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Class 7 : Discuss Routing Protocol.

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prior written permission of the publisher. ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

Topic Covers in this Book
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Routing Protocol EIGRP Concept

U Contant U Page No

Routing Protocol EIGRP:

1) Routing Protocol concept? 04
2) Distance Vector Routing Protocol:
3) Link State Routing Protocol:
4) Hybrid Routing Protocol:
EIGRP Overview: 05
1) EIGRP Features?
2) EIGRP Concept?
3) EIGRP Table? 06
o Neighbor Table?
o Topology Table?
o Routing Table?
EIGRP Message? 07
o Hello Message:
o Update Message:
o Query Message:
o Rply Message:
o Acknowledgment Message:
EIGRP Transport?
EIGRP Delay Time?
Successor Route? 08
Feasible Successor Route?
Feasible Distance?
Advertise Distance?
EIGRP Matricalculation K Value?
EIGRP Autonomous System Number? 09
EIGRP PDMs Protocol?
EIGRP Authentication?
EIGRP Authentication Feature? 10
EIGRP Load Balancing? 11
Unequal load Balancing (Variance command)?
Equal Load Balancing? 12 ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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Routing Protocol concept:

Terminology which use Routing Protocols:

Distance Vector Routing Protocol:

Distance Vector Routing protocol my Router apna pora Routing Table pori topology my exchange
karty hy her 30 second k bad. (Example) : IGRP, RIP & RIPv2

Link State Routing Protocol:

Link State Routing Protocol my router apna pora Routing Table exchange nahi karty sirf Router
my hoi Changes ya updates ko send karty hy. Benefit ye hota hy k is Process mai kam bandwidth
utilize hoti hy. (Example) : OSPF

Hybrid Routing Prtocol:

Hybrid Routing Protocol my Distance or Link state donu hi routing protocol ki Ability hoti hy. (I.E)

Explain EIGRP Protocol:

EIGRP sy phly IGRP hota tha jo k 1 (Distance Vector Routing Protocol) tha pher essi protocol ko
Enhance kiya gaya essy or better banaya gaya or pher IGRP ko Update kar k hi EIGRP yani (Enhance
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) Cisco ny developed kia or EIGRP (Hybrid Routing Protocol)
trimnology ko use karta hai jo sirf router my hoi changing ya update ko send karta hy pora routing table
send nahi karta her 30 Sec k bad. ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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EIGRP Features:
EIGRP matriculation karta hy based on Bandwidth or Delay.
EIGRP Multiple Network Layer ko support karta hy jessy IP,IPX & Apple Talk
EIGRP 1 wahid essa protocol hy jo Equal on Unequal load balancing provide karta hy.
EIGRP best path to calculate karta hi hy per 2nd best path bhi phly sy hi calculate kar k rakhta
hy taky Delay time kam lagye.
EIGRP ki Conversation bhut fast hy qk ye 2nd best path phly sy hi calculate kar k apny topology
table rakhta hy.
EIGRP Loop free Topology create karta hy.
EIGRP Classless Routing Protocol hy or ye manual Summarization or VLSM ko bhi support
karta hy.
EIGRP py hum kessi bhi router per Summarization kar sakty hy or OSPF my Summarization
sirf ABR router per hoti hy.
EIGRP jab bhi koi Update packet send karta hy tu wo broadcast nahi balky Multicast IP py
send karta hy & Multicast IP is
Fast conversation changing Fastly Update.
Only Update share pora routing table nahi.
No broadcast unicast & Multicast Only.
Multiple Network Layer support or sub k seprate Routing Table.
EIGRP k Routes routing Table mai D symbol sy represent hoty hy.

EIGRP Concept:
EIGRP phly sirf CISCO Propriety protocol tha but ab cisco ny essy open standard kar diya hy.
EIGRP ka Administrative Distance yani A.D hota hy 90 or is ka protocol number hy 88.
EIGRP ka Algorithm hy DUAL (Diffusion Update Algorithm).
Best Path calculate based on Bandwidth & Delay.
Bandwidth zada delay km its equals to Best Path. ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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EIGRP Tables:
EIGRP Routing karny sy phly 3 tarha k Tables Create karta hy.

