 3.7 Re f

2 2 Le

For Case (a) L = 5.25 + 2.5 m L = 5.81 m Two 45o miter bends (Fig. 8.16), for each = 13

D

p1 p2 2 Le V 2

L V

Hence the energy equation is = f + 2 f

D 2 D 2

V L Le

2

Solving for p p = p1 p2 = f + 2

2 D D

2 2

.0201 2.97

kg m 5.81 + 2 13 N s

p = 1000 p = 25.2 kPa

m

3 s 0.05 kg m

Le

For Case (b) L = ( 5.25 + 2.5) m L = 7.75 m One standard 90o elbow (Table 8.4) = 30

D

p1 p2 Le V 2 2

L V

Hence the energy equation is = f + f

D 2 D 2

V L Le

2

Solving for p p = p1 p2 = f +

2 D D

2 2

p = 1000

kg

.0201 2.97

m 7.75 + 30 N s

p = 32.8 kPa

m

3 s 0.05 kg m

Le

For Case (c) L = ( 5.25 + 2.5) m L = 7.75 m Three standard 90o elbows, for each = 30

D

p1 p2 2 Le V 2

L V

Hence the energy equation is = f + 3 f

D 2 D 2

V L Le

2

Solving for p p = p1 p2 = f + 3

2 D D

2 2

p = 1000

kg

.0201 2.97

m 7.75 + 3 30 N s

p = 43.4 kPa

m

3 s 0.05 kg m

Hence we conclude Case (a) is the best and Case (c) is the worst

Problem 8.112 [2]

Problem 8.113 [3]

c

h

LA

d e

LB

Find: Required average speed; Estimate feasibility of constant head tank; Pressure drop over 5 m

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 LA V A

2

LB V B

2

1 2

Basic equations + 2 + g z1 + 2 + g z2 = hlT hlT = hA + hB = fA + fB

DA 2 DB 2

5

We wish to have ReB = 10

V B D B ReB 6 m

2

Hence, from ReB = VB = and for water at 20oC = 1.01 10

DB s

2

5 6 m 1 m

VB = 10 1.01 10 VB = 4.04

s 0.025 m s

2

DB m 2.5

2

m

We will also need V A = V B VA = 4.04 VA = 1.01

s 5

DA s

VA DA m s 4

ReA = ReA = 1.01 0.05 m ReA = 5 10

s 6 2

1.01 10 m

Both tubes have turbulent flow

For PVC pipe (from Googling!) e = 0.0015 mm

e

DA

= 2.0 log

1 2.51

For tube A Given + fA = 0.0210

fA 3.7 ReA fA

e

D

= 2.0 log

1 B 2.51

For tube B Given + fB = 0.0183

fB 3.7 ReB fB

2 2 2

VB LA V A LB V B

(

g LA + h ) 2

= fA

DA 2

+ fB

DB 2

2

VB LB

1 + fB g h

2 DB

Solving for LA LA =

fA VA

2

g

DA 2

2

1

4.04 1 + 0.0183

m 20 m

9.81 2 0.5 m

2 s 0.025 s

LA = LA = 12.8 m

2

1.01

m 0.0210 1 m

9.81

2 2 0.05 m s

s

Most ceilings are about 3.5 m or 4 m, so this height is IMPRACTICAL

Applying the energy equation between Points 2 and 3

p 2 2 2 2

2 VB p3 VB L VB L VB

+ 2 + 2 = fB D 2 or p = fB

B DB 2

2 2

4.04

kg 0.0183 5 m m N s

p = 1000 p = 29.9 kPa

3 2 0.025 m s kg m

m

Given data: Tabulated or graphical data:

L = 20 m e = 0.26 mm

D = 75 mm (Table 8.1)

= 1.00E-03 N.s/m2

= 999 kg/m3

(Appendix A)

Gate valve L e/D = 8

Elbow L e/D = 30

(Table 8.4)

Computed results:

p (kPa)

3

Q (m /s) V (m/s) Re f

Required Pressure Head for a Circuit

0.010 2.26 1.70E+05 0.0280 28.3

0.015 3.40 2.54E+05 0.0277 63.1 1200

0.020 4.53 3.39E+05 0.0276 112

0.025 5.66 4.24E+05 0.0276 174 1000

0.030 6.79 5.09E+05 0.0275 250

p (kPa)

800

0.035 7.92 5.94E+05 0.0275 340

0.040 9.05 6.78E+05 0.0274 444 600

0.045 10.2 7.63E+05 0.0274 561 400

0.050 11.3 8.48E+05 0.0274 692

200

0.055 12.4 9.33E+05 0.0274 837

0.060 13.6 1.02E+06 0.0274 996 0

0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

3

Q (m /s)

Problem 8.115 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2

1 2 4 A

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl Dh = e = 0 (Smooth)

2 2 Pw

2 2

L V p f V

p = p1 p2 = f or =

Dh 2 L Dh 2

3

Q ft 1 min 1 ft

But we have V = V = 1250 V = 20.8

A min 60 s 2 s

1 ft

2

4 ft slug

From Table A.9 = 1.62 10 = 0.00234 at 68oF

s 3

ft

V Dh ft s 5

Hence Re = Re = 20.8 Dh = 1.284 10 Dh (Dh in ft)

4

s 1.62 10 ft 2

4 A 4 2

For a round duct Dh = D = Dh = 1 ft Dh = 1.13 ft

4 A 4 b h 2 h ar b

For a rectangular duct Dh = = = where ar =

Pw 2 ( b + h) 1 + ar h

b 2 b h A A 2 ar

But h= so h = = or h= and Dh = A

ar ar ar ar 1 + ar

5 1 5

Round Dh = 1.13 ft Re = 1.284 10 Dh Re = 1.45 10

ft

e

1 Dh 2.51 p f V

2

p 3 lbf

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0167 = = 7.51 10

f 3.7 Re f L Dh 2 L

ft

3

2 ar 5 1 5

ar = 1 Dh = A Dh = 1 ft Re = 1.284 10 Dh Re = 1.28 10

1 + ar ft

e

Given 1 D h 2.51 p f V

2

p 3 lbf

= 2.0 log + f = 0.0171 = = 8.68 10

f 3.7 Re f L Dh 2 L

ft

3

3 3

8.68 10 7.51 10

Hence the square duct experiences a percentage increase in pressure drop of = 15.6 %

3

7.51 10

2 ar 5 1 5

ar = 2 Dh = A Dh = 0.943 ft Re = 1.284 10 Dh Re = 1.21 10

1 + ar ft

e

1 Dh 2.51 p f V

2

p 3 lbf

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0173 = = 9.32 10

f 3.7 Re f L Dh 2 L

ft

3

3 3

9.32 10 7.51 10

Hence the 2 x 1 duct experiences a percentage increase in pressure drop of = 24.1 %

3

7.51 10

2 ar 5 1 5

ar = 3 Dh = A Dh = 0.866 ft Re = 1.284 10 Dh Re = 1.11 10

1 + ar ft

e

1 D h 2.51 p f V

2

p lbf

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0176 = = 0.01

f 3.7 Re f L Dh 2 L

ft

3

3

0.01 7.51 10

Hence the 3 x 1 duct experiences a percentage increase in pressure drop of = 33.2 %

3

7.51 10

Note that f varies only about 7%; the large change in p/L is primarily due to the 1/Dh factor

Problem 8.116 [3] Part 1/2

Problem 8.116 [3] Part 2/2

Problem 8.117 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 V2

1 2 L V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hlT hlT = hl + hlm = f + K

2 2 D 2 2

Minor

Hence the energy equation between Point 1 at the supply and the nozzle exit (Point n); let the velocity in the hose be V

2 2 2 2

p1 Vn Vn

( )

L V V

= f + Ke + 4 Kc + Kn

2 D 2 2 2

2 3

Vn =

D Q 4 Q 4 ft 1 ft

From continuity V and V = =

2

V =

0.75

2

V = 15.3

D2 A

D

s

1 ft

s

4

V

2 L 4

+ Ke + 4 Kc +

D

Solving for p1 p1 = f (1 + Kn)

2 D

D2

2

slug 5 ft

From Table A.7 (68oF) = 1.94 = 1.08 10

3 s

ft

V D ft 3 s 5

Re = Re = 15.3 ft Re = 3.54 10 Turbulent

s 12 5 2

1.08 10 ft

e

For the hose = 0.004

D

e

1 D 2.51

Flow is turbulent: Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0287

f 3.7 Re f

2 4 lbf s 2

15.3 0.0287 + 0.5 + 4 0.5 + ( 1 + 0.02)

1 slug ft 250 3

p1 = 1.94

2 ft

3 s 1 1 slug ft

4

4 lbf

p1 = 2.58 10 p1 = 179 psi

2

ft

Problem 8.118 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f

2 2 D 2

Hence the energy equation becomes

p1 p2 L V

2

+ g z1 + g z2 = f

D 2

3

Q 4 Q 4 m 1 min 1 m

and V = = V = 0.2 V = 6.79

A 2 min 60 s 2 s

D ( 0.025 m)

In this problem we can compute directly f and Re, and hnece obtain e/D

2 D p1 p2

Solving for f f = (

+ g z1 z2 )

L V

2

0.025 s 2

kg m

3

( 700 525) 10 2 + 9.81 6 m

3 N m m

f = 2 f = 0.0423

6 6.79 m m

1000 kg 2

s N s

2

2

6 m V D m s 5

From Table A.8 (20oF) = 1.01 10 Re = Re = 6.79 0.025 m Re = 1.68 10

s s 6 2

1.01 10 m

e

1 D 2.51 e

Flow is turbulent: Given = 2.0 log + = 0.0134

f 3.7 Re f D

e

New pipe (Table 8.1) e = 0.15 mm = 0.006

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0326

f 3.7 Re f

L V

2

In this problem

(

p = p1 p2 = g z2 z1 + f

D 2

)

m N s

2 2

9.81 6.79

kg m 0.0326 6

Hence pnew = 1000 ( 6 m) + pnew = 121 kPa

3 2 2 0.025 s kg m

m s

pold pnew

Compared to pold = 175 kPa we find = 30.6 %

pold

Choose data: Tabulated or graphical data:

= 1.00E-03 N.s/m

2

L = 1.0 m

= 999 kg/m

3

D = 3.0 mm

e = 0.0 mm (Appendix A)

= 2 (Laminar) K ent = 0.5 (Square-edged)

= 1 (Turbulent) (Table 8.2)

0.200 0.472 1413 Laminar 0.0453 0.199

0.225 0.531 1590 Laminar 0.0403 0.228 0.75 Laminar

0.250 0.589 1767 Laminar 0.0362 0.258 H (m) Turbulent

0.275 0.648 1943 Laminar 0.0329 0.289 0.50

0.300 0.707 2120 Laminar 0.0302 0.320

0.325 0.766 2297 Laminar 0.0279 0.353 0.25

0.350 0.825 2473 Turbulent 0.0462 0.587

0.375 0.884 2650 Turbulent 0.0452 0.660

0.00

0.400 0.943 2827 Turbulent 0.0443 0.738

0.425 1.002 3003 Turbulent 0.0435 0.819 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

0.450 1.061 3180 Turbulent 0.0428 0.904 Re

The flow rates are realistic, and could easily be measured using a tank/timer system

The head required is also realistic for a small-scale laboratory experiment

Around Re = 2300 the flow may oscillate between laminar and turbulent:

Once turbulence is triggered (when H > 0.353 m), the resistance to flow increases

requiring H >0.587 m to maintain; hence the flow reverts to laminar, only to trip over

again to turbulent! This behavior will be visible: the exit flow will switch back and

forth between smooth (laminar) and chaotic (turbulent)

Problem 8.120 [4]

Problem 8.121 [2]

Problem 8.122 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f

2 2 D 2

Hence the energy equation becomes

p1 p2 2

p L V

= = f

D 2

2 D p k

Solving for V V = V = (1)

L f f

1

2 3

2 D p 3 lbf 12 in ft

slugft ft

k= k = 2 40 k = 2.57

L 300

in

2 1 ft 1.94 slug s lbf

2 s

V D D

We also have Re = or Re = c V (2) where c =

2

5 ft 1 s 4 s

From Table A.7 (68oF) = 1.08 10 c = ft c = 3.09 10

s 3 5 2 ft

1.08 10 ft

e

1 D 2.51 (3)

In addition = 2.0 log +

f 3.7 Re f

Equations 1, 2 and 3 form a set of simultaneous equations for V, Re and f

k ft 5

Make a guess for f f = 0.1 then V = V = 8.12 Re = c V Re = 2.51 10

f s

e

1 D 2.51 k ft 5

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0573 V = V = 10.7 Re = c V Re = 3.31 10

f 3.7 Re f f s

e

1 D 2.51 k ft 5

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0573 V = V = 10.7 Re = c V Re = 3.31 10

f 3.7 Re f f s

2 2

D

ft

ft 1 7.48 gal 60 s

The flow rate is then Q = V Q = 10.7 Q = 419 gpm

4 s 4 3 1 ft

3 1 min

Problem 8.123 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f

2 2 D 2

Hence the energy equation becomes, between the bottom of the straw (Point 1) and top (Point 2)

p2 L V

2

g z1 + g z2 = f where p2 is the gage pressure in the mouth

D 2

The negative gage pressure the mouth must create is therefore due to two parts

2

( )

L V

pgrav = g z2 z1 pfric = f

D 2

12

gal 3 3

128 1 ft 3 ft

Assuming a person can drink 12 fluid ounces in 5 s Q = Q = 2.51 10

5 s 7.48 gal s

5

Assuming a straw is 6 in long diameter 0.2 in, with roughness e = 5 10 in (from Googling!)

3 2

4 Q 4 3 ft 1 12 in ft

V = V = 2.51 10 V = 11.5

2 s 0.2 in 1 ft s

D

2

5 ft

From Table A.7 (68oF) = 1.08 10 (for water, but close enough)

s

V D ft 0.2 s 4

Re = Re = 11.5 ft Re = 1.775 10

s 12 5 2

1.08 10 ft

e

1 2.51 D

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0272

f 3.7 Re f

2

slug ft 1 lbf s lbf

Then pgrav = 1.94 32.2 ft pgrav = 31.2 pgrav = 0.217 psi

3 2 2

slugft 2

ft s ft

2 2

11.5

slug 6 1 ft lbf s lbf

and pfric = 1.94 0.0272 pfric = 105 pfric = 0.727 psi

ft

3 0.2 2 s slug ft

ft

2

pfric pgrav

Hence the fraction due to friction is = 77 % and gravity is = 23 %

pfric + pgrav pfric + pgrav

These results will vary depending on assumptions, but it seems friction is significant!

Problem 8.124 [2]

Problem 8.125 [2]

Problem 8.126 [2]

Problem 8.127 [2]

Problem 8.128 [2]

Problem 8.129 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f

2 2 D 2

2

( )

L V

Hence the energy equation becomes g z1 g z2 = g z1 z2 = g h = f h=L

D 2

2 D g h 2 D g k

Solving for V V = = V = (1)

L f f f

m m

k= 2 D g k = 2 0.075 m 9.81 k = 1.21

2 s

s

V D D

We also have Re = or Re = c V (2) where c=

2

6 m s 4 s

From Table A.7 (20oC) = 1.01 10 c = 0.075 m c = 7.43 10

s 6 2 m

1.01 10 m

e

1 D 2.51 (3) e = 0.15 mm (Table 8.1)

In addition = 2.0 log +

f 3.7 Re f

k m 5

Make a guess for f f = 0.01 then V = V = 12.13 Re = c V Re = 9.01 10

f s

e

1 D 2.51 k m 5

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0236 V = V = 7.90 Re = c V Re = 5.86 10

f 3.7 Re f f s

e

1 D 2.51 k m 5

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0237 V = V = 7.88 Re = c V Re = 5.85 10

f 3.7 Re f f s

e

1 D 2.51 k m 5

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0237 V = V = 7.88 Re = c V Re = 5.85 10

f 3.7 Re f f s

2 3

D m 2 m

The flow rate is then Q = V Q = 7.88 ( 0.075 m) Q = 0.0348

4 s 4 s

3

m

0.0348

Q s 100 cm 60 s cm

The downpour rate is then = = 0.418 The drain can handle 0.418 cm/min

Aroof 2 1 m 1 min min

500 m

Problem 8.130 [3] Part 1/2

Problem 8.130 [3] Part 2/2

Fluid is not specified: use water

p = = 1.00E-03 N.s/m

2

100 kPa

=

3

D = 25 mm 999 kg/m

L = 100 m (Water - Appendix A)

Computed results:

3

e/D V (m/s) Q (m /s) x 10

4

Re Regime f p (kPa) Error

Flow Rate versus Tube Relative Roughness

0.000 1.50 7.35 37408 Turbulent 0.0223 100 0.0%

0.005 1.23 6.03 30670 Turbulent 0.0332 100 0.0%

for fixed p

0.010 1.12 5.49 27953 Turbulent 0.0400 100 0.0% 8

0.015 1.05 5.15 26221 Turbulent 0.0454 100 0.0%

0.020 0.999 4.90 24947 Turbulent 0.0502 100 0.0% 6

0.025 0.959 4.71 23939 Turbulent 0.0545 100 0.0% Q (m3/s)

0.030 0.925 4.54 23105 Turbulent 0.0585 100 0.0%

0.035 0.897 4.40 22396 Turbulent 0.0623 100 0.0%

x 104 4

0.040 0.872 4.28 21774 Turbulent 0.0659 100 0.0%

0.045 0.850 4.17 21224 Turbulent 0.0693 100 0.0% 2

0.050 0.830 4.07 20730 Turbulent 0.0727 100 0.0%

It is not possible to roughen the tube sufficiently to slow the flow down to 0

a laminar flow for this p . Even a relative roughness of 0.5 (a physical 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

impossibility!) would not work. e/D

Fluid is not specified: use water

2

Flow Rate vs Tube Length for Fixed p

=

3

D = 25 mm 999 kg/m

10.0

(Water - Appendix A)

Computed results:

1.0 0.40 1.98 10063 Turbulent 0.0308 100 0.0% Turbulent

Q (m3/s)

1.5 0.319 1.56 7962 Turbulent 0.0328 100 0.0%

2.0 0.270 1.32 6739 Turbulent 0.0344 100 0.0% x 104

1.0

2.5 0.237 1.16 5919 Turbulent 0.0356 100 0.0%

5.0 0.158 0.776 3948 Turbulent 0.0401 100 0.0%

10 0.105 0.516 2623 Turbulent 0.0454 100 0.0%

15 0.092 0.452 2300 Turbulent 0.0473 120 20.2%

19 0.092 0.452 2300 Laminar 0.0278 90 10.4%

21 0.092 0.452 2300 Laminar 0.0278 99 1.0%

25 0.078 0.383 1951 Laminar 0.0328 100 0.0%

30 0.065 0.320 1626 Laminar 0.0394 100 0.0% 0.1

The "critical" length of tube is between 15 and 20 km. 0 10 20 30 40

L (km)

For this range, the fluid is making a transition between laminar

and turbulent flow, and is quite unstable. In this range the flow oscillates

between laminar and turbulent; no consistent solution is found

(i.e., an Re corresponding to turbulent flow needs an f assuming laminar to produce

the p required, and vice versa!)

More realistic numbers (e.g., tube length) are obtained for a fluid such as SAE 10W oil

(The graph will remain the same except for scale)

Given data: Tabulated or graphical data:

D = 75 mm = 999 kg/m

3

Computed results:

0.000 3.98 0.0176 2.98E+05 Turbulent 0.0145 153 0.0%

0.005 2.73 0.0121 2.05E+05 Turbulent 0.0308 153 0.0%

0.010 2.45 0.0108 1.84E+05 Turbulent 0.0382 153 0.0%

0.015 2.29 0.0101 1.71E+05 Turbulent 0.0440 153 0.0%

0.020 2.168 0.00958 1.62E+05 Turbulent 0.0489 153 0.0%

0.025 2.076 0.00917 1.56E+05 Turbulent 0.0533 153 0.0%

0.030 2.001 0.00884 1.50E+05 Turbulent 0.0574 153 0.0%

0.035 1.937 0.00856 1.45E+05 Turbulent 0.0612 153 0.0%

0.040 1.882 0.00832 1.41E+05 Turbulent 0.0649 153 0.0%

0.045 1.833 0.00810 1.37E+05 Turbulent 0.0683 153 0.0%

0.050 1.790 0.00791 1.34E+05 Turbulent 0.0717 153 0.0%

It is not possible to roughen the tube sufficiently to slow the flow down to

a laminar flow for this p.

Computed results:

100 1.37 0.00606 1.03E+05 Turbulent 0.1219 153 0.0%

200 1.175 0.00519 8.80E+04 Turbulent 0.0833 153 0.0%

300 1.056 0.00467 7.92E+04 Turbulent 0.0686 153 0.0%

400 0.975 0.00431 7.30E+04 Turbulent 0.0604 153 0.0%

500 0.913 0.004036 6.84E+04 Turbulent 0.0551 153 0.0%

600 0.865 0.003821 6.48E+04 Turbulent 0.0512 153 0.0%

700 0.825 0.003645 6.18E+04 Turbulent 0.0482 153 0.0%

800 0.791 0.003496 5.93E+04 Turbulent 0.0459 153 0.0%

900 0.762 0.003368 5.71E+04 Turbulent 0.0439 153 0.0%

1000 0.737 0.003257 5.52E+04 Turbulent 0.0423 153 0.0%

0.020

0.015

3

Q (m /s)

0.010

0.005

0.000

0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05

e/D

0.010

Q (m3/s)

0.005

0.000

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

L (m)

Given data: Tabulated or graphical data:

p2 = 600 kPa e = 0.26 mm

(Closed) (Table 8.1)

D = 150 mm = 1.00E-03 N.s/m2

L = 200 m = 999 kg/m3

Q = 0.75 m3/min (Water - Appendix A)

(Open)

Computed results:

3

H = 61.2 m V = 5.91 m/s Q = 0.75 m /min

(Eq. 1) Re = 8.85E+05 V = 0.71 m/s

f = 0.0228 Re = 1.06E+05

f = 0.0243

Eq. 2, solved by varying V using Solver : p2 = 591 kPa

Left (m2/s) Right (m2/s) Error (Eq. 3)

601 601 0%

Q = 0.104 m3/s

Problem 8.135 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hlT hlT = f + hlm

2 2 D 2

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) is approximately 1

Hence the energy equation applied between the tank free surface (Point 1) and the tube exit (Point 2, z = 0) becomes

2 2 2 2 2

V2 V L V V Le V

g z1 = g z1 = f + Kent + f

2 2 D 2 2 D 2

From Table 8.2 for reentrant entrance Kent = 0.78

R Le Le

For the bend =9 so from Fig. 8.16 = 28 for a 90o bend so for a 180o bend = 56

D D D

2 g h

Solving for V V = (1) and h = 2.5 m

L Le

1 + Kent + f +

D D

The two lengths are Le = 56 D Le = 2.8 m L = ( 0.6 + 0.45 + 2.5) m L = 4.51 m

V D D

We also have Re = or Re = c V (2) where c=

2

6 m s 4 s

From Table A.7 (15oC) = 1.14 10 c = 0.05 m c = 4.39 10

s 6 2 m

1.14 10 m

e

1 2.51

D (3) e = 0.0015 mm (Table 8.1)

In addition = 2.0 log +

f 3.7 Re f

Equations 1, 2 and 3 form a set of simultaneous equations for V, Re and f

2 g h

V =

L Le V = 3.89

m

Re = c V Re = 1.71 10

5

1 + Kent + f + s

D D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0164

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 3.43 Re = c V Re = 1.50 10

L Le s

1 + Kent + f +

D D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0168

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 3.40 Re = c V Re = 1.49 10

L Le s

1 + Kent + f +

D D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0168

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 3.40 Re = c V Re = 1.49 10

L Le s

1 + Kent + f +

D D

The minimum pressure occurs at the top of the curve (Point 3). Applying the energy equation between Points 1 and 3

p 2

p3 V2 2 2 Le V 2

3 V3 L V V

g z1 + + g z3 = g z1 + + g z3 = f + Kent + f

2 2 D 2 2 D 2

Le

L = 0.6 +

0.45

where we have = 28 for the first 90o of the bend, and m L = 1.31 m

D 2

V

2 L Le

p3 = g (z1 z3)

1 + Kent + f +

2 D D

2

1.31 + 28 N s

2

( 0.45 m) 3.4

m

9.81

kg m

p3 = 1000 1 + 0.78 + 0.0168 p3 = 35.5 kPa

3 2 s 0.05 kg m

m s

Problem 8.136 [4]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 2

1 2 L V V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hlT hlT = f + Kent

2 2 D 2 2

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) is approximately 1

Hence the energy equation applied between the tank free surface (Point 1) and the pipe exit (Point 2, z = 0) becomes

2 2 2 2

V2 V L V V

g z1 = g z1 = f + Kent

2 2 D 2 2

2 g h

Solving for V V = (1) and h = ( 1.5 + 3.5) m h = 5m

1 + K + f L

ent

D

V D D

We also have Re = or Re = c V (2) where c =

2

6 m s 4 s

From Table A.7 (20oC) = 1.01 10 c = 0.025 m c = 2.48 10

s 6 2 m

1.01 10 m

e

1 2.51

D (3) e = 0.26 mm (Table 8.1)

In addition = 2.0 log +

f 3.7 Re f

Equations 1, 2 and 3 form a set of simultaneous equations for V, Re and f

2 g h

V =

1 + K + f L V = 6.42

m

Re = c V Re = 1.59 10

5

ent

D s

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0388

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 4.89 Re = c V Re = 1.21 10

1 + K + f L s

ent

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0389

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 4.88 Re = c V Re = 1.21 10

1 + K + f L s

ent

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0389

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 4.88 Re = c V Re = 1.21 10

1 + K + f L s

ent

D

2 3 3

D m 2 3 m m

The flow rate is then Q = V Q = 4.88 ( 0.025 m) Q = 2.4 10 Q = 8.62

4 s 4 s hr

2 g h

V =

1 + K + f L V = 6.83

m

Re = c V Re = 1.69 10

5

ent

D s

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0388

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 5.06 Re = c V Re = 1.25 10

1 + K + f L s

ent

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0389

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 5.06 Re = c V Re = 1.25 10

1 + K + f L s

ent

D

2 3 3

D m 2 3 m m

The flow rate is then Q = V Q = 5.06 ( 0.025 m) Q = 2.48 10 Q = 8.94

4 s 4 s hr

r 3.75

For a rounded entrance, from Table 8.2 = = 0.15 Kent = 0.04

D 25

2 g h

V =

1 + K + f L V = 7.73

m

Re = c V Re = 1.91 10

5

ent

D s

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0387

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 5.40 Re = c V Re = 1.34 10

1 + K + f L s

ent

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0389

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 5.39 Re = c V Re = 1.34 10

1 + K + f L s

ent

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0389

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h m 5

V = V = 5.39 Re = c V Re = 1.34 10

1 + K + f L s

ent

D

2 3 3

D m 2 3 m m

The flow rate is then Q = V Q = 5.39 ( 0.025 m) Q = 2.65 10 Q = 9.52

4 s 4 s hr

3 3 3

m m m

In summary: Renentrant: Q = 8.62 Square-edged: Q = 8.94 Rounded: Q = 9.52

hr hr hr

Problem 8.137 [4]

Problem 8.138 [5]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f

2 2 D 2

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) is approximately 1 4) Ignore minor loss at entrance (L >>; verify later)

Hence the energy equation applied between the tank free surface (Point 1) and the hose exit (Point 2, z = 0) becomes

2 2 2

V2 V L V

g z1 = g z1 = f

2 2 D 2

2 g h

Solving for V V = (1) and h = 10 ft initially

1 + f L

D

V D D

We also have Re = or Re = c V (2) where c=

2

ft

2 10.8 2

6 m s 5 ft

From Fig. A.2 (20oC) = 1.8 10 = 1.94 10

s 2 s

m

1

s

1 s 3 s

c = ft c = 4.30 10

12 5 2 ft

1.94 10 ft

e

1 D 2.51

In addition = 2.0 log + (3) with e = 0.01 in D = 1 in

f 3.7 Re f

2 g h

V =

1 + f L V = 9.59

ft

Re = c V Re = 4.12 10

4

D s

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 4

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0393 V = V = 5.12 Re = c V Re = 2.20 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 4

