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Architecture 324

Structures II

Steel Beam Analysis and


Design

Steel Properties
Steel Profiles
Steel Codes: ASD vs LRFD
Analysis Method
Design Method

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 1/30

Structural Steel Sections

Cold formed (rolled)


Formed without application of heat
Uniform thickness ~ 20 14 gauge (.034 - .101)
Depth from 2 to 14
Lighter sections

Hot rolled
Formed while hot
Variable thicknesses
Depth from 2 to 44
Light to very heavy sections
Can also be cut and welded (castellated)

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 2/30


Cold Form Sections

Photos by Albion Sections Ltd, West Bromwich, UK

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 3/30

Cold Form Sections

From:
Building Design Using Cold Formed Steel
Sections: Structural Design to BS 5950-5:1998.
Section Properties and Load Tables. p. 276

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 4/30


Cold Form Sections

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 5/30

Hot Rolled Shapes

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 6/30


Hot Rolled Shapes

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 7/30

Nomenclature of steel shapes

Standard section shapes:


W wide flange
S American standard beam
C American standard channel
L angle
WT or ST structural T
STD, XS or XXS Pipe
HSS Hollow Structural Sections
Rectangular, Square, Round
LLBB , SLBB - Double Angles

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 8/30


Nomenclature of steel shapes

Castellated Sections:
round
hexagonal

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 9/30

Steel W-sections for beams and columns

Columns:
Closer to square
Thicker web & flange

Beams:
Deeper sections
Flange thicker than web

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 10/30


Steel W-sections for beams and columns

Columns:
Closer to square
Thicker web & flange

Beams:
Deeper sections
Flange thicker than web

Photo by Gregor Y.

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 11/30

Young's Modulus
Young's Modulus or the Modulus of Elasticity, is
obtained by dividing the stress by the strain
present in the material. (Thomas Young, 1807)

It thus represents a measure of the stiffness of


the material.

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures I I Slide 12/30


Stress vs. Strain mild steel
Fu

Esh
Fy

strain hardening
plastic

elastic
Stress

y sh u r
.001 to .002 .01 to .03 .1 to .2 .2 to .3
Strain

Developed by Scott Civjan


University of Massachusetts, Amherst
University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures I I Slide 13/30

Stress vs. Strain AISC design curve


Fu

Esh
Fy
Elastic-Perfectly Plastic
Assumed in Design
Stress

y sh u r
.001 to .002 .01 to .03 .1 to .2 .2 to .3
Strain

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures I I Slide 14/30


Stress Analysis

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)


use design loads (no F.S. on loads)
reduce stress by a Factor of Safety F.S.

Load & Resistance Factored Design (LRFD)


Use loads with safety factor
Use factor on ultimate strength

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures I I Slide 15/30

Allowable Flexure Stress

l
University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 16/30
Steel Beams by ASD
Yield Stress Values
A36 Carbon Steel Fy = 36 ksi
A992 High Strength Fy = 50 ksi

Allowable Flexure Stress


Fb = 0.66 Fy Increased = Lc
Compact Section

l
Braced against LTB ( <Lc)
Fb = 0.60 Fy Basic = Lu
Compact or Not

Lc < l < Lu
Fb < 0.60 Fy Decreased
Compact or Not

l
LTB failure mode ( >Lu)

Allowable Shear Stress


Fv = 0.40 Fy
Fv = V/(twd) from AISC 9th ed.
l
University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 17/30

Capacity Analysis of Steel Beam

Given: allowable stress, steel section


Find: moment or load capacity

1. Find the Section Modulus for the


given section from properties tables.
2. Determine the equation for maximum
moment in the beam.
3. Assume maximum stress level: fb=Fb
4. Solve the flexure stress equation for
moment: M=Fb S
5. Calculate load based on maximum
moment.

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 18/30


Example Capacity Analysis of Steel Beam

Find Load w in KLF


Fy = 36 ksi
Fb = 0.66 Fy = 24 KSI

1. Find the Section Modulus for


the given section from the
steel property tables

2. Determine the maximum


moment (use equation or
diagrams).

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 19/30

Example Load Analysis cont.


W30x116

3. Using the flexure equation,


fb=M/S=Fb, solve for the
moment, M.

4. Using the maximum moment


equation, solve for the
distributed loading, W in kips
or w in klf.

w = 1.28 KLF

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 20/30


Beam Design with
Section Modulus Table
1. Calculate Required Moment
2. Assume Allowable Stress
Fully braced
Fb = 0.66Fy = 24 ksi (A36)
Partially braced (l < Lu)
Fb = 0.60Fy = 21.6 ksi (A36)

3. Using the flexure equation,


set fb = Fb and solve for S

4. Choose a section based on S


from the table (D-35 and D-36)
Bold faced sections are lighter
Fy is the stress up to which the
section is compact ( is ok for all
grades of Fy) from Structural Principles, I. Engel

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 21/30

Design of Steel Beam


Example

1. Use the maximum moment


equation, and solve for the
moment, M.

2. Assume unbraced length is


less than Lu therefore,
Fb = 0.6 Fy = 30 ksi

3. Use the flexure equation to


solve for Sx.

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 22/30


Design of Steel Beam
Example

4. Choose a section based on


Sx = 64 in3 from the table
(D35 and D36).

5. Most economical section is:


W16 x 40
Sx = 64.7 in3

from Structural Principles, I. Engel


University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 23/30

Design of Steel Beam


Example

6. Add member self load to M and


recheck Fb (here we assume DL
is already included)

7. Check shear stress:


Allowable Stress
Fv = 0.40 Fy

Actual Stress
fv=V/(twd)

fv Fv

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 24/30


Design of Steel Beam Actual
(Example cont.) deflection

6. Check Deflections:

Calculate actual deflection.

Code limits
Compare to code limits. If the actual
deflection exceeds the code limit, a
stiffer section is needed.

from the Standard Building Code

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 25/30

Steel Beam
Deflection

Serviceability limits:
Limits by application

Also more stringent cases:


Machine tolerance e.g. L/1000

DL deflection can be compensated


for by beam camber

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 26/30


Beam without Camber

Developed by Scott Civjan


University of Massachusetts, Amherst
For AISC

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 27/30

Results in deflection in floor under Dead Load.


This can affect thickness of slab and fit of non-structural components.

Developed by Scott Civjan


University of Massachusetts, Amherst
For AISC

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 28/30


Results in deflection in floor under Dead Load.


This can affect thickness of slab and fit of non-structural components.

Beam with Camber

Developed by Scott Civjan


University of Massachusetts, Amherst
For AISC

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 29/30

Results in deflection in floor under Dead Load.


This can affect thickness of slab and fit of non-structural components.

Cambered beam counteracts service dead load deflection.

Developed by Scott Civjan


University of Massachusetts, Amherst
For AISC

University of Michigan, TCAUP Structures II Slide 30/30