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# International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

## Analytical solution of the relative orbital motion in unperturbed

elliptic orbits using Laplace transformation
S. M. El-Shaboury1, M. K. Ammar2, W. M. Yousef 3
1Mathematics
Dept. Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2MathematicsDept. Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
3Basic Science Dept. Canadian International College for Engineering, Cairo, Egypt

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Abstract - This paper introduces a different approach to present a time-explicit solution for relative motion for
obtain the exact solution of the relative equations of motion of elliptic orbits. But, Gim and Alfriend  and Garrison et
a deputy (follower) object with respect to a chief (leader) al.  represent a geometric method for deriving the
object that both rotate about central body in elliptic orbits by state transition matrix, utilizing small differences in
using Laplace transformations. We will use Kepler orbital elements between two satellites. Also Srinivas
assumptions considering the unperturbed case to get our R. Vadali  uses the geometric method but under the
equations of motion which in turn subjected to linearization
process. These type of equations known as Tschauner
influence of -perturbation. In the present work, we
Hempel equations or elliptic Hill Clohessy Wiltshire (HCW) will consider the unperturbed case, and we will use the
equations. The solution of such equations in this work is true anomaly to be the independent variable that the
represented in terms of the eccentricity of the chief orbit and solution will be represented, and we will apply our
its true anomaly as the independent variable. After getting our solution to solve a numerical example.
solution, we will apply it on numerical example to compare the
results obtained by this new approach with previous results.
2. Equations of motion
Key Words: Relative motion of two satellites, Formation
flying, Tschauner Hempel equations, Elliptic Hill Consider the chief (C) and deputy (D) space crafts that
Clohessy Wiltshire equations, Laplace transformation. orbiting the same point mass central body. To set up the
equations of motion of (D) relative to (C), we define two
frames of references. The first is inertial and centred at
1. INTRODUCTION the central body and the second is rotating chief
centred (Hills non-inertial frame of reference) . As
Solving and modelling the relative motion problem shown in figure 1,
between satellites or space crafts is of great Fig. -1: Chief and deputy position vectors w.r.t the central
importance in the field of formation flying, rendezvous body, and the position vector of (D) relative to (C), with the
and disturbed satellite systems which in turn play a
significant rule in space missions. Since 1960s, many
researchers have contributed in this regard, but their
contributions are varied from several aspects. For
example, according to the independent variable, some
of the researchers use the time and the others use the
true or eccentric anomaly. Also according to the
linearity of the obtained equations of motion, some of
them make linearization and the other make higher basis of the chief centered frame
order expansion. Also from point of view of
perturbation consideration, some of them put it in their rC and rD are the position vectors of the chief and
calculations and the other dont. But most of the results deputy with respect to the central body respectively.
depend of the same start point which is linearized And the position vector of (D) relative to (C) is
gravitational acceleration represented by Clohessy- represented by . Also we define er the unit vecior in
Wiltshire equations using circular reference orbits 
the direction of rC , eh perpenduclar to the chiefs
and the Tschauner-Hempel equations using elliptic
reference orbits . Both Melton  and Vaddi et al. 
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orbital plane in its angular momentum direction and Equating vector equations (7) and (8), we get the
e completes the setup. following equations of motion

## rC (rC ,0,0) relative to the central boy, and rC

X 2(Y Y ) f Xf 2 2 3 (rC X )
rC rC rD
rD ( X , Y , Z ) relative to (C). And we can write
rC
rD rC , or Y 2( X X ) f Yf 2 3 Y (9)
rC rD
rD (rC X )er Ye Zeh (1)
Z Z
rD3
rD (rC X Yf )er (Y ( rC X ) f )e Zeh (2)
Since the true anomaly of the chief, f, gives more details
Where is the true anomaly of the chief on its inertial about its orbit. It is convinient to transform the
elliptic orbit. independent variable from the time to f. And for this
purpose we have:
rD (rC X 2Yf Yf (rC X ) f 2 )er
(3) d d d2 2 d
2
df d
(Y 2(rC X ) f Yf 2 (rC X ) f )e Zeh f and 2 f 2
f (10)
dt df dt df df df
In order to simplify the previous equation we will h
eliminate both of and using the equation of motion Where rC2 f h f , such that h is the
rC2
per unit mass of the chief and the defenition of its
acceleration as following: magnitude of the angular momentum of the chief, and
it can be written by h a(1 e2 ) , also we have

rC 2
er (rC rC f 2 )er (rC f 2rC f )e (4)
rC a(1 e2 )
rC and n , Such that a , e and n are
1 e cos f a3