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0405 V = V = 5.04 Re = c V Re = 2.17 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 4

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0405 V = V = 5.04 Re = c V Re = 2.17 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

L

Note that we could use Excel's Solver for this problem Note: f = 24.3 Ke = 0.5 hlm < hl

D

2 2 3

D ft 1 ft

The flow rate is then Q = V Q = 5.04 ft Q = 0.0275 Q = 12.3 gpm

4 s 4 12 s

Next we recompute everything for h = 5 ft

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 4

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0405 V = V = 3.57 Re = c V Re = 1.53 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 4

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0415 V = V = 3.52 Re = c V Re = 1.51 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 4

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0415 V = V = 3.52 Re = c V Re = 1.51 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

2 2 3

D ft 1 ft

The flow rate is then Q = V Q = 3.52 ft Q = 0.0192 Q = 8.62 gpm

4 s 4 12 s

Next we recompute everything for h = 1 ft

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 3

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0415 V = V = 1.58 Re = c V Re = 6.77 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 3

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0452 V = V = 1.51 Re = c V Re = 6.50 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

e

1 D 2.51 2 g h ft 3

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0454 V = V = 1.51 Re = c V Re = 6.48 10

f 3.7 Re f 1 + f L s

D

2 2 3

D

ft

ft 1 ft

The flow rate is then Q = V Q = 1.51 Q = 0.00824 Q = 3.70 gpm

4 s 4 12 s

Initially we have dQ/dt = -12.3 gpm, then -8.62 gpm, then -3.70 gpm. These occur at h = 10 ft, 5 ft and 1 ft. The corresponding

volumes in the tank are then Q = 7500 gal, 3750 gal, and 750 gal. Using Excel we can fit a power trendline to the dQ/dt versus

Q data to find, approximately

1

dQ 2

= 0.12 Q where dQ/dt is in gpm and t is min. Solving this with initial condition Q = 7500 gpm when t = 0 gives

dt

1 1

t= Hence, when Q = 750 gal (h = 1 ft) t = t = 987 min t = 16.4 hr

0.06 0.06

Problem 8.139 [4] Part 1/2

Problem 8.139 [4] Part 2/2

Problem 8.140 [5] Part 1/2

Problem 8.140 [5] Part 2/2

Problem 8.141

p L V 2 p f V 2

= f or =

D 2 L D 2 D= 1 in

2 e= 0.00015 ft

p p Q0

= = ft2/s

L L 0 Q

"Old school": 1.08E-05

= 1.94 slug/ft3

p (old

Q (gpm) Q (ft3/s) V (ft/s) Re f p (psi/ft)

school) (psi)

1.25 0.00279 0.511 3940 0.0401 0.00085 0.00085

1.50 0.00334 0.613 4728 0.0380 0.00122 0.00115

1.75 0.00390 0.715 5516 0.0364 0.00166 0.00150

2.00 0.00446 0.817 6304 0.0350 0.00216 0.00189

2.25 0.00501 0.919 7092 0.0339 0.00274 0.00232

2.50

Flow 0.00557 1.021

Rate versus Pressure 7881 0.0329

Drop 0.00338 0.00278

2.75 0.00613 1.123 8669 0.0321 0.00409 0.00328

3.00 0.00668 1.226 9457 0.0314 0.00487 0.00381

20 3.25 0.00724 1.328 10245 0.0307 0.00571 0.00438

3.50 0.00780 1.430 11033 0.0301 0.00663 0.00498

18 3.75 0.00836 1.532 11821 0.0296 0.00761 0.00561

4.00 0.00891 1.634 12609 0.0291 0.00865 0.00628

16

4.25 0.00947 1.736 13397 0.0286 0.00977 0.00698

14 4.50 0.01003 1.838 14185 0.0282 0.01095 0.00771

4.75 0.01058 1.940 14973 0.0278 0.01220 0.00847

Flow (gpm)

5.25 0.01170 2.145 16549 0.0272 0.01491 0.01010

10

5.50 0.01225 2.247 17337 0.0268 0.01636 0.01095

8 5.75 0.01281 2.349 18125 0.0265 0.01788 0.01184

6.00 0.01337 2.451 18913 0.0263 0.01947 0.01276

6 6.25 0.01393 2.553 19701 0.0260 0.02113 0.01370

6.50 0.01448 2.655 20489 0.0258 0.02285 0.01468

4 6.75 0.01504 2.758 21277 0.0255"Old 0.02465

School" 0.01569

2 7.00 0.01560 2.860 22065 0.0253Exact0.02651 0.01672

7.25 0.01615 2.962 22854 0.0251 0.02843 0.01779

0 7.50 0.01671 3.064 23642 0.0249 0.03043 0.01888

0.00 7.75

0.02 0.017270.04 3.166 24430

0.06 0.0247

0.08 0.03249 0.02000

0.10

8.00 0.01783 3.268 25218 0.0245 0.03462 0.02115

8.25 Pressure

0.01838 Drop (psi/ft)

3.370 26006 0.0243 0.03682 0.02233

8.50 0.01894 3.472 26794 0.0242 0.03908 0.02354

8.75 0.01950 3.575 27582 0.0240 0.04142 0.02477

Your boss was wrong! 9.00 0.02005 3.677 28370 0.0238 0.04382 0.02604

Problem 8.142 [3]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V2

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f

2 2 D 2

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) at 1 and 2 is approximately 1 4) Ignore minor losses

The flow rate is low and it's oil, so try assuming laminar flow. Then, from Eq. 8.13c

1

4

D =

128 Q L 128 Q L

p = or

D

4 p

lbf s

0.0209

2

2 N s ft 4 lbf s

For SAE 10W oil at 100oF (Fig. A.2, 38oC) = 3.5 10 = 7.32 10

2 N s 2

m 1 ft

2

m

1

4

128 3 2 2

4 lbf s 1 ft

D =

ft in

Hence 7.32 10 0.02 165 ft D = 0.0407 ft D = 0.488 in

2 s ( 3000 2750) lbf 12 in

ft

3 2

Q 4 Q 4 ft 12 1 ft

Check Re to assure flow is laminar V = = V = 0.02 V = 15.4

A 2 s 0.488 ft s

D

SGoil H2O V D

From Table A.2 SGoil = 0.92 so Re =

2 2

slug ft 0.488 ft lbf s

Re = 0.92 1.94 15.4 ft Re = 1527

3 s 12 4 slug ft

ft 7.32 10 lbf s

Hence the flow is laminar, Re < 2300. The minimum diameter is 0.488 in, so 0.5 in ID tube should be chosen

Problem 8.143 [4]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 2 2

1 2 L V2 V2 Le V 2

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hlT hlT = hl + hlm = f + Kent + f

2 2 D 2 2 D 2

Hence for flow between the free surface (Point 1) and the pump inlet (2) the energy equation becomes

2 2 2 2 2

p2 V2 p2 V L V V Le V

g z2 = g z2 = f + Kent + f and p = g h

2 2 D 2 2 D 2

V L Le

2

Solving for h2 = p2/g h2 = z2 f + + Kent (1)

2 g D D

Le

From Table 8.2 Kent = 0.78 for rentrant, and from Table 8.4 two standard elbows lead to = 2 30 = 60

2 D

6 m

We also have e = 0.046 mm (Table 8.1) = 1.51 10 (Table A.8)

s

3

L 3m

and we are given Q = 6 Q = 6 10 z2 = 3.5 m L = ( 3.5 + 4.5) m L = 8m h2 = 6 m

s s

Equation 1 is tricky because D is unknown, so V is unknown (even though Q is known), L/D and Le/D are unknown, and Re

and hence f are unknown! We COULD set up Excel to solve Eq 1, the Reynolds number, and f, simultaneously by varying D,

but here we try guesses:

4 Q m V D 5

D = 2.5 cm V = V = 12.2 Re = Re = 2.02 10

2 s

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0238

f 3.7 Re f

V L Le

2

h2 = z2 f + + Kent h2 = 78.45 m but we need -6 m!

2 g D D

4 Q m V D 5

D = 5 cm V = V = 3.06 Re = Re = 1.01 10

2 s

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0219

f 3.7 Re f

V L Le

2

h2 = z2 f + + Kent h2 = 6.16 m but we need -6 m!

2 g D D

4 Q m V D 4

D = 5.1 cm V = V = 2.94 Re = Re = 9.92 10

2 s

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0219

f 3.7 Re f

V L Le

2

h2 = z2 f + + Kent h2 = 5.93 m

2 g D D

To within 1%, we can use 5-5.1 cm tubing; this corresponds to standard 2 in pipe.

Problem 8.144 [4]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V 4 A

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f Dh =

2 2 Dh 2 Pw

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) at 1 and 2 is approximately 1 4) Ignore minor losses

Hence for flow between the inlet (Point 1) and the exit (2) the energy equation becomes

p1 p2 2

p L V

= = f and p = H2O g h

Dh 2

2

4 b h 2 h ar 2 h ar 2 b 2

For a rectangular duct Dh = = = and also A = b h = h = h ar

2 ( b + h) h ( 1 + ar) 1 + ar h

2 2 2

V ( 1 + ar) Q ( 1 + ar) f L Q ( 1 + ar) 1

Hence p = f L = f L =

2 2 h ar 2 2 h ar 4 3 5

2 A ar h

1

5

2

f L Q ( 1 + ar)

Solving for h h= (1)

4 p ar

3

3

ft

We are given Q = 2850 L = 100 ft e = 0 ft ar = 2

min

2

slug ft 1.25 lbf s lbf

and also p = H2O g h p = 1.94 32.2 ft p = 6.51

3 2 12 slug ft 2

ft s ft

2

slug 4 ft

= 0.00234 = 1.62 10 (Table A.9)

3 s

ft

Equation 1 is tricky because h is unknown, so Dh is unknown, hence V is unknown (even though Q is known), and Re and

hence f are unknown! We COULD set up Excel to solve Eq 1, the Reynolds number, and f, simmultaneously by varying h, but

here we try guesses:

1

5

2

f L Q ( 1 + ar)

h =

Q ft

f = 0.01 h = 0.597 ft V = V = 66.6

4 p 3 2 s

ar h ar

2 h ar V Dh 5

Dh = Dh = 0.796 ft Re = Re = 3.27 10

1 + ar

e

1 Dh 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0142

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

2

f L Q ( 1 + ar)

h =

Q ft

h = 0.641 ft V = V = 57.8

4 p 3 2 s

ar h ar

2 h ar V Dh 5

Dh = Dh = 0.855 ft Re = Re = 3.05 10

1 + ar

e

1 Dh 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0144

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

2

f L Q ( 1 + ar)

h =

Q ft

h = 0.643 ft V = V = 57.5

4 p 3 2 s

ar h ar

2 h ar V Dh 5

Dh = Dh = 0.857 ft Re = Re = 3.04 10

1 + ar

e

1 Dh 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0144

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

2

f L Q ( 1 + ar)

h =

Q ft

h = 0.643 ft V = V = 57.5

4 p ar

3 2 s

h ar

2 h ar V Dh 5

Dh = Dh = 0.857 ft Re = Re = 3.04 10

1 + ar

In this process h and f have converged to a solution. The minimum dimensions are 0.642 ft by 1.28 ft, or 7.71 in by 15.4 in

Problem 8.145 [3]

Problem 8.146 [4]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2

1 2 L V 4 A

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f Dh =

2 2 Dh 2 Pw

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) at 1 and 2 is approximately 1 4) Ignore minor losses

Hence for flow between the inlet (Point 1) and the exit (2) the energy equation becomes

p1 p2 2

p L V

= = f and p = H2O g h

Dh 2

4 h h 2

For a square duct Dh = =h and also A = h h = h

2 ( h + h)

2 2 2

V Q f L Q

Hence p = f L = f L =

2 h 2 5

2 h A 2 h

1

5

f L Q 2

Solving for h h= (1)

2 p

3

m

We are given Q = 2 L = 25 m e = 0.046 mm (Table 8.1)

s

2

kg m N s

and also p = H2O g h p = 1000 9.81 0.015 m p = 147 Pa

3 2 kg m

m s

2

kg 5 m

= 1.21 = 1.50 10 (Table A.10)

3 s

m

Equation 1 is tricky because h is unknown, so Dh is unknown, hence V is unknown (even though Q is known), and Re and

hence f are unknown! We COULD set up Excel to solve Eq 1, the Reynolds number, and f, simmultaneously by varying h, but

here we try guesses:

1

5

f L Q 2 Q m

f = 0.01 h = h = 0.333 m V = V = 18.0

2 p h

2 s

V Dh 5

Dh = h Dh = 0.333 m Re = Re = 4.00 10

e

1 Dh 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0152

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

f L Q 2 Q m

h = h = 0.362 m V = V = 15.2

2 p h

2 s

V Dh 5

Dh = h Dh = 0.362 m Re = Re = 3.68 10

e

1 D h 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0153

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

f L Q 2 Q m

h = h = 0.363 m V = V = 15.2

2 p h

2 s

In this process h and f have converged to a solution. The minimum dimensions are 0.363 m by 0.363 m, or 36.3 cm by 36.3 cm

Fluid is not specified: use water (basic trends in plot apply to any fluid)

L = 100 m = 999 kg/m

3 Flow Rate versus Tube Diameter for Fixed

(Water - Appendix A) p

0.8

Computed results:

3

0.5 0.00781 0.0000153 4 Laminar 16.4 100 0.0% Q (m /s)

1.0 0.0312 0.000245 31 Laminar 2.05 100 0.0%

x 104 0.4

2.0 0.125 0.00393 250 Laminar 0.256 100 0.0%

3.0 0.281 0.0199 843 Laminar 0.0759 100 0.0% Laminar

4.0 0.500 0.0628 1998 Laminar 0.0320 100 0.0% Turbulent

0.2

5.0 0.460 0.0904 2300 Turbulent 0.0473 100 0.2%

6.0 0.530 0.150 3177 Turbulent 0.0428 100 0.0%

7.0 0.596 0.229 4169 Turbulent 0.0394 100 0.0% 0.0

8.0 0.659 0.331 5270 Turbulent 0.0368 100 0.0%

9.0 0.720 0.458 6474 Turbulent 0.0348 100 0.0% 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0

D (mm)

10.0 0.778 0.611 7776 Turbulent 0.0330 100 0.0%

Problem 8.148 [4]

Solution:

p V1

2 p V2

2 2 2

1 2 L V D

Basic equations + + g z

1 + + g z2 = hl hl = f and also A =

2 2 D 2 4

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible flow 3) at 1 and 2 is approximately 1 4) Ignore minor losses

Hence for flow between the inlet (Point 1) and the exit (2) the energy equation becomes

p1 p2 2

p L V

= = f

D 2

2 2 2

L V L Q 8 f L Q

Hence p = f = f =

D 2 D 2 A 2 2 5

D

1

5

8 f L Q

2

Solving for D D = (1)

2 p

We are given Q = 1200 gpm L = 500 ft e = 0.01 ft p = 50 psi

2

slug 5 ft

and also = 1.94 = 1.08 10 (Table A.7)

3 s

ft

Equation 1 is tricky because D is unknown, hence V is unknown (even though Q is known), and Re and hence f are unknown!

