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Aero Horizons Refresher Course 2017

AIRCRAFT MATERIALS AