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# 2 ESO SUMMER ACTIVITIES

## MOTION AND FORCES --- VELOCITY AND UNIT CONVERSION.

Name:

1. A student cycles to school every morning and then comes back in the afternoon. If his school is 2
km far from his house. What is the total displacement? What is the distance?
2. Convert the following units and indicate which magnitude they measure:
144 km/h to m/s 50 m/s to km/h
20 m/min to km/h 3.78 cm/min to m/s
12km/min to m/s 180 km/h to m/s
1h 5 min to seconds 0054 cm/s to m/s

3. How long would it take an object traveling 5 m/s to go 80 m. (show your work)
4. What is the velocity of a man that runs 1300 m in 3 minutes and 45 seconds?
5. How far does a car travel in 3 hours if its average velocity is 80 km/h?
6. Calculate the distance a car travels in 20 minutes if its velocity is 120 km/h
7. How long would it take to get from Pontevedra to Madrid (620km) traveling at 90 km/h.
8. An athlete runs three different distances in three different times. First he runs 5 km in 15 min, secondly
he runs 10 km in 35 min and then he runs 6 km in 25 min. What is the average velocity?
9. A plant grows 10 cm on Monday. On Friday at the same hour it is 24 cm. What is the velocity of growth
in m/s?
10. Two friends are hiking in the mountains. They walk 25 km in 8 hours. What is the velocity in km/h?
11. A car travels from Pontevedra to Madrid (580 km) in 5 hours and 30 minutes. What is the average
velocity?
12. Use the diagram to determine the resulting displacement and the distance traveled by the skier during
these three minutes.

13. A football coach paces back and forth along the sidelines. The diagram below shows several of coach's
positions at various times. At each marked position, the coach makes a "U-turn" and moves in the opposite
direction. In other words, the coach moves from position A to B to C to D. Calculate distance and
displacement.

14. What is the displacement of the cross-country team if they begin at the school, run 10 miles and finish
back at the school?
SOUND & LIGHT

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Every sound that you can you hear depends on sound waves. But, what is a sound?
Sound is a pressure wave that is produced by the vibration of an object. The energy from the vibration is
transferred through the air as a sound wave. A substance that sound and other types of waves can travel
through is called a medium. Air is a medium made up molecules of different gases in the atmosphere.
The speed of sound depends on the medium it travels through. The denser the medium, the faster the
waves will travel, temperature and pressure can also affect the speed of sound. A sound wave moves
forward through the air. The particles of air do not all travel forward, they move back and forth. The
particles move back and forth due to the change in pressure.
Sound travels at a speed of 340 m/s in air at 20 C (if the temperature of the air increases, so does its
speed),1520 m/s in salt water, and 5050 m/s in steel. The particles move and transmit kinetic energy.
The human ear can hear sounds in the range of 20 20,000 Hz, those frequencies greater than 20,000 Hz
are called ultrasounds and those below 20 Hz are called infrasounds. Frequency is the number of cycles in
a given amount of time. The unit of frequency is the hertz. One hertz (Hz) is one cycle per second. The
frequency of a sound wave determines the pitch of the sound you hear.

1. What is an echo?
a. A sound wave that is reflected by an object at least 17 m away.
b. Its an ultrasound that can only be heard in the mountains.
c. A sound wave that is reflected by an object less than 17 m away.

## 2. What two main factors affect the speed of sound?

a. Material of the medium and its temperature
b. Temperature and altitude of the wave
c. Temperature and mass of the sound wave

## 3. Humans can hear sounds in the range of:

a. 100 33,000 hertz ( Hz)
b. 20 20,000 Hz
c. 75 150,000 Hz

a. 220 m/s
b. 340 m/s
c. 680 m/s

## 5. What is the speed of light? ( In a vacuum )

a. 100,000 km/s
b. 300,000 km/s
c. 500,000 km/s

6. As sound travels through the classroom, it causes the air particles to:
a. move across the room
b. spread out in all directions
c. move a little back and forth

2
Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that usually travels in a straight line at a speed of 300,000 km/s
in a vacuum.
The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun travels through space and when it collides with the
particles (gases, water vapour, dust,) in the atmosphere it is reflected and dispersed giving our sky and
clouds colour, visible to our eyesight. Visible light is the only type of electromagnetic radiation that the
human eye can detect. Almost half of the radiation from the Sun that reaches to ground is visible light.
Light is made up of very small particles called photons that move in a wave like pattern. Each photon has
energy and the energy of a photon depends on its frequency. A photon of higher frequency has greater
energy than a photon of lower frequency.
Visible light is one type of electromagnetic radiation. Most electromagnetic (EM) waves are invisible to
humans. Scientist use spectrum to describe all the possible frequencies of EM waves, or the
electromagnetic spectrum. EM waves have a wide range of frequencies.
Each EM wave has a different wavelength. They go from bigger to smaller wavelengths: radio waves,
microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays.