We COULD set up Excel to solve Eq 1, the Reynolds number, and f, simultaneously by varying D, but here we try guesses:

1

5

8 f L Q

2

4 Q V D

D =

ft 5

f = 0.01 D = 0.379 ft V = V = 23.7 Re = Re = 8.32 10

2 p 2 s

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0543

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

2

8 f L Q 4 Q V D

D =

ft 5

D = 0.531 ft V = V = 12.1 Re = Re = 5.93 10

2 p 2 s

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0476

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

2

8 f L Q 4 Q V D

D =

ft 5

D = 0.518 ft V = V = 12.7 Re = Re = 6.09 10

2 p 2 s

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0481

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

2

8 f L Q 4 Q V D

D =

ft 5

D = 0.519 ft V = V = 12.7 Re = Re = 6.08 10

2 p 2 s

D

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0480

f 3.7 Re f

1

5

2

8 f L Q 4 Q V D

D =

ft 5

D = 0.519 ft V = V = 12.7 Re = Re = 6.08 10

2 p 2 s

D

In this process D and f have converged to a solution. The minimum diameter is 0.519 ft or 6.22 in

Problem 8.149 [3] Part 1/2

Problem 8.149 [3] Part 2/2

Problem 8.150 [3]

Problem *8.151 [4]

Problem *8.152 [5] Part 1/2

Problem 8.151

Problem *8.152 [5] Part 2/2

Problem 8.153 [2]

Solution:

p 2

ps Vs

2

d Vd Q 4 Q

Basic equations hpump = + + g zd + + g zs V = =

2 2 A D

2

3 2

4 lbm 1 slug ft 12 1 ft

Hence for the inlet Vs = 25 Vs = 8.15 ps = 2.5 psi

s 32.2 lbm 1.94 slug 3 ft s

3 2

4 lbm 1 slug ft 12 1 ft

For the outlet Vd = 25 Vd = 18.3 pd = 50 psi

s 32.2 lbm 1.94 slug 2 ft s

2 2

pd ps Vd Vs

Then hpump = + and Wpump = mpump hpump

2

p p V 2 V 2

d s d s

Wpump = mpump +

2

Note that the software cannot render a dot, so the power is Wpump and mass flow rate is mpump!

lbf s

( ) ft

2 3 2 2

1 slug lbf 12 in 1 hp

( 50 2.5)

lbm ft 1 2 2

Wpump = 25 + 18.3 8.15

s 32.2 lbm 2 1 ft 1.94 slug 2 s slug ft ft lbf

in 550

s

Wpump

Wpump = 5.69 hp For an efficiency of = 70 % Wrequired = Wrequired = 8.13 hp

Problem 8.154 [1]

Solution:

p 2

ps Vs

2

d Vd Q 4 Q

Basic equations hpump = + + g zd + + g zs V = =

2 2 A D

2

In this case we assume Ds = Dd so Vs = Vd

pd ps p

Then hpump = = and Wpump = mpump hpump

p p

Wpump = mpump = Q = Q p

Note that the software cannot render a dot, so the power is Wpump and mass flow rate is mpump!

3

L 0.001 m 3 N

Wpump = 25 75 10 Wpump = 1.88 kW

s 1 L 2

m

Wpump

For an efficiency of = 80 % Wrequired = Wrequired = 2.34 kW

Problem 8.155 [3]

Problem 8.156 [4]

Problem 8.157 [3]

Problem 8.158 [4]

Problem 8.159 [4]

d e f

c

Find: Design flow rate; nozzle exit velocity; pump power needed

Solution:

p V2

2 p V3

2 2

2 3 L V2

Basic equations + + g z

2 + + g z3 = hl hl = f for the hose

2 2 D 2

2 2

p3 V3 p4 V4

+ + g z3 = + + g z4 for the nozzle (assuming Bernoulli applies)

2 2

p V2

2 p V1

2

2 1

+ 2 + g z2 + 2 + g z1 = hpump for the pump

p p2 p3 L V

2

2 p D

Hence for the hose = = f or V =

D 2 f L

We need to iterate to solve this for V because f is unknown until Re is known. This can be done using Excel's Solver, but here:

2

kg 6 m

p = 750 kPa L = 100 m e = 0 D = 3.5 cm = 1000 = 1.01 10

3 s

m

2 p D m V D 5

Make a guess for f f = 0.01 V = V = 7.25 Re = Re = 2.51 10

f L s

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0150

f 3.7 Re f

2 p D m V D 5

V = V = 5.92 Re = Re = 2.05 10

f L s

e

1 D 2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0156

f 3.7 Re f

2 p D m V D 5

V = V = 5.81 Re = Re = 2.01 10

f L s

e

1 D2.51

Given = 2.0 log + f = 0.0156

f 3.7 Re f

2 p D m V D 5

V = V = 5.80 Re = Re = 2.01 10

f L s

2 3 3

D 2 m 3m m

Q = V A = V Q = ( 0.035 m) 5.80 Q = 5.58 10 Q = 0.335

4 4 s s min

( )

2 2

p3 V3 p4 V4 2 p3 p4 2

For the nozzle + + g z3 = + + g z4 so V4 = + V3

2 2

3 2

kg m

+ 5.80

3 N m m m

V4 = 2 700 10 V4 = 37.9

2 1000 kg 2 s s

m s N

p V2

2 p V1 2

p2 p1

For the pump 2 1

+ + g z

2 + + g z1 = hpump so hpump =

2 2

The pump power is Ppump = mpump hpump where Ppump and mpump are the pump power and mass flow rate

(software cannot render a dot!)

(p2 p1) 3 m

3

( )

3 N

Ppump = Q = Q p2 p1 Ppump = 5.58 10 ( 1450 350) 10 Ppump = 6.14 kW

s 2

m

Ppump 6.14 kW

Prequired = Prequired = Prequired = 8.77 kW

70 %

Problem 8.160 [4] Part 1/2

Problem 8.160 [4] Part 2/2

Problem 8.161 [4]

Problem 8.162 [5]

Given data: Tabulated or graphical data:

L = 20 m e = 0.26 mm

D = 75 mm (Table 8.1)

= 1.00E-03 N.s/m

2

pump = 70%

= 999 kg/m

3

(Appendix A)

Gate valve L e/D = 8

Elbow L e/D = 30

(Table 8.4)

Computed results:

p (kPa) p (kPa)

Q (m3/s) V (m/s) Re f 1200

(Eq 1) (Eq 2)

0.010 2.26 1.70E+05 0.0280 28.3 735 1000

p (kPa)

0.020 4.53 3.39E+05 0.0276 112 690

600

0.025 5.66 4.24E+05 0.0276 174 656

Circuit

0.030 6.79 5.09E+05 0.0275 250 615 400

Pump

0.035 7.92 5.94E+05 0.0275 340 566 200

0.040 9.05 6.78E+05 0.0274 444 510

0

0.045 10.2 7.63E+05 0.0274 561 446

0.050 11.3 8.48E+05 0.0274 692 375 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

0.055 12.4 9.33E+05 0.0274 837 296 Q (m3/s)

0.060 13.6 1.02E+06 0.0274 996 210

Error

0.0419 9.48 7.11E+05 0.0274 487 487 0 Using Solver !

Tabulated or graphical data: Given data:

=

2

2.10E-05 lbfs/ft L = 2500 ft

= 1.94 slug/ft3 D = 20 in

(Appendix A) pump = 70%

10 4.58 7.06E+05 0.0531 11.3 135.0

12 5.50 8.47E+05 0.0531 16.2 130.6

14 6.42 9.88E+05 0.0531 22.1 125.4

16 7.33 1.13E+06 0.0531 28.9 119.4

18 8.25 1.27E+06 0.0531 36.5 112.6

20 9.17 1.41E+06 0.0531 45.1 105.0

22 10.08 1.55E+06 0.0531 54.6 96.6

24 11.00 1.69E+06 0.0531 64.9 87.4

26 11.92 1.83E+06 0.0531 76.2 77.4

28 12.83 1.98E+06 0.0531 88.4 66.6

30 13.75 2.12E+06 0.0531 101.4 55.0

Error

26.1 12.0 1.84E+06 0.0531 76.8 76.8 0.00 Using Solver !

Repeating, with smoother pipe

3

Q (ft /s) V (ft/s) Re f p (psi) (Eq 1) p (psi) (Eq 2)

10 4.58 7.06E+05 0.0410 8.71 135.0

12 5.50 8.47E+05 0.0410 12.5 130.6

14 6.42 9.88E+05 0.0410 17.1 125.4

16 7.33 1.13E+06 0.0410 22.3 119.4

18 8.25 1.27E+06 0.0410 28.2 112.6

20 9.17 1.41E+06 0.0410 34.8 105.0

22 10.08 1.55E+06 0.0410 42.1 96.6

24 11.00 1.69E+06 0.0410 50.1 87.4

26 11.92 1.83E+06 0.0410 58.8 77.4

28 12.83 1.98E+06 0.0410 68.2 66.6

30 13.75 2.12E+06 0.0410 78.3 55.0

Error

27.8 12.8 1.97E+06 0.0410 67.4 67.4 0.00 Using Solver !

160

140

120

100 Pipe (e = 0.5 in)

p (psi)

60 Pump

40

20

0

10 15 20 25 30

Q (ft3/s)

Given data: Computed results:

L = 30 m 3

Q (m /s) V (m/s) p (Pa) (Eq 1) p (Pa) (Eq 2)

Dh = 0.5 m 0.00 0.00 0 1020

K = 12 0.25 1.00 8 1012

f = 0.03 0.50 2.00 30 1000

= 1.1 kg/m3 0.75 3.00 68 984

1.00 4.00 121 965

1.25 5.00 190 942

1.50 6.00 273 915

1.75 7.00 372 884

2.00 8.00 486 850

2.25 9.00 615 812

2.50 10.00 759 770

2.75 11.00 918 724

3.00 12.00 1093 675

Error

2.51 10.06 768 768 0.00 Using Solver !

1200

1000

800

p (Pa)

600

Duct

400 Fan

200

0

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

3

Q (m /s)

Problem 8.166 [5] Part 1/2

Problem 8.166 [5] Part 2/2

The workbook for Example 8.11 is modified for use in this problem

Pipe Data:

0 300 75 0.15

1 400 75 0.15

2 100 75 0.15

3 100 75 0.15

4 75 75 0.15

Fluid Properties:

= 999 kg/m3

= 0.001 N.s/m2

Available Head:

p = 250 kPa

0.00928 0.00306 0.00311 0.00311 0.00623

2.10 0.692 0.705 0.705 1.41

Re 0 Re 1 Re 2 Re 3 Re 4

1.57E+05 5.18E+04 5.28E+04 5.28E+04 1.06E+05

f0 f1 f2 f3 f4

0.0245 0.0264 0.0264 0.0264 0.0250

216.4 33.7 8.7 8.7 24.8

0.00% 0.01%

(3) p = p 0 + p 1 (4) p = p 0 + p 4 + p 2

0.03% 0.01%

(5) p 2 = p 3

0.00%

using Solver to minimize total error

The workbook for Example Problem 8.11 is modified for use in this problem

Pipe Data:

A 150 1.5 0.00085

B 150 1.5 0.00085

C 150 1 0.00085

D 150 1.5 0.00085

Fluid Properties:

= 1.94 slug/ft3

= 2.10E-05 lbfs/ft2

Available Head:

p = 50 psi

0.103 0.077 0.026 0.103

8.41 6.28 4.78 8.41

Re A Re B Re C Re D

9.71E+04 7.25E+04 3.68E+04 9.71E+04

fA fB fC fD

0.0342 0.0345 0.0397 0.0342

19.5 11.0 11.0 19.5

0.00% 0.05%

(7) p = p A + p B + p D (8) p B = p C

0.00% 0.00%

using Solver to minimize total error

Problem *8.169 [4]

Problem 8.170 [5] Part 1/2

Problem 8.170 [5] Part 2/2

Problem 8.171 [2]

Solution:

Basic equation ( )

mactual = K At 2 p1 p2 = K At 2 p Note that mactual is mass flow rate (the

software cannot render a dot!)

Dt

For the flow coefficient K = K ReD1 ,

D1

2

kg 7 m

At 65oC,(Table A.8) = 980 = 4.40 10

3 s

m

3

Q 4 1 L 0.001 m m

V = V = 20 V = 1.13

A ( 0.15 m ) 2 s 1 L s

V D m s 5

ReD1 = ReD1 = 1.13 0.15 m ReD1 = 3.85 10

s 7 2

4.40 10 m

Dt 75

= = = 0.5

D1 150

2

mactual 1 2

Q 1 = Q

2

Then p = =

K At 2 K At 2 2 K At

2

kg L 0.001 m

3

1

p = 980 20

1 4

1 p = 25.8 kPa

2 3 s 1 L 0.624 2

m ( 0.075 m)

Problem 8.172 [2]

Problem 8.173 [2]

Given: Flow through a venturi meter (NOTE: Throat is obviously 3 in not 30 in!)