1st one is Neighbor Table:

Neighbor Table my Router khud sy directly connected router ki information ko save karta hy k us k
baraber my kon sa Router laga hy or us tak janny ki kia information hy ya kia rasta or kia address hy ye
sari chezzy. Or Router pher apny neighbor routers ko Hello msges send karta hai jis sy Router ko pata
lagta rehta hyk us ka neighbor Router UP hy ya down hy essy KEEPALIVE message bhi khty hy. Or ye
message her 5 second k bad auto send hoty hy but is timer ko hum change bhi kar sakty hai. & the dead
timer is 3 time load yani 15 second tak agar hello message ka response nahi aata hy to router samajh jata
hy k us ka nighbor Router down hogaya hy. Or ye HELLO packets bhi Multicast IP py send hoty hy
which is
(Show ip eigrp nieghbors)
Topology Table:
Topology table my Routers apny pory network diagram rakhta hy or us my sary router ki information
hoti hy or pori topology information bhi save hoti hy. Or EIGRP ka 2nd best path bhi topology table my
hota hy.
(Show ip eigrp Topology)

Routing Table:
Routing Table my sary Routers ki information hoti hy or Best Path bhi routing table my hota hy. Router
table ko hum router ka brain khty hy qk router wahi sy sary decision lyta hy or sary networks ki
information bhi router k routing table mai save hoti hai.
(Show ip Route) ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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EIGRP Message:
EIGRP 5 tarha k Messages ko send karta hy Routers py.

1) Hello Message:

Neighbor Relationship build karny k ley.

2) Update Message:

Networks my jab bhi koi update hoti hy tu waha Update message Multicast send kiye jaty hy.

3) Query Message:

Query message jab best path down hojata hy to Router 2nd best path ko up kar dyta hy but pher
Router second best path ko search karny k ley sary routers ko query message send karta hy or wo
dosry router sy best route ki information k bary my pata karta hy. (Query message is like Asking

4) Rply Message:

Rply message my router Hello message ka rply karty hy hello message sy hi.

5) Acknowledgment Message:

ACK message my router ko jab Update message mil jta hy to router ACK message send karty hy k
unhy update packets mil gaye hy.

EIGRP Transport:
Example IP ki transport TCP sy guzarti hy Voice ki traffic UDP sy guzarti hy wessy hi EIGRP ki
Transport us k apny protocol RTP (Reliable Transport Protocol) sy guzarti hy. Update Message, Query
Message or Rply Message my RTP use hota hy qk waha sy response milta hy to us ki traffic RTP through
karta hy. ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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EIGRP Delay Time:

Kessi bhi 1 Router sy dosry Router tak data ko pouchny my jo time lagta hy ussy Delay Time khty hy.
Serial interfaces py by default Delay Time hota 20,000 in milliseconds or Fast-Ethernate py delay time
hota hy 100 milliseconds/Ms.

Successor Route:
Jo First path hota hy EIGRP my ussy hum Successor Route khty hy. Or Successor Route ki information
Routing Table my hoti hy qk wo best path hota hy.

Feasible Succssor Route:

Jo Second best path hota hy EIGRP my ussy hum Feasible Successor Route khty hy. Or us ki information
Topology table my hoti hy Qk wo 2nd best path hota hy.

Routers how Calculate Second best path?

Ye samajhny sy phly hum ye samajhty hy k Feasible Distance or Advertise Distance kia hota hy.