Whats the difference between ultraviolet and infrared light? What visible light has the longest
wavelength?

## ENERGY, WORK, POWER, HEAT & TEMPERATURE

3

What is energy?
Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of our universe. The world around us is made up of matter
and energy. Unlike matter, however, energy does not occupy space and it does not have mass. The
concepts of work and energy are among the most important concepts in physics and science, and they play
an important role in our everyday life. Work is done only when a force moves through a distance. How then
is energy defined?
Energy can be defined as the ability of a system to do work. Whenever work is done, energy is transferred
from one system to another.

## ACTIVITY: Write a short biography of James Joule.

Energy can exist in many different forms. Many people associate the idea of energy with
movement, but energy can be manifested in many other ways. Very often one form of energy
changes into another.
The different types of energy include:
o Internal Energy
o Thermal Energy
o Electrical Energy
o Chemical Energy
o Nuclear Energy
o Solar Energy

But in reality all are forms of two types of energy: Kinetic energy and Potential Energy. The SI unit
of energy is the joule (J).

## Potential Energy is energy possessed by a body because of its position.

Formula: Ep= m g h
Kinetic Energy is energy possessed by a moving body.
Formula: Ek= mv2

ACTIVITIES:
Calculate the potential energy of a 1 ton body suspended 10 m from the ground.

A 20 g bullet has a speed of 1.2 km/h. What is its kinetic energy in joules?

The Law of Conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, although
it can be changed into different forms. Stated in another way: the total energy in an isolated
system remains the same no matter what happens in the system.
Energy can be transformed, but much of it is degraded, machines only use part of the energy to
work because much of the energy is transformed into heat and noise.

## We define work as the product of force and displacement.

The formula of work is: W = F d
W = work ( J )
F = force ( N )
d = displacement ( m )

The SI unit of work and energy is the joule (J), which equals the product of a Newton and a
metre.
Power is the rate at which work is done. The SI unit of power, one joule per second, is called a
watt (W). A common multiple of this unit is called a horsepower (hp).
1 hp = 746 W.
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The formula of power is: P= W/t or P= F v
P= power (W)
W= work (J)
t= time (s)
F= force (N)
v= velocity (m/s)

A power company normally charges by the kilowatt-hour (kW h ). A kilowatt-hour of energy is:
1kWh = 3,600,000 J

Heat is thermal energy. Heat flows in one direction, from a higher temperature to a lower
temperature. One system releases heat and the other absorbs it. There are two measurements
for heat. The SI unit of heat is the joule (J), although heat is also measured in calories (cal).
1 cal = 4,18 J or 1 J= 0.24 cal

Temperature is a way of measuring how fast the particles in a substance are moving. The higher
the temperature the faster the particles are moving. Temperature is a physical magnitude that is
related to the amount of heat that can be released or absorbed by a body. Temperature and heat
are not the same, heat is energy in transit. Temperature is measured with an apparatus called a
thermometer and heat is measure with a calorimeter.

The lowest possible temperature that can be reached is 273C, this is called absolute zero. There
are three temperature scales:
Fahrenheit scale
Kelvin scale

This is the most widely used scale. The temperature is measured in degrees Centigrade (C).
Water freezes at 0C and boils at 100C.

Fahrenheit scale
It is principally used in Anglo-Saxon countries. The temperature is measured in degrees
Fahrenheit (F). Water freezes at 32F and boils at 212F.

Kelvin scale
This scale is used mainly in scientific areas and it is the unit of temperature in the International
System. The temperature is measure in Kelvins (K). Water freezes at 273K and water boils at 373K.
To convert C to F you can apply this formula: F = 1.8 C + 32
To convert F to C you can apply this formula: C = (F 32)/ 1.8
To convert C to K you can apply the following formula: TK = C + 273

ACTIVITIES:

## a. What temperature does water boil on the Fahrenheit scale?

b. What temperature does water freeze on the Fahrenheit scale?
c. Who was the scientist that proposed the Centigrade scale?
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What is temperature? What type of energy does temperature measure?

## Heat is transferred in three ways: conduction, convection and radiation.

Conduction is the way in which heat energy is transferred through solids (and to a much lesser
extent in gases and liquids). Heat is transferred by direct contact. When two bodies are in contact,
heat flows from the warmer body to the colder one.
Convection is the way in which heat energy is transferred through gases and liquids by the
movement of particles. Heat is transferred through movements called convection currents.
Radiation is the way in which heat energy is transferred from a hotter to a colder place without a
medium. Heat is transferred by means of electromagnetic waves. It is the fastest way of heat
transfer.
Conductors are substances that allow heat to move through them easily and Insulators are
substances which are poor conductors of heat.