Solution:

C A t C A t

Basic equation mactual =

4

(

2 p1 p2 = ) 4

2 p Note that mactual is mass flow rate (the

1 1 software cannot render a dot!)

For ReD1 > 2 x 105, 0.980 < C < 0.995. Assume C = 0.99, then check Re

Dt 3

= = = 0.5

D1 6

Also p = Hg g h = SGHg g h

2 2

mactual C A t C D t C D t

Then Q = = 2 p = 2 SGHg g h = 2 SGHg g h

4 4 4

1 4 1 4 1

2 3

0.99 ft

1 ft ft

Q = 2 13.6 32.2 1 ft Q = 1.49

4 1 0.5

4 4 s

2 s

3

Q 4 Q 4 1 ft ft

Hence V = = V = 1.49 V = 7.59

A 2 2 s s

D 1 1 ft

2

2

6 ft

At 75oF,(Table A.7) = 9.96 10

s

V D1 ft 1 s 5

ReD1 = ReD1 = 7.59 ft ReD1 = 3.81 10

s 2 6 2

9.96 10 ft

3

ft

Thus ReD1 > 2 x 105. The volume flow rate is Q = 1.49

s

Given data: Tabulated or graphical data:

H = 30 m K ent = 0.50 (Fig. 8.14)

L = 200 m K exit = 1.00 (Fig. 8.14)

D = 100 mm Loss at orifice = 80% (Fig. 8.23)

=

2

Dt = 40 mm 0.001 N.s/m

= 0.40 = 999 kg/m3

(Water - Appendix A)

Computed results:

3

(Fig. 8.20 Q = 0.0176 m /s

Assuming high Re ) Re = 2.24E+05

f = 0.0153

Left (m2/s) 2

Right (m /s) Error Procedure using Solver :

294 293 0.5% a) Guess at V and p

b) Compute error in Eq. 1

Eq. 2 and m rate = Q compared, varying V AND p c) Compute error in mass flow rate

(From Q ) (From Eq. 2) Error d) Minimize total error

m rate (kg/s) = 17.6 17.6 0.0% e) Minimize total error by varying V and p

Problem 8.175 [2]

Problem 8.176 [2]

Solution:

C A t C A t

Basic equation mactual =

4

(

2 p1 p2 = ) 4

2 p Note that mactual is mass flow rate (the

1 1 software cannot render a dot!)

For ReD1 > 2 x 105, 0.980 < C < 0.995. Assume C = 0.99, then check Re

Dt 25

= = = 0.5

D1 50

2

mactual C A t C D t 2 p

Then Q = = 2 p =

4 4

1 4 1

3 3

2 3 N m kg m 3m

Q = 0.99 ( 0.025 m ) 2 150 10 Q = 8.69 10

4 2 1000 kg 2 s

4 1 0.5 m s N

3

Q 4 Q 4 1 3m m

Hence V = = V = 8.69 10 V = 4.43

A 2 ( 0.05 m ) 2 s s

D 1

2

6 m

At 20oC (Table A.8) = 1.01 10

s

V D m s 5

ReD1 = ReD1 = 4.43 0.05 m ReD1 = 2.19 10

s 6 2

1.01 10 m

3 3

3m m

Thus ReD1 > 2 x 105. The volume flow rate is Q = 8.69 10 Q = 0.522

s min

Problem 8.177 [3]

Problem 8.178 [4]

Given: Flow through a venturi meter (NOTE: Throat is obviously 3 in not 30 in!)

Solution:

C A t C A t

Basic equation mactual =

4

2 p1 p2 = ( ) 4

2 p Note that mactual is mass flow rate (the

1 1 software cannot render a dot!)

Assumptions: 1) Neglect density change 2) Use ideal gas equation for density

2

p lbf 12 in lbm R 1 slug 1 3 slug

Then = = 60 = 9.53 10

Rair T

in

2 1 ft 53.33 ft lbf 32.2 lbm ( 68 + 460) R ft

3

For incompressible flow V must be less than about 100 m/s or 330 ft/s at the throat. Hence

2

330 ft

3 slug ft 1 slug

mactual = V2 A2 mactual = 9.53 10 mactual = 0.154

3 s 4 4 s

ft

Dt 3

= = = 0.5

D1 6

p

Also p = Hg g h h =

Hg g

p =

1 mactual

4

2

( ) (1 4)

mactual

2

and in addition 1 so h =

2 C A t 2 Hg g

C A t

For ReD1 > 2 x 105, 0.980 < C < 0.995. Assume C = 0.99, then check Re

(1 0.54) 2

ft

3

ft

3

s

2 slug 1 4 4

2

h = 0.154 h = 0.581 ft h = 6.98 in

2 3 13.6 1.94 slug 32.2 ft s 0.99 1 ft

9.53 10 slug

Q 4 mactual 4 ft

3

1 slug ft

Hence V = = V = 0.154 V = 82.3

A 2 3 2 s s

D 1 9.53 10 slug 1 ft

2

2

5 ft

At 68oF,(Table A.7) = 1.08 10

s

V D1 ft 1 s 6

ReD1 = ReD1 = 82.3 ft ReD1 = 3.81 10

s 2 5 2

1.08 10 ft

slug

Thus ReD1 > 2 x 105. The mass flow rate is mactual = 0.154 and pressure h = 6.98 in Hg

s

Problem 8.179 [4]

Problem 8.180 [5] Part 1/2

Problem 8.180 [5] Part 2/2

Problem 8.181 [1]

V 1, A 1 V 2, A 2

Solution:

2 2

p2 p1 p1 V1 p2 V2

Basic equations Cp = + + g z1 = + + g z2 Q = V A

1 2 2 2

V 1

2

Assumptions: 1) All the assumptions of the Bernoulli equation 2) Horizontal flow 3) No flow separation

2 2 2 2 2

p2 p1 V1 V2 V1 V1 A1

From Bernoulli = = using continuity

2 2 2 2

A2

V 2 2 2 2

p2 p1 1 1 V1 A1 A1

Hence Cp = = = 1

1 1 2 2 2

V 1

2

V1 A2 A2

2 2

1

Finally Cp = 1 which is Eq. 8.42.

2

AR

This result is not realistic as a real diffuser is very likely to have flow separation

Problem 8.182 [5] Part 1/2

Problem 8.182 [5] Part 2/2

Problem 8.183 [4]

Problem 8.184 [4] Part 1/2

Problem 8.184 [4] Part 2/2

Problem 8.185 [5] Part 1/3

Problem 8.158

Problem 8.158

8.158

Problem 8.158

Problem 8.158

Problem 8.185 [5] Part 2/3

Problem 8.185 [5] Part 1/3

Problem 9.1 [2]

Solution:

U x U x 5

Basic equation Rex = = and transition occurs at about Rex = 5 10

2

6 m m

For water at 10oC = 1.30 10 (Table A.8) and we are given U = 3.5

s s

Rex

Hence xp = xp = 0.186 m xp = 18.6 cm

U

xp

For the model xm = xm = 0.0103 m xm = 10.3 mm

18

Problem 9.2 [2]

Solution:

Governing equations:

L crit = 500000/V

= 3.79E-07 lbf.s/ft2

= 0.00234 slug/ft3

(Table A.9, 68oF)

Computed results:

10 5.52

13 4.42

15 3.68

18 3.16

20 2.76

30 1.84

40 1.38

50 1.10

60 0.920

70 0.789

80 0.690

90 0.614

on the Roof of a Minivan

6

5

4

L crit (ft)

3

2

1

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

V (mph)

Problem 9.3 [3]

Solution:

U x U x 5

Basic equation Rex = = and transition occurs at about Rex = 5 10

2

5 m km

For air at 20oC = 1.50 10 (Table A.10) and we are given U = 260

s hr

Rex

Hence xp = xp = 0.104 m xp = 10.4 cm

U

At 10,000 m T = 223.3 K (Table A.3) T = 49.8 C

b T 6 kg

= b = 1.458 10 S = 110.4 K

S 1

1+

T 2

m s K

b T 5 N s

Hence = = 1.458 10

S 2

1+ m

T

For air at 10,000 m (Table A.3)

kg kg

= 0.3376 SL = 1.225 = 0.3376 SL = 0.414

SL 3 3

m m

2

5m km

= = 3.53 10 and we are given U = 850

s hr

Rex

Hence xp = xp = 0.0747 m xp = 7.47 cm

U

Problem 9.4 [2]

Given: Flow around American and British golf balls, and soccer ball

Solution:

U D U D 5

Basic equation ReD = = and transition occurs at about ReD = 2.5 10

2

4 ft

For air = 1.62 10 (Table A.9)

s

ReD ft m

For the American golf ball D = 1.68 in Hence U = U = 289 U = 197 mph U = 88.2

D s s

ReD ft m

For the British golf ball D = 41.1 mm Hence U = U = 300 U = 205 mph U = 91.5

D s s

ReD ft m

For soccer ball D = 8.75 in Hence U = U = 55.5 U = 37.9 mph U = 16.9

D s s

Problem 9.5 [2]

Solution:

U D U D

Basic equation ReD = = and transition occurs at about

2

4 m

For SAE 10 = 1.1 10 (Fig. A.3 at 20oC) and D = 1 cm

s

ReD m cm

For ReD = 1 we find U = U = 0.011 U = 1.10 which is reasonable

D s s

5 ReD m

For ReD = 2.5 10 U = U = 2750 which is much too high!

D s

5

Note that for ReD = 2.5 10 we need to increase the sphere diameter D by a factor of about 1000, or reduce the viscosity b

the same factor, or some combination of these. One possible solution is

2

6 m

For water = 1.01 10 (Table A.8 at 20oC) and D = 10 cm

s

5 ReD m

For ReD = 2.5 10 we find U = U = 2.52 which is reasonable

D s

Hence one solution is to use a 10 cm diameter sphere in a water tank.

Problem 9.6 [2]

Find: Speed at which boundary layer becomes turbulent; Speed at which 90% is turbulent

Solution:

U x U x 5

Basic equation Rex = = and transition occurs at about Rex = 5 10

2

4 ft

For air = 1.62 10 (Table A.9)

s

Rex ft

For the plywood x = 8 ft Hence U = U = 10.1 U = 6.90 mph

x s

Rex ft

When 90% of the boundary layer is turbulent x = 0.1 8 ft Hence U = U = 101 U = 69.0 mph

x s

Problem 9.7 [2]

Solution:

Governing equations:

L crit = 500000/U

Let L 0 be the length at sea level (density 0 and viscosity 0). Then

L crit/L 0 = (/0)/(/0)

The viscosity of air increases with temperature so generally decreases with elevation;

the density also decreases with elevation, but much more rapidly.

Hence we expect that the length ratio increases with elevation

For the viscosity , we use the Sutherland correlation (Eq. A.1)

= bT 1/2/(1+S /T )

b = 1.46E-06 kg/m.s.K1/2

S = 110.4 K

Computed results:

0.0 288.2 1.0000 1.000 1.000

0.5 284.9 0.9529 0.991 1.04

1.0 281.7 0.9075 0.982 1.08

1.5 278.4 0.8638 0.973 1.13

2.0 275.2 0.8217 0.965 1.17

2.5 271.9 0.7812 0.955 1.22

3.0 268.7 0.7423 0.947 1.28

3.5 265.4 0.7048 0.937 1.33

4.0 262.2 0.6689 0.928 1.39

4.5 258.9 0.6343 0.919 1.45

5.0 255.7 0.6012 0.910 1.51

6.0 249.2 0.5389 0.891 1.65

7.0 242.7 0.4817 0.872 1.81

8.0 236.2 0.4292 0.853 1.99

9.0 229.7 0.3813 0.834 2.19

10.0 223.3 0.3376 0.815 2.41

11.0 216.8 0.2978 0.795 2.67

12.0 216.7 0.2546 0.795 3.12

13.0 216.7 0.2176 0.795 3.65

14.0 216.7 0.1860 0.795 4.27

15.0 216.7 0.1590 0.795 5.00

16.0 216.7 0.1359 0.795 5.85

17.0 216.7 0.1162 0.795 6.84

18.0 216.7 0.0993 0.795 8.00

19.0 216.7 0.0849 0.795 9.36

20.0 216.7 0.0726 0.795 10.9

22.0 218.6 0.0527 0.800 15.2

24.0 220.6 0.0383 0.806 21.0

26.0 222.5 0.0280 0.812 29.0

28.0 224.5 0.0205 0.818 40.0

30.0 226.5 0.0150 0.824 54.8

versus Elevation

60

50

40

L/L 0

30

20

10

0

0 10 20 30

z (m)

Problem 9.8 [2]

Find: Plot of boundary layer length as function of speed (at various altitudes for air)

Solution:

Governing equations:

L crit = 500000/U

For air at sea level and 10 km, we can use tabulated data for density from Table A.3.