Feasible Distance: Source Router sy ly kar Distention Router tak jo Cost hoti hy links ki
ussy hum Feasible Distance khty hy.
Advertise Distance: Next Hope yani Source Router k Neighbor Router sy ly kar
Destination Router tak jo Cost hoti hy links ki ussy hum Advertise Distance khty hy.
Second best path chose karny k ley thats a Rule k agar kessi router ko 2nd best path banna hy tu us ka
Advertise Distance chota hona chayee best path k Feasible Distance sy. Jab ja k wo 2nd best path
banny ga or essi waja sy EIGRP my hammy loop free topology milti hy qk wo FD ko AD sy campare
kar k second best path choose karta hai. ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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EIGRP Matricalculation:
EIGRP 5 chezzo ko use karta hy apni Matricalculation k ley jis sy wo best path wagera ki selection
karta hy.
K1 = Bandwidth Value 1
K2 = Delay Value 1
K3 = Load Value 0
K4 = Reliability Value 0
K5 = MFU Value 0

Formula of Calculate Matri-calculation:

K1 K2 Bandwidth + K3 Delay K5 256

Bandwidth +256 load K4 + reliability

That is Book Formula:

Easy Formula to Calculate Matricalculation:
Matric = (107 / Minimum Bandwidth + Sum of Delays ) * 256
Bandwidth 1544 Kbits , Delay 200000 Usec

EIGRP Autonomous System Number:

EIGRP Configure karty waqt hum ussy A.S number assign karty hy jo k us network ki boundary hoti hy
ya u samajh ly k us network ki identity hoti hy. A.S number bhi Private or Public hoty hy agar hum
internally EIGRP configure kar rahy hy jo sirf hamary offices tak hi hy to hum waha private A.S number
ko use kar sakty hy but agar hum Externally EIGRP configure kar rahy hy jo over the Internet hoga to
waha hammy IANA sy A.S number Purchase karna parta hy to ussy hum Public A.S khty hy. Or is ki
range 1 to 65535 tak hoti hy or hum 1 A.S my Maximum 255 Router laga sakty hy.

EIGRP PDMs Protocol:

PDMs (Protocol Department Modules) ye protocol work karta hy EIGRP my deferent networks layers
k ley. Qk EIGRP Different Routing table banata hy essi ley wo different routing table create karta hy IP
k ley alag Table, IPX k ley alag Table or Apple Talk k ley alag Table so thats the work of PDMs
Protocol. ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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EIGRP Authentication:

EIGRP Authentication k ley MD5 yani (Message Digest 5) Algorithm ko use karta hy jo k authentication
method ki high security hai. MD5 password ko encrypt kar k Hash value my change kardyta hai or hash
value encrypted hoti hy or jab ye hash value dosry Router k password or hash value sy match hoti hy
jabhi data flow hota hy warna nahi.

EIGRP Authentication Feature:

EIGRP apni Authentication k ley Key-Chain bhi Create karta hy jis my hum multiple passwords create
kar satky hy multiple keys k throw like Key 1, Key 2, Key 3. Is ka faida ye hoga k jaisy company ka rule
hy k her month k bad password ko change karna hy to waha hum manually password ko change karny
sy acha hy Key-chains bana dy or us ka life time set kar dy to her month k bad key password auto hi
renew hojaye ga hammy manually nahi karna pary ga so thats the key-chain authentication feature.

Cammands of Authentication Key-Chain:

R1(config)# Key-chain (Name) Create
R1(config)# Key 1
R1(config)# Key-string (Password)
R1(config)# exit

R1(config)# int s0/0 Assign Interface

R1(config)# ip authentication mode eigrp 100 md5
R1(config)# ip authentication key-chain eigrp 100 (Key Name)

Wait take a Moment, Get Comfortable and in a Good State of mind & Feel Relax!
Study CareFully

BcZ we are Going to Deep EIGRP Load Balancing ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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EIGRP Load Balancing:

Understanding Unequal load Balancing:

Before understanding Unequal Load Balancing Learn what is Feasible or Advertise Distance in upper
Suppose hamary pass eak Router 4 hy or ussy jana hy Router 5 py or ussy 3 path mil rahy hy routing
table mai waha tak janny k ley which mention below.
1) Router 1 ki metric hy 50 or is ka A.D hy 30
2) Router 2 ki metric hy 90 or is ka A.D hy 40
3) Router 3 ki metric hy 120 or is ka A.D hy 60


To is case mai hammy 3 path mil rahy hy tu router sub sy lowest metric k path ko as a Best Path consider
kary ga or wahi sy data send kary ga. Or is ka Feasible Distance hoga 50 Right to ab hum dekhty hy k is
ka second best path kon bannye ga to second best path banny k ley condition ye hy k jis router ka A.D
means (Advertise Distance) lowest hoga best route k F.D (Feasible Distance) sy to wo second best banny
ga jo is case my Router 2 hy qk is ka A.D lowest hy best route k F.D sy to ye iska second best path hoga.
To jab bhi hum unequal load balancing ki bat karty hy tu hum sirf feasible successor path ko hi consider
karty hy unequal load balancing k ley. To yaha py jo variance ki value hy wo by default 1 hoti hy to agar
my variance ki value ko barha k kar do 2 kar do or pher ussy multiply kardu Rotuer 1 ki metric sy jo
hamara best path hy to variance ki value kitni aye gi 100 like 50*2 is equal to100.
To ab kia hoga hammary essy path jin ki metric 100 sy kam hy to wo outh k router k routing table my
chaly jaye gy. Jis sy Load balancing start ho jaye gi variance mai hammy value ko itna barhana hota hy
k hamara jo second route hy us ka F.D lowest hojaye successor Route k F.D sy.
jabhi hum ny variance ki value 2 consider ki thi takky 50 ko cross kar k wo 100 hojaye means multiply
k bad or pher Router 2 ki Matric us sy kam hojaye taky wo Route oth k Routing table my aajye or load
balancing start hojaye. Agar hum essa nahi karty to Router 2 wessy bhi hamara 2nd best path tha per wo
load balancing nahi kar raha tha qk wo routing table my nahi tha wo topology table my tha qk 2nd best
path topology table my hoty hy routing table my nahi to jabhi hum unequal load balancing k ley variance
command ko use karty hy or us ki metric ko multiply kar k highest karty hy taky 2nd path topology table
sy oth k router table my aajye. Or hamesha feasible successor hi topology table sy oth k routing table my ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

12 | F r e e L e a r n i n g ( F a y y a z A h m e d ) CSCO12971267

aaty hy koi or router nahi or hum Maximum 16 path ko routing table my la k load balancing kara sakty

Commands of Unequal load Balancing:

R1(config)# Router eigrp 100
R1(config)# variance 2
R1(config)# exit

Equal Load Balancing:

Equal load balancing matlab k agar router ko us k donu links py same Cost mily gi distination route tak
janny k ley to wo auto hi laod balancing start kar dy ga us my wo 1 packet first link sy bhejye ga or 1
packet dosry link sy is tarha wo alternate packets ko send kar k equal load balancing kary ga jis sy traffic
ka load divide hojaye ga donu links per.

EIGRP Commands:
Adding networks for EIGRP on Router R1:
R1(config)#router eigrp 100
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary

Note: All directly connected networks will be issued in the router eigrp mode. Autonomous System
number must be same on all the routers in the network.

Adding networks for EIGRP on Router R2:


R1(config)#router eigrp 100

R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
U ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

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Show Commads on EIGRP:

R1# show ip route

R1# show ip eigrp topology
R1# show ip eigrp neighbors
R1# show ip eigrp interfaces
R1# show ip protocol

Hello Mess age or Delay Time Set Command:

R1(config)# ip hello-interval eigrp (A.S number) or (Time seconds my)
R1(config)# ip hold-time eigrp (time)

YES Finally you Completed your EIGRP Protocol

Now your Routing Part Start in CCNA you must Pay Attention on It
Hope this is Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
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