2
rC rC f 2 rC rC f 2 (5) the semi-major axis, the eccentricity and the mean
r
C rC2 motion of the chief orbit respectively. By this way

## Also we have rC f 2rC f 0 f 2

rC
(6) n(1 e cos f ) 2
f f
rC (1 e2 )3 2
(11)
Substituting by (5) and (6) in (3), we get df 2 e n sin f (1 e cos f )
&
df (1 e2 )3 2
rC
rD ( X 2(Y Y ) f Xf 2 2 )er
rC rC By using (10) and (11) with denoting to the derivative
(7) with respect to f by prime , the relative equations of
rC
(Y 2( X X ) f Yf 2 )e Zeh motion (9) becomes
rC
2e sin f 2e sin f
On the other hand, the equation of motion of the X X 2Y X Y
1 e cos f 1 e cos f
deputy, taking into account that the mass of the chief is (12-a)
negligible with comparison by the mass of the central
(rC X )
body, will be rC2 f 2 rD3 f 2

rD 3
rD ((rC X )er Ye Zeh ) (8)
r
D rD3

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 01 | Jan -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

## 2e sin f 2e sin f 3. Linearisation of the relative equations of motion

Y 2 X Y X
1 e cos f 1 e cos f To get the linearised relative equations of motion, for
(12-b)
the first equation in (12) we can use Taylors
Y Y
rD3 f 2 approximation expansion about the origin for the
function
2e sin f
Z Z 3 2 Z f ( x, y, z ) (1 x) (1 x) 2 y 2 z 2
3 2
(12-c) , where
1 e cos f rD f

## In order to write these equations with dimensionless fy 0 , fz (0,0,0)

0 and f x (0,0,0)
2 .
coordinates, we introduce
(0,0,0)

And by using the same senario for the second and third
X rC x, Y rC y, and Z rC z ,
equations of (12) but for the functions
which means that
y (1 x) 2 y 2 z 2
3 2
&
X rC x rC x and X rCx 2rC x rC x
with similar relations for Y and Z. z (1 x) 2 y 2 z
2 3 2
respectively.
And with the help of
We can get easily the foloowing linearised equations
3 2
pr f
rC2 f p rC4 f 2 p C
p x 2 y
3x
0 (14-a)
1 e cos f 1 e cos f
1
y 2 x 0 (14-b)
3
r f
C
2
1 e cos f
z z 0 (14-c)
Also rD3 rC3[(1 x)2 y 2 z 2 ]3 2
4. Solving linearised relative equations of motion
1
3 2 [(1 x) 2 y 2 z 2 ]3 2 From (14-b), we have
rD f 1 e cos f
y 2 x c , where c y0 2 x0
Therefore the dimensionless relative equations of
motion will be
Then y 2 x y0 2 x0 (15)
1 x
x 2 y x (e cos f ) x x (4e cos f ) x 2c(1 e cos f ) (16)
1 e cos f
(1 x) (1 x) 2 y 2 z 2
3 2
Applying Laplace transformation on (16), such that
L{x( f )} F ( s )
1 e cos f
1 We can construct the following table, with the help of
y 2 x y (13) eif e if
1 e cos f cos f
2
y (1 x) 2 y 2 z 2
3 2

# x( f ) L{x( f )} F ( s )
1 e cos f

(1 x) 2 y 2 z 2
3 2
e cos f 2 c 2 ec s
z z z 1 2 c (1 e cos f )
1 e cos f 1 e cos f s s2 1

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and
2 x s 2 F (s) sx0 x0
ec 2c csc f cot f [(1 e) x0 2c]csc2 f
Q( f ) (19)
3 (4e cos f ) x 2e [ F ( s i ) F ( s i )]
csc f e cot f