For the viscosity , use the Sutherland correlation (Eq. A.1)

= bT 1/2/(1+S /T )

b = 1.46E-06 kg/m.s.K1/2

S = 110.4 K

Air (sea level, T = 288.2 K): Air (10 K, T = 223.3 K): Water (20 oC):

= 1.225 kg/m3 = 0.414 kg/m3 = 998 slug/ft3

(Table A.3) (Table A.3) = 1.01E-03 N.s/m2

= 1.79E-05 N.s/m2 = 1.46E-05 N.s/m 2

(Table A.8)

(Sutherland) (Sutherland)

Computed results:

U (m/s)

L crit (m) L crit (m) L crit (m)

0.05 10.12 146.09 352.53

0.10 5.06 73.05 176.26

0.5 1.01 14.61 35.25

1.0 0.506 7.30 17.63

5.0 0.101 1.46 3.53

15 0.0337 0.487 1.18

20 0.0253 0.365 0.881

25 0.0202 0.292 0.705

30 0.0169 0.243 0.588

50 0.0101 0.146 0.353

100 0.00506 0.0730 0.176

200 0.00253 0.0365 0.0881

1000 0.00051 0.0073 0.0176

for Water and Air

100.0

1.0

L crit (m)

Water

0.0

Air (Sea level)

Air (10 km)

0.0

1.E-02 1.E+00 1.E+02 1.E+04

U (m/s)

Problem 9.9 [2]

Problem 9.10 [2]

Problem 9.11 [2]

Solution:

3

u 3 y 1 y

The boundary layer equation is = for which u = U at y =

U 2 2

u (0) = 0

du

The BCs are =0

dy y =

= (0) (0) = 0

u 3 1 3

At y = 0

U 2 2

du 3 1 3 y2 3 1 32

At y = = U

3

= U =0

3

dy 2 2 y = 2 2

u u

For *: * = 1 dy = 1 dy

0

U 0

U

* 1 u 1

u y

1

u

Then = 1 dy = 1 d = 1 d

0 U 0

U 0 U

u 3 1

with = 3

U 2 2

*

1

u 3 1 3 3 2 1 4 3

1 1

0 U

Hence = 1 d = 1 + d = + = = 0.375

0

2 2 4 8 0 8

u u u u

For : = 1 dy = 1 dy

0

U U 0

U U

1 u u 1

u u y

1

u u

Then = 1 dy = 1 d = 1 d

0U U 0

U U 0 U U

1u u

1

3 1 3 3 1 3 3

1

9 2 1 3 3 4 1 6

0 U

Hence = 1 d = 1 + d = + d

U 0

2 2 2 2 0

2 4 2 2 4

3 2 3 3 1 4 3 5 1 7

1

39

= + = = 0.139

4 4 8 10 28 0 280

Problem 9.12 [2]

Solution:

3 4

u y y y

The boundary layer equation is = 2 2 + for which u = U at y =

U

u (0) = 0

du

The BCs are =0

dy y =

u 3 4

At y = 0

U

du 1 y2 y3 1 2 3

At y = = U 2 6 3 + 4 4 = U 2 6 3 + 4 4 = 0

dy y =

u u

For *: * = 1 dy = 1 dy

0

U 0

U

* 1 u 1

u y

1

u

Then = 1 dy = 1 d = 1 d

0 U 0

U 0 U

u

with = 2 2 3 + 4

U

*

1

= 1 d = (1 2 + 2 3 4 )d = 2 + 4 5 =

1 1

u 1 1 3

Hence = 0.3

0

U 0 2 5 0 10

u u u u

For : = 1 dy = 1 dy

0

U U 0

U U

1 u u 1

u u y

1

u u

Then = 1 dy = 1 d = 1 d

0U U 0

U U 0 U U

Hence

= 1 d = (2 3 + 4 )(1 2 + 3 4 )d = (2 4 2 2 3 + 9 4 4 5 4 6 + 4 7 8 )d

1 1 1

u u

0U U 0 0

2 4 3 1 4 9 5 4 7 1 8 1 9

1

37

= + + = = 0.117

3 2 5 7 2 9 0 315

Problem 9.13 [3]

Solution:

u y

The boundary layer equation is = 2 0< y<

U 2

U

u y

= 2 2 +

( ) ( 2 1 )

2

< y < for which u = U at y =

u (0) = 0

du

The BCs are =0

dy y =

= 2 (0) = 0

u

At y = 0

U

At y =

du

=U 2 2

1

(

y =

)

0 so it fails the outer BC.

dy

U U

This simplistic distribution is a piecewise linear profile: The first half of the layer has velocity gradient 2 = 1.414 , and the

(

second half has velocity gradient 2 2 )U = 0.586 U . At y = , we make another transition to zero velocity gradient.

u u

For *: * = 1 dy = 1 dy

0

U 0

U

* 1 u 1

u y

1

u

Then = 1 dy = 1 d = 1 d

0 U 0

U 0 U

u 1

with = 2 0 < <

U 2

u

U

(

= 2 2 + 2 1 ) ( ) 1

2

< <1

Hence

(1 ) [1 (2 2 ) ( )] ( ) ( )

*

12 12 1

1

1 1

u 1

= 1 d = 2 1 + ( 1)

2

2 d + 2 1 d = 2 2

2

0

U 0 12 2 2 0 2 1 2

* 1 2 1 2 3 2

= + = = 0.396

2 8 4 8 4 4

u u u u

For : = 1 dy = 1 dy

0

U U 0

U U

1 u u u

1

u y u

1

u

0 U

Then = 1 dy = 1 d = 1 d

U 0

U U 0 U U

Hence, after a LOT of work

1 12 1

u u

= 1 d = 2 1 2 d + 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 d

0U U 0 12

12

2 1

( ) ( )

1

1 1 2

2 2 ( 1) 2 2 ( 1) =

2 1 2 2 1

= 2 2 + + = = 0.152

3 2 3 2 1 2 8 12 24 6 12

0

Problem 9.14 [2]

Problem 9.15 [3]

Problem 9.16 [2]

Problem 9.17 [2]

Problem 9.18 [3]

Solution:

kg m

The given data is = 800 U = 3 L = 3 m = 25 mm b = 1 m

3 s

m

Governing equations:

Mass

Momentum

Assumptions: (1) Steady flow (2) No pressure force (3) No body force in x direction (4) Uniform flow at a

Mass ( U b ) + u b dy + mab = 0

0

u y dy

For the boundary layer = = = d

U

1

1

Hence mab = U b U dy = U b U b

0 2

1 kg

mab = U b mab = 30

2 s

Momentum Rx = U ( U ) + mab uab + u u b dy

0

1

2 2

Note that uab = U and u u b dy = U b d

0 0

1

2 1 2 2

Rx = U b + U b U + U b dy

2 0

2 1 2 1 2 1 2

R x = U b + U + U R x = U b Rx = 30 N

2 3 6

We are able to compute the boundary layer drag even though we do not know the viscosity because it is the viscosity that creates the

boundary layer in the first place

Problem 9.19 [3]

Find: Mass flow rate across ab; Drag; Compare to Problem 9.18

Solution:

kg m

The given data is = 800 U = 3 L = 1 m = 14 mm b = 3 m

3 s

m

Governing equations:

Mass

Momentum

Assumptions: (1) Steady flow (2) No pressure force (3) No body force in x direction (4) Uniform flow at a

Mass ( U b ) + u b dy + mab = 0

0

u y dy

For the boundary layer = = = d

U

1

1

Hence mab = U b U dy = U b U b

0 2

1 kg

mab = U b mab = 50.4

2 s

Momentum Rx = U ( U ) + mab uab + u u b dy

0

1

2 2

Note that uab = U and u u b dy = U b d

0 0

1

2 1 2 2

R x = U b + U b U + U b dy

2 0

2 1 2 1 2

R x = U b + U + U

2 3

1 2

R x = U b Rx = 50.4 N

6

We should expect the drag to be larger than for Problem 9.18 because the viscous friction is mostly

concentrated near the leading edge (which is only 1 m wide in Problem 9.18 but 3 m here). The reason viscous

stress is highest at the front region is that the boundary layer is very small ( <<) so = du/dy ~ U/ >>

Problem 9.20 [3]

Problem 9.21 [2]

Find: Displacement thickness at exit; Percent change in uniform velocity through test section

Solution:

The solution involves using mass conservation in the inviscid core, allowing for the fact that as the boundary layer grows it

reduces the size of the core. One approach would be to integrate the 1/7 law velocity profile to compute the mass flow in

the boundary layer; an easier approach is to simply use the displacement thickness!

disp =

1 u dy

Basic equations (4.12)

0 U

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction outside boundary layer 4) Flow along streamline 5) Horizontal

1

7

=

u y

For this flow U A = const and

U

m 2

The design data is Udesign = 50 w = 20 cm h = 20 cm Adesign = w h Adesign = 0.04 m

s

3

m

The volume flow rate is Q = Udesign Adesign Q =2

s

1 1

7 1

u y

disp = 1 dy = 1 dy = 1 7 d y

Hence where = disp =

U 8

0 0 0

in exit

dispin = dispin = 1.25 mm dispexit = dispexit = 3.125 mm

8 8

( )( )

2

Hence the areas are Ain = w 2 dispin h 2 dispin Ain = 0.0390 m

( )( )

2

Aexit = w 2 dispexit h 2 dispexit Aexit = 0.0375 m

Adesign m

or Uin = Udesign Uin = 51.3

Ain s

Adesign m

Also Uexit = Udesign Uexit = 53.3

Aexit s

Uexit Uin

The percent change in uniform velocity is then = 3.91 % The exit displacement thickness is dispexit = 3.125 mm

Uin

Problem 9.22 [2]

Find: Uniform velocity at exit; Change in static pressure through the test section

Solution:

2

disp = 1 dy

u p V

Basic equations (4.12) + + g z = const

U 2

0

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction outside boundary layer 4) Flow along streamline 5) Horizontal

1

7

=

u y

For this flow U A = const and

U

m 2 2

The given data is U1 = 25 h = 25 cm A = h A = 625 cm

s

We also have 1 = 20 mm 2 = 30 mm

1 1

1

7

disp = 1 dy = 1 y dy = 1 7 d

u y

Hence where = disp =

U 0 8

0 0

1 2

disp1 = disp1 = 2.5 mm disp2 = disp2 = 3.75 mm

8 8

( )

2 2

Hence the areas are A1 = h 2 disp1 A1 = 600 cm

A2 = (h 2 disp2)

2 2

A2 = 588 cm

A1

( U1 A1) + ( U2 A2) = 0

m

or U2 = U1 U2 = 25.52

A2 s

2 2

p1 U1 p2 U2 kg

The pressure change is found from Bernoulli + = + with = 1.21

2 2 3

m

2

U1 U2

2

Hence p = p = 15.8 Pa The pressure drops slightly through the test section

2

Problem 9.23 [2]

Solution:

The solution involves using mass conservation in the inviscid core, allowing for the fact that as the boundary layer grows it reduces the size

the core. One approach would be to integrate the 1/7 law velocity profile to compute the mass flow in the boundary layer; an easier approa

is to simply use the displacement thickness!

The given or available data (from Appendix A) is

kg m

= 1.23 U1 = 12.5 D = 100 mm 1 = 5.25 mm 2 = 24 mm

3 s

m

Governing equations:

Mass

2

p V

Bernoulli + + g z = constant (4.24)

2

The displacement thicknesses can be computed from boundary layer thicknesses using Eq. 9.1

1

1

7

disp = 1 dy = 1 d =

u

U 8

0 0

1 2

Hence at locations 1 and 2 disp1 = disp1 = 0.656 mm disp2 = disp2 = 3 mm

8 8

A1

Applying mass conservation at locations 1 and 2 ( U1 A1) + ( U2 A2) = 0 or U 2 = U 1

A2

The two areas are given by the duct cross section area minus the displacement boundary layer

3 2 3 2

( ) ( )

2 2

A1 = D 2 disp1 A1 = 7.65 10 m A2 = D 2 disp2 A2 = 6.94 10 m

4 4

A1 m

Hence U2 = U1 U2 = 13.8

A2 s

2

U U1

2

For the pressure drop we can apply Bernoulli to locations 1 and 2 to find p1 p2 = p = p = 20.6 Pa

2 2

Problem 9.24 [2]

Find: Uniform velocity at Point 2; Change in static pressure through the test section

Solution:

2

disp = 1 dy

u p V

Basic equations (4.12) + + g z = const

U 2

0

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction outside boundary layer 4) Flow along streamline 5) Horizontal

1

7

=

u y

For this flow U A = const and

U

ft 2 2

The given data is U1 = 60 W = 12 in A = W A = 144 in

s

We also have 1 = 0.4 in 2 = 0.5 in

1 1

1

7

disp = 1 dy = 1 y dy = 1 7 d

u y

Hence where = disp =

U 0 8

0 0

1 2

disp1 = disp1 = 0.050 in disp2 = disp2 = 0.0625 in

8 8

( )

2 2

Hence the areas are A1 = W 2 disp1 A1 = 142 in

A2 = (W 2 disp2)

2 2

A2 = 141 in

A1

( U1 A1) + ( U2 A2) = 0

ft

or U2 = U1 U2 = 60.25

A2 s

2 2

p1 U1 p2 U2 slug

The pressure change is found from Bernoulli + = + with = 0.00234

2 2 3

ft

2 4

U1 U2

2 lbf

Hence p = p = 2.47 10 psi p = 0.0356

2 2

ft

slug p

In terms of inches of water H2O = 1.94 h = h = 0.00684 in

ft

3 H2O g

Problem 9.25 [2]

Solution:

2

p V

Basic equations (4.12) + + g z = const

2

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction outside boundary layer 4) Flow along streamline 5) Horizontal

ft 2 2

The given data is U0 = 100 U1 = U0 h = 3 in A1 = h A1 = 9 in

s

( )

2 2

Hence at the Point 2 A2 = h 2 disp2 A2 = 8.58 in

A1

( U1 A1 ) + ( U2 A2 ) = 0

ft

or U2 = U1 U2 = 105

A2 s

2 2

p1 U1 p2 U2 slug

The pressure change is found from Bernoulli + = + with = 0.00234

2 2 3

ft

2 3

U U2

2 lbf

Hence p = p = 8.05 10 psi p = 1.16

2 1

ft

2

Problem 9.26 [3]

Problem 9.27 [3]

Problem 9.28 [3]

Solution:

The solution involves using mass conservation in the inviscid core, allowing for the fact that as the boundary layer grows it reduces the size

core. One approach would be to integrate the 1/7 law velocity profile to compute the mass flow in the boundary layer; an easier approach i

simply use the displacement thickness!

The average wall stress can be estimated using the momentum equation for a CV

kg m

= 1.23 U1 = 15 L = 6 m D = 400 mm 2 = 100 mm

3 s

m

Governing equations:

Mass

Momentum

2

p V

Bernoulli + + g z = constant (4.24)

2

Assumptions: (1) Steady flow (2) No pressure force (3) No body force in x direction

The displacement thickness at location 2 can be computed from boundary layer thickness using Eq. 9.1

1

2 1

disp2 = 1 u dy = 1 7 d = 2

2

0 U 0 8

2

Hence disp2 = disp2 = 12.5 mm

8

A1

Applying mass conservation at locations 1 and 2 ( U1 A1) + ( U2 A2) = 0 or U 2 = U 1

A2

2 2

A1 = D A1 = 0.126 m

4

The area at location 2 is given by the duct cross section area minus the displacement boundary layer

( )

2 2

A2 = D 2 disp2 A2 = 0.11 m

4

A1 m

Hence U2 = U1 U2 = 17.1

A2 s

For the pressure change we can apply Bernoulli to locations 1 and 2 to find

2

U U1

2

p1 p2 = p = p = 40.8 Pa p2 = p

2 2

For the average wall shear stress we use the momentum equation, simplified for this problem

D

2

( )

2 2 2 2

p A1 D L = U1 A1 + U2 D 2 2 + 2 r u dr

4

D

2 2

1

7

u ( r) = U2

y D

where and r= y dr = dy

2 2

0

D 2

2

2

7

2 r u dr = 2 U2 y dy

2 D y

The integral is

D 2 2

2

2 2

D

2

2 2 D 2

2 r u dr = 7 U2 2

D 9 8

2 2

D 2

( )

2 2 2 2

p A1 + U1 A1 U2 D 2 2 7 U2 2

Hence =

4 9 8

D L

= 0.461 Pa

Problem 9.29 [5] Part 1/2

Problem 9.29 [5] Part 1/2

Problem *9.30 [2]

Problem *9.31 [3]

Problem *9.32 [3]

Problem *9.33 [3]

Problem *9.34 [4]

Problem 9.35 [4]

Find: Point at which u = 0.95U; Slope of streamline; expression for skin friction coefficient and total drag; Momentum thicknes

Solution:

x

Basic equation: Use results of Blasius solution (Table 9.1 on the web), and = y

U

u

f' = = 0.9130 at = 3.5

U

u

f' = = 0.9555 at = 4.0

U

( 4 3.5)

Hence by linear interpolation, when f' = 0.95 = 3.5 + ( 0.95 0.9310) = 3.89

( 0.9555 0.9310)

2

4 ft ft

From Table A.9 at 68oF = 1.62 10 and U = 15 x = 7.5 in

s s

x

Hence y = y = 0.121 in

U

dy v 1 U

The streamline slope is given by = where u = U f' and v= ( f' f )

dx u 2 x

dy 1 U 1 1 ( f' f ) 1 ( f' f )

= ( f' f ) = =

dx 2 x U f' 2 U x f' 2 Rex f'

U x 4

We have Rex = Rex = 5.79 10

From the Blasius solution (Table 9.1 on the web)

f = 1.8377 at = 3.5

f = 2.3057 at = 4.0

( 2.3057 1.8377)

Hence by linear interpolation f = 1.8377 + ( 3.89 3.5) f = 2.2027

( 4.0 3.5)

dy 1 ( f' f )

= = 0.00326

dx 2 Rex f'

The shear stress is w = u+ v = u at y = 0 (v = 0 at the wall for all x, so the derivative is zero there)

y x y

2 2

U d f d f

w = U and at = 0 = 0.3321 (from Table 9.1)

x d2 d

2

2

U 2 U

w = 0.3321 U w = 0.3321 U = 0.3321

x U x Rex

L

The friction drag is F D = w dA = w b dx where b is the plate width

0

L

L

2

2

U 1

FD = 0.3321 b dx = 0.3321 U dx

U 1

Rex

0 2

x

0

1

2 2 2 0.6642

FD = 0.3321 U b 2 L F D = U b L

U ReL

w d w

For the momentum integral = or d = dx

2 dx 2

U U

L

1 1 FD 0.6642 L

L = w dx = =

2 2 b

U 0 U ReL

U L 5

We have L = 3 ft ReL = ReL = 2.78 10

0.6642 L

L = L = 0.0454 in

ReL

Problem *9.36 [5]

Solution:

The equation to be solved is

d3 f d2 f

2 + f =0 (9.11)

d 3 d 2

The boundary conditions are

df

f = 0 and = 0 at = 0

d

df

f= = 1 at (9.12)

d

Recall that these somewhat abstract variables are related to physically meaningful variables:

u

= f

U

and

U y

=y

x

f n+1 f n + f n (1)

f n+1 f n + f n (2)

f n+1 f n + f n

th

In these equations, the subscripts refer to the nth discrete value of the variables, and = 10/N is the step

size for (N is the total number of steps).

1

f = f f

2

1

f n+1 f n + f n f n (3)

2

Equations 1 through 3 form a complete set for computing f , f , f . All we need is the starting condition

for each. From Eqs. 9.12

f 0 = 0 and f 0 = 0

We do NOT have a starting condition for f ! Instead we must choose (using Solver) f 0 so that the last

condition of Eqs. 9.12 is met:

f N = 1

= 0.01

Make a guess for the first f ''; use Solver to vary it until f 'N = 1

0 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.3303

1 0.01 0.0000 0.0033 0.3303

2 0.02 0.0000 0.0066 0.3303

3 0.03 0.0001 0.0099 0.3303

4 0.04 0.0002 0.0132 0.3303

5 0.05 0.0003 0.0165 0.3303

6 0.06 0.0005 0.0198 0.3303

7 0.07 Blasius

0.0007 Velocity

0.0231 Profile

0.3303

10 8 0.08 0.0009 0.0264 0.3303

9 0.09 0.0012 0.0297 0.3303

8 10 0.10 0.0015 0.0330 0.3303

11 0.11 0.0018 0.0363 0.3303

6 12 0.12 0.0022 0.0396 0.3303

13 0.13 0.0026 0.0429 0.3303

14 0.14 0.0030 0.0462 0.3303

4

15 0.15 0.0035 0.0495 0.3303

16 0.16 0.0040 0.0528 0.3303

2

17 0.17 0.0045 0.0562 0.3303

18 0.18 0.0051 0.0595 0.3303

0

19 0.19 0.0056 0.0628 0.3303

0.0 20 0.2

0.20 0.0063 0.4 0.0661 0.6

0.3302 0.8 1.0

21 0.21 0.0069 0.0694

u/U = f '0.3302

22 0.22 0.0076 0.0727 0.3302

Problem 9.37 [2]

Solution:

Governing equations:

=

2

1.50E-05 m /s

(Table A.10, 20oC)

Computed results:

U (m/s) 1 2 3 4 5 10

x crit (m) 7.5 3.8 2.5 1.9 1.5 0.75

0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.025 3.36 2.37 1.94 1.68 1.50 1.06

0.050 4.75 3.36 2.74 2.37 2.12 1.50

0.075 5.81 4.11 3.36 2.91 2.60 1.84

0.100 6.71 4.75 3.87 3.36 3.00

0.2 9.49 6.71 5.48 4.75 4.24

0.5 15.01 10.61 8.66 7.50 6.71

1.5 25.99 18.38 15.01 13.00 11.62

1.9 29.26 20.69 16.89 14.63

2.5 33.56 23.73 19.37

3.8 41.37 29.26

5.0 47.46

6.0 51.99

7.5 58.12

70

60 U = 1 m/s

50

U = 2 m/s

(mm) U = 3 m/s

40

U = 4 m/s

30

U = 5 m/s

20

U = 10 m/s

10

0

0 2 4 6 8

x (m)

1

* = 1 dy = 1 d = (1 2 + 2 )d = 2 + 3 =

1 1

Hence u u y 1

0

U 0

U 0 3 0 3

Tabulated or graphical data: Given data:

(Table A.8, 20 oC) U = 1.75 m/s

Computed results:

Laminar Boundary Layer Profiles

x (m) Re x (mm) * (mm) w (Pa)

0.0000 0.00.E+00 0.000 0.000 2.5 10

0.0125 2.17.E+04 0.465 0.155 10.40

0.0250 4.33.E+04 0.658 0.219 7.36

0.0375 6.50.E+04 0.806 0.269 6.01

2.0 8

0.0500 8.66.E+04 0.931 0.310 5.20

0.0625 1.08.E+05 1.041 0.347 4.65

0.0750 1.30.E+05 1.140 0.380 4.25

and * (mm)

w (Pa)

0.1000 1.73.E+05 1.317 0.439 3.68

0.1125 1.95.E+05 1.396 0.465 3.47

0.1250 2.17.E+05 1.472 0.491 3.29 1.0 w 4

0.1375 2.38.E+05 1.544 0.515 3.14

0.1500 2.60.E+05 1.612 0.537 3.00

0.1625 2.82.E+05 1.678 0.559 2.89

0.1750 3.03.E+05 1.742 0.581 2.78 0.5 * 2

0.2000 3.47.E+05 1.862 0.621 2.60

0.2125 3.68.E+05 1.919 0.640 2.52 0.0 0

0.2250 3.90.E+05 1.975 0.658 2.45 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25

0.2375 4.12.E+05 2.029 0.676 2.39 x (m)

0.2500 4.33.E+05 2.082 0.694 2.33

Problem 9.39 [2]

Solution:

2

= 2

Basic equations:

u y y

=

5.48

U x Rex

m kg

L = 0.25 m b = 1 m U = 1.75 = 1000

s 3

m

Assumptions: 1) Flat plate so p = 0, and U = const 2) is a function of x only 3) Incompressible

x

The momentum integral equation then simplifies to

w

=

d 2

U ( ) where

u

= 1 dy

U

u

dx U

0

2 d

For U = const w = U

dx

L L L

2

FD = w dA = w b dx = U b dx = U b 1 d

2 d 2

The drag force is then FD = U b L

0 dx 0

0

1 1 1

For the given profile

=

u u 2 ( 2 )(

) 2 (

3 4

1 d = 2 1 2 + d = 2 5 + 4 d =

2

)

U U 15

0 0 0

2

=

15

2

6 m U L 5

From Table A.8 at 20oC = 1.01 10 ReL = ReL = 4.332 10

s

5.48

L = L L = 2.08 mm

ReL

2

L = L = 0.278 mm

15 L

2

FD = U b L FD = 0.850 N

Problem 9.40 [2]

Problem 9.41 [2]

Solution:

kg N s m

The given data is = 800 = 0.02 U = 3 L = 3 m b = 1 m

3 2 s

m m

U L 5

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 3.6 10

The maximum Reynolds number is less than the critical value of 5 x 105

Hence:

w 0.730

Governing equations: cf = (9.22) cf = (9.23)

1 2 Rex

U

2

L

The drag (one side) is F D = w b dx

0

L

1 2 0.73

Using Eqs. 9.22 and 9.23 F D = U b dx

2 U x

0

3

FD = 0.73 b L U FD = 26.3 N (Compare to 30 N for Problem 9.18)

Repeating for L = 1 m b = 3 m

3

FD = 0.73 b L U FD = 45.5 N (Compare to 50.4 N for Problem 9.19)

Problem 9.42 [3]

Find: Drag

Solution:

w 0.730

Basic equations: cf = cf =

1 2 Rex

U

2

3 m

L = 0.50 cm L = 0.433 cm W = 50 cm U = 5

2 s

2

5 m kg

From Table A.10 at 20oC = 1.50 10 = 1.21

s 3

m

U L

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 1443 so definitely laminar

L

F D = w dA

x

The drag (one side) is FD = w w( x) dx w ( x) = W

0 L

1 2 1 2 0.730

We also have w = cf U = U

2 2 Rex

L

3 1

L

1 2 W 0.730 x 0.730 2 W 2

Hence FD = U dx = U x dx

2 L U x 2 L 0

0

L

1 3

2

x dx = L 2

2 3 4

The integral is so FD = 0.243 W L U FD = 4.19 10 N

0 3

4

Note: For two-sided solution 2 FD = 8.38 10 N

Problem 9.43 [3]

Find: Drag

Solution:

w 0.730

Basic equations: cf = cf =

1 2 Rex

U

2

3 m

L = 0.50 cm L = 0.433 cm W = 50 cm U = 5

2 s

2

5 m kg

From Table A.10 at 20oC = 1.50 10 = 1.21

s 3

m

U L

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 1443 so definitely laminar

L

w( x) = W 1

x

The drag (one side) is F D = w dA FD = w w( x) dx

0 L

1 2 1 2 0.730

We also have w = cf U = U

2 2 Rex

L

L

0.730 1 x 3 1 1

2

Hence

1 2

FD = U W

L

dx =

0.730 2

U W x 2 x dx

2 U x 2 L

0

0

L

1 1 3

1

2 2

The integral is x 2 x dx = 2 L 2 2 L = 4 L

L 3 L 3

0

3 4

FD = 0.487 W L U FD = 8.40 10 N

3

Note: For two-sided solution 2 FD = 1.68 10 N

The drag is much higher (twice as much) compared to Problem 9.42. This is because w is largest near the

leading edge and falls off rapidly; in this problem the widest area is also at the front

Problem 9.44 [3]

Find: Drag

Solution:

w 0.730

Basic equations: cf = cf =

1 2 Rex

U

2 2

W

L =

2 m

W = 25 cm L = 6.25 cm U = 7.5

25 cm s

Note: "y" is the equation of the upper and lower surfaces, so y = W/2 at x = L

2

5 m kg

From Table A.10 at 20oC = 1.50 10 = 1.21

s 3

m

U L 4

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 3.12 10 so just laminar

L

F D = w dA

x

The drag (one side) is FD = w w( x) dx w ( x) = W

0 L

1 2 1 2 0.730

We also have w = cf U = U

2 2 Rex

L

0.730 x 3

L

1 2 L 0.730 2

Hence FD = U W dx = U W 1 dx

2 U x 2 L 0

0

3 3

FD = 0.365 W L U FD = 2.20 10 N

3

Note: For two-sided solution 2 FD = 4.39 10 N

Problem 9.45 [4]

Find: Drag

Solution:

w 0.730

Basic equations: cf = cf =

1 2 Rex

U

2 2

W

L =

2 m

W = 25 cm L = 6.25 cm U = 7.5

25 cm s

Note: "y" is the equation of the upper and lower surfaces, so y = W/2 at x = 0

2

5 m kg

From Table A.10 at 20oC = 1.50 10 = 1.21

s 3

m

U L 4

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 3.12 10 so just laminar

L

F D = w dA

x

The drag (one side) is FD = w w( x) dx w( x) = W 1

0 L

1 2 1 2 0.730

We also have w = cf U = U

2 2 Rex

L

0.730 1 x 3 L

U W

1 2 L 0.730 2 1 1

Hence FD = U W dx = dx

2 2 x L

U x 0

0

L

The tricky integral is (this 2

L x x

1 1

dx = x

x i

L ln 1 1

might be easier to do so

dx = 0.393 m

numerically!)

x L L 2 L x + x 0

x L

3 L

3

U W

0.730 2 1 1

FD = dx FD = 3.45 10 N

2 x L

0

3

Note: For two-sided solution 2 FD = 6.9 10 N

The drag is much higher compared to Problem 9.44. This is because w is largest near the leading edge

and falls off rapidly; in this problem the widest area is also at the front

Problem 9.46 [3]

Solution:

w 0.730

Basic equations: cf = cf =

1 2 Rex

U

2

m

For separate plates L = 7.5 cm W = 7.5 cm U = 1

s

2

6 m kg

From Table A.8 at 20oC = 1.01 10 = 998

s 3

m

U L 4

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 7.43 10 so definitely laminar

L

The drag (one side) is F D = w dA F D = w W dx

0

1 2 1 2 0.730

We also have w = cf U = U

2 2 Rex

L

3 1

L

1 2 0.730 0.730 2 2

Hence FD = U W dx = U W x dx

2 U x 2 0

0

L

1 1

x 2 2 3

The integral is dx = 2 L so FD = 0.730 W L U FD = 0.0150 N

0

This is the drag on one plate. The total drag is then FTotal = 4 FD FTotal = 0.0602 N

3

FComposite = 0.730 W L U FComposite = 0.0301 N

The drag is much lower on the composite compared to the separate plates. This is because w is largest near the

leading edges and falls off rapidly; in this problem the separate plates experience leading edges four times!