## To get the integrating factor ( f ) , we have to get

e
(s i)2 F (s i)
(e cos f ) x
2 1
4
e P( f )df ln
sin f (1 e cos f )
( s i ) 2 F ( s i ) e x0 s e x0
2
( f ) e
P ( f ) df 1

sin f (1 e cos f )

## After some simplifications, we can get Then, the solution of (17) is

x( f ) sin f (1 e cos f ) ( f ).Q( f )df c1 (20)
( s i) 4
2
F (s) e F (s i)
2( s i )( s i ) Now
(s i)2 4 e c sin 2 f 2c cos f [(1 e) x0 2c]
( f ).Q( f ) ,
2( s i )( s i ) e F ( s i ) sin 2 f (1 e cos f ) 2

2c 2e c s (1 e) x0 s (1 e) x0 By using partial factions, we can write
2 2
s( s 1) ( s 1)
2 2
s2 1 s 1
A1 A2
( f ).Q( f )
And now applying the inverse Laplace transformation, 1 cos f 1 cos f
recalling that , or
A3 A4

L1{F (s k )} ek f x( f ) , 1 e cos f 1 e cos f 2

## we can get after simplifying

( f ).Q( f )df A1I1 A2 I 2 A3 I 3 A4 I 4 (21)
f

## 2 e x( ) d (csc f e cot f ) x 2c csc f x0 (7 e) x0 4 y0

Where A1 , A2
0 2(1 e) 2(1 e) 2
[(1 e) x0 2c]cot f [(1 e) x0 e c f ]
2e (2 e) x0 (1 e) y0
By differentiating this equation with respect to f, we A3 e ( A1 A2 ) and
(1 e)(1 e) 2
can get
e (2 e) x0 (1 e) y0 1
A4 (1 e 2 ) A3
2e csc f cot f e csc f 2
(1 e) 2
x x
csc f e cot f
(17) df
e c 2c csc f cot f [(1 e) x0 2 c]csc 2 f I1 cot f csc f
1 cos f
csc f e cot f
df
Which is linear first order differential equation and can I2 cot f csc f
1 cos f
be set in the form of x P( f ) x Q( f ) , where
By the help of eccentric anomaly E, we can find I 3 as
2e sin f ( csc f cot f e csc 2 f )
P( f ) (18) following
1 e cos f csc f e cot f

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df 1 E 3 A3
I3
1 e cos f

1 e2
dE
1 e2

2 1 e2
E sin f (1 e cos f )df
2 1 e f To integrate the last term, we again use the help of
tan 1 tan
1 e2 1 e 2 the eccentric anomaly, such that we have
1 e 2 sin E 1 e2
We can get I 4 by the help of
sin f , 1 e cos f and
1 e cos E 1 e cos E
d e sin f 1 1 e2 1 e2
1 e cos
df f 1 e cos f 1 e cos f 2 df
1 e cos E
dE , so that

I3 1 e sin f
Then I 4 I E sin f (1 e cos f )df
1 e 1 e 1 e cos f
2 2

E sin E
(1 e2 ) 2 dE
Substituting by all Ai and I i in (21), we can get (1 e cos E )3

Therefore the solution (19) will be Which can be integrated by parts, and after
simplifications we can write
x( f ) [(1 e) A1 (1 e) A2 ]
1
1 I ( 1 e 2 ( f e sin f ) E (1 e cos f ) 2 ) ,
[(1 e) A1 (1 e) A2 ]cos f [ A1 A2 A3 ]e sin 2 f 2e
2
and then equation (23) will be
3 A3
E sin f (1 e cos f ) c1 sin f (1 e cos f )
2 1 e2 1
y ( f ) 2 B1 f 2 B2 sin f e B3 ( f sin 2 f )
2
To get the value of c1 , we can find 2x e
0 ( cos f sin 2 f ) ( y0 2 x0 ) f c2
dx x0 1 e 2
c1 , then
df f 0
1 e 3 A3 E (1 e cos f ) 2
f e sin f
2 e 1 e2

x( f ) B1 B2 cos f B3 e sin 2 f
3 x0 (22) 2 x0
A E sin f (1 e cos f ) To get c2 , let us calculate y c2 y0 , so
2 1 e
2 3
1 e
f 0
1 e
that
Wehre B1 (1 e) A1 (1 e) A2 ,
2 x0
1 y ( f ) y0 y0 2 x0 2 B1 f 2 B2 sin f
B2 (1 e) A1 (1 e) A2 and B3 A1 A2 A3 1 e
2 1 2 x e
e B3 ( f sin 2 f ) 0 ( cos f sin 2 f ) (24)
Now the turn of equation (14-b), to get y 2 1 e 2
3A E (1 e cos f ) 2
From (15) y 2 x df y0 2 x0 f c2 (23) 3 f e sin f
2 e 1 e2
e 1
Now x df B1 f B2 sin f
2
B3 ( f sin 2 f )
2
Finally for the third equation of motion (14-c), which is
in the form of simple harmonic motion, hence its
x e solution will be
0 ( cos f sin 2 f )
1 e 2
z ( f ) z0 sin f z0 cos f (23) (25)

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 01 | Jan -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

## The equations (22), (24) and (25) are the solution of

the equations of motion of the deputy relative to the
chief in the unperturbed case.

5. Numerical example:

## Using the following initial conditions

e 0.1 , x0 0.1 , x0 0 , y0 0 ,
21 ,
y0 , z0 0.08 and z0 0
110

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.05

0.00

0.05

0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10

## Fig. -2: The position of the deputy relative to the chief

( x , y , z ) with the true anomaly of the chief f
according to the given initial conditions

6. Conculusion:

## An explicit solution of the relative equations of motion

of a deputy or follower object relative to a chief or
leader object is expressed interms of the eccentricity of
the chief orbit and its true anomaly as the indepenent
variable. Since the inplane solution [ x( f ) and y ( f ) ]

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 01 | Jan -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

1 e f BIOGRAPHIES
contains the true anomaly E 2 tan 1 tan ,
1 e 2 Wael Mohamed Yousef
therfore we have singularity when f is a multiple of Basic Science Department
. But it is very clear that we can eliminate it by choosing for Engineering, Cairo, Egypt
y0 2e Author
the initial conditions such that A3 0
x0 1 e Photo
to obtain a periodic motion for the deputy around the
chiief.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my appreciation to my supervisors
International College for engineering that provide favorable
conditions on achieving my goal.

REFERENCES

##  Clohessy, W. H., Terminal Guidance System for Satellite

Rendezvous , Journal of Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 27, No.
9, September 1960, pp. 653-658,674.M. Young, The
Technical Writers Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University
Science, 1989.
 Tschauner, J. and Hempel, P., Rendezvous with a Target
in Elliptic Orbit, Astronautica Acta, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1965,
pp. 104-109.
 Melton, R. G., Time-Explicit Representation of Relative
Motion Between Elliptical Orbits , Journal of Guidance,
Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 23, No.4, 2000, pp. 604-610.
 Vaddi, S. S., Vadali, S. R., and Alfriend, K. T., Formation-
Flying: Accommodating Nonlinearity and Eccentricity
Perturbations , Paper AAS 02-184, AAS/AIAA Space
Flight Mechanics Meeting, San Antonio, Texas 27-30
January, 2002.
 Gim, D-W and Alfriend, K.T., The State Transition Matrix
of Relative Motion for the Perturbed Non-Circular
Reference Orbit, Paper No. AAS 01-222, AAS/AIAA
Space Flight Mechanics Conference, Santa Barbara, CA,
Feb 11-16, 2001.
 Garrison, J.L., Gardner, T. J., and Axelrad, P., Relative
Motion in Highly Elliptical Orbits, Advances in the
Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 89, Pt. 2, pp.1359-1376,
1995.
 Vadali, S. R., An Analytical Solution for Relative Motion
of Satellites, The DCSSS Conference, Craneld, UK, July
2002
 Ren, Yuan, et al. "Computation of analytical solutions of
the relative motion about a Keplerian elliptic orbit." Acta
astronautica 81.1 (2012): 186-199.

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