Problem 9.47 [2]

Problem 9.48 [3]

Problem 9.49 [3]

Problem 9.50 [3]

Problem 9.51 [3]

Solution:

1

2 d u

FD = 2 w dA w = U 1 d

du u

Basic equations: w = at y = 0, and also

dy dx U U

0

m

L = 0.35 m W = 1 m U = 0.8

s

2

6 m kg

From Table A.8 at 10oC = 1.30 10 = 1000

s 3

m

U L 5

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 2.15 10 so laminar

y

The velocity profile is u = U = U

du U

Hence w = = (1) but we need (x)

dy

1 1

2 d u 2 d

1 d = U ( 1 ) d

We also have u

w = U

dx U U dx 0

0

1

The integral is

0

(2

dx =

1

) so

2 d

w = U =

1 2 d

U (2)

6 dx 6 dx

U 1 2 d

Comparing Eqs 1 and 2 w = = U

6 dx

2

6 6

Separating variables d = dx or = x + c but (0) = 0 so c = 0

U 2 U

12 12 3.46

Hence = x or = =

U x Rex Rex

L L

1 1

L

U

FD = 2 w dA = 2 W dx = 2 W U

U 2 W U U 2

Then x dx = x dx

12

0 3 0

0

L

1

x 2 dx = 2 L 2 W U U L

The integral is so FD =

0 3

2 3

FD = W L U FD = 0.557 N

3

Problem 9.52 [3]

Solution:

m

The given data is h = 30 mm 2 = 10 mm U2 = 22.5 w = 1 m (Arbitrary)

s

kg

Appendix A = 1.23

3

m

Governing equations

Mass

Before entering the duct, and in the the inviscid core, the Bernoulli equation holds

2

p V

+ + g z = constant (4.24)

2

For a linear velocity profile, from Table 9.2 the displacement thickness at location 2 is

2

disp2 = disp2 = 5 mm

2

From the definition of the displacement thickness, to compute the flow rate, the uniform flow at location 2 is assumed to

take place in the entire duct, minus the displacement thicknesses at top and bottom

( )

2

A2 = w h 2 disp2 A2 = 0.02 m

3

m

Then Q = A2 U2 Q = 0.45

s

Mass conservation (Eq. 4.12) leads to U2

2

U1 A1 = U2 A2 where A1 = w h A1 = 0.03 m

A2 m

U1 = U2 U1 = 15

A1 s

2

patm p1 U1

= +

2

or, working in gage pressures

1 2

p1 = U1 p1 = 138 Pa

2

(Static pressure)

Similarly, between atmosphere and location 2 (gage pressures)

1 2

p2 = U2 p2 = 311 Pa

2

(Static pressure)

The static pressure falls continuously in the entrance region as the fluid in the central core accelerates into a

decreasing core

The stagnation pressure at location 2 (measured, e.g., with a Pitot tube as in Eq. 6.12), is indicated by an application

of the Bernoulli equation at a point

pt 2

p u

= +

2

where pt is the total or stagnation pressure, p = p2 is the static pressure, and u is the local velocity, given by

u y

= y 2

U2 2

h

u = U2 2 < y

2

(Flow and pressure distibutions are symmetric about centerline)

1 2

Hence pt = p2 + u

2

Problem 9.52 (In Excel) [3]

Solution:

h = 30 mm

U2 = 22.5 m/s

2 = 10 mm

= 1.23 kg/m3

p2 = -311 Pa

0.0 0.00 -311.00

1.0 2.25 -307.89

2.0 4.50 -298.55 15

3.0 6.75 -282.98

4.0 9.00 -261.19

5.0 11.25 -233.16 10

6.0 13.50 -198.92 y (mm)

7.0 15.75 -158.44

8.0 18.00 -111.74 5

9.0 20.25 -58.81

10.0 22.50 0.34

11.0 22.50 0.34

12.0 22.50 0.34

0

13.0 22.50 0.34 -400 -300 -200 -100 0

14.0 22.50 0.34 p t (Pa gage)

15.0 22.50 0.34

The stagnation pressure indicates total mechanical energy - the curve indicates significant loss close to the walls

and no loss of energy in the central core.

Problem 9.53 [3]

Find: Plot of laminar and turbulent boundary layer; Speeds for transition at trailing edge

Solution:

Given data:

U = 10 m/s

L = 5 m

Tabulated data:

= 1.45E-05 m2/s

(Table A.10)

Computed results:

(mm) (mm) (mm)

0.00 0.00E+00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.125 8.62E+04 2.33 4.92 2.33

0.250 1.72E+05 3.30 8.56 3.30

0.375 2.59E+05 4.04 11.8 4.04

0.500 3.45E+05 4.67 14.9 4.67

0.700 4.83E+05 5.52 19.5 5.5

0.75 5.17E+05 5.71 20.6 20.6

1.00 6.90E+05 6.60 26.0 26.0

1.50 1.03E+06 8.08 35.9 35.9

2.00 1.38E+06 9.3 45.2 45.2

3.00 2.07E+06 11.4 62.5 62.5

4.00 2.76E+06 13.2 78.7 78.7

5.00 3.45E+06 14.8 94.1 94.1

100

75

(mm) Laminar

50

Turbulent

25 Transitional

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

x (m)

The speeds U at which transition occurs at specific points are shown below

x trans

U (m/s)

(m)

5 1.45

4 1.81

3 2.42

2 3.63

1 7.25

Problem 9.54 [3]

Find: Mass flow rate across ab; Momentum flux across bc; Distance at which turbulence occurs

Solution:

Basic equations: Mass

Momentum

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) No pressure force 3) No body force in x direction 4) Uniform flow at ab

2

ft slug 4 ft

U = 165 = 0.75 in b = 10 ft = 0.00234 = 1.62 10

s 3 s

ft

slug

Consider CV abcd mad = U b mad = 0.241 (Note: Software cannot render a dot)

s

1

1

7

=

u y 7

Mass mad + u b dy + mab = 0 and in the boundary layer = dy = d

0 U

1

1

7 7 1 slug

Hence m.ab = U b U d = U b U b mab = U b mab = 0.0302

0 8 8 s

1

2

2 7 2 7

The momentum flux mfbc = u V dA = u u b dy = U b d = U b

across bc is 0 0 0 9

7 2 slug ft

mfbc = U b mfbc = 31

9 2

s

2

From momentum Rx = U ( U ) + mab uab + mfbc Rx = U b mab U mfbc Rx = 3.87 lbf

5 U x Rex

Transition occurs at Rex = 5 10 and Rex = xtrans = xtrans = 0.491 ft

U

Problem 9.55 [3]

Problem 9.56 [3]

Problem 9.57 [3]

Find: Drag

Solution:

w 0.0594

Basic equations: cf = cf =

1 2 1

U

2 5

Rex

3 m

L = 0.50 cm L = 0.433 cm W = 50 cm U = 25

2 s

2

5 m kg

From Table A.10 at 20oC = 1.50 10 = 1.21

s 3

m

U L

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 7217 so definitely still laminar, but we are

told to assume turbulent!

L

F D = w dA

x

The drag (one side) is FD = w w( x) dx w( x) = W

0 L

1 2 1 2 0.0594

We also have w = cf U = U

2 2 1

5

Rex

L

9 1 4

L

1 2 W 0.0594 x 0.0594 5 W 5

5

Hence F D = U dx = U x dx

2 L 1 2 L 0

5

U x

0

L

4 9

1

The integral is

0

5

x 5 dx = L 5 so (

FD = 0.0165 W L U

4 9) 5

FD = 4.57 10

3

N

9

3

Note: For two-sided solution 2 FD = 9.14 10 N

Problem 9.58 [3]

Find: Drag

Solution:

w 0.0594

Basic equations: cf = cf =

1 2 1

U

2 5

Rex

2

W

L =

2 m

W = 25 cm L = 6.25 cm U = 25

25 cm s

Note: "y" is the equation of the upper and lower surfaces, so y = W/2 at x = L

2

5 m kg

From Table A.10 at 20oC = 1.50 10 = 1.21

s 3

m

U L 5

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 1.04 10 so still laminar, but we are

told to assume turbulent!

L

F D = w dA

x

The drag (one side) is FD = w w ( x) dx w ( x) = W

0 L

1 2 1 2 0.0594

We also have w = cf U = U

2 2 1

5

Rex

L

L

x 9 1 1 3

0.0594

1 2 L 0.0594 5 2 5 10

Hence FD = U W dx = U W L x dx

2 1 2 0

5

U x

0

(

FD = 0.0228 W L U

4 )

9

5

FD = 0.0267 N

Problem 9.59 [3]

Solution:

w 0.0594

Basic equations: cf = cf =

1 2 1

U

2 5

Rex

m

For separate plates L = 7.5 cm W = 7.5 cm U = 10

s

2

6 m kg

From Table A.8 at 20oC = 1.01 10 = 998

s 3

m

U L 5

First determine the nature of the boundary layer ReL = ReL = 7.43 10 so turbulent

L

The drag (one side) is F D = w dA F D = w W dx

0

1 2 1 2 0.0594

We also have w = cf U = U

2 2 1

5

Rex

L

9 1 1

L

0.0594

1 2 0.0594 5 5 5

Hence FD = U W dx = U W x dx

2 1 2 0

5

U x

0

L

1 4

1

The integral is

0

5

x 5 dx = L 5 so (

FD = 0.371 W L U

4 9) 5

FD = 13.9 N

4

This is the drag on one plate. The total drag is then FTotal = 4 FD FTotal = 55.8 N

For the composite plate L = 4 7.5 cm L = 0.30 m

( 4

FComposite = 0.371 W L U )

9

5

FComposite = 42.3 N

The drag is much lower on the composite compared to the separate plates. This is because w is largest near the

leading edges and falls off rapidly; in this problem the separate plates experience leading edges four times!

Problem 9.60 [3]

Problem 9.61 [3]

Problem 9.62 [3]

Problem 9.63 [3]

Problem 9.64 [3]

Problem 9.65 [3]

Problem 9.66 [3]

Problem 9.67 [3]

Problem 9.68 [3]

Find: Velocity at location 2; pressure drop; length of duct; position at which boundary layer is 20 mm

Solution:

m

The given data is D = 150 mm 1 = 10 mm 2 = 30 mm U1 = 25

s

2

kg 5 m

Table A.10 = 1.23 = 1.45 10

3 s

m

Governing equations

Mass

0.382

In the boundary layer = (9.26)

x 1

5

Rex

2

p V

+ + g z = constant (4.24)

2

For a 1/7-power law profile, from Example 9.4 the displacement thickness is disp =

8

1

Hence disp1 = disp1 = 1.25 mm

8

2

disp2 = disp2 = 3.75 mm

8

From the definition of the displacement thickness, to compute the flow rate, the uniform flow at locations 1 and 2 is

assumed to take place in the entire duct, minus the displacement thicknesses

( )

2 2

A1 = D 2 disp1 A1 = 0.0171 m

4

( )

2 2

A2 = D 2 disp2 A2 = 0.0159 m

4

A1

( U1 A1) + ( U2 A2) = 0

m

or U2 = U1 U2 = 26.8

A2 s

The Bernoulli equation applied between locations 1 and 2 is

2 2

p1 U1 p2 U2

+ = +

2 2

2

U U1

2

or the pressure drop is p1 p2 = p = p = 56.9 Pa (Depends on value selected)

2 2

The static pressure falls continuously in the entrance region as the fluid in the central core accelerates into a decreasing core.

If we assume the stagnation pressure is atmospheric, a change in pressure of about 60 Pa is not significant; in addition, the velocity changes

about 5%, again not a large change to within engineering accuracy

To compute distances corresponding to boundary layer thicknesses, rearrange Eq.9.26

1 5 1

5 4 4

= 0.382

x =

0.382 U

= so

x 1 U x 0.382

5

Rex

5 1

4 4

1 U 1

x1 = x1 = 0.382 m

0.382

5 1

4 4

2 U 2

x2 = x2 = 1.533 m

0.382

3

For location 3 3 = 20 mm disp3 = disp3 = 2.5 mm

8

( )

2 2

A3 = D 2 disp3 A3 = 0.017 m

4

A1 m

U3 = U1 U3 = 25.9

A3 s

5 1

4 4

3 U 2

x3 = x3 = 0.923 m

0.382

Problem 9.69 [3]

Solution:

kg m

The given data is L = 360 m B = 70 m D = 25 m = 1020 U = 6.69 x = 2000 mi

3 s

m

4

P = 9.7 MW P = 1.30 10 hp (Power consumed by drag)

P 4

The power to the propeller is Pprop = Pprop = 1.86 10 hp

70 %

4

The shaft power is Ps = 120% Pprop Ps = 2.23 10 hp

Ps 8 BTU

Hence the heat supplied to the engines is Q = Q = 1.42 10

hr

x

The journey time is t = t = 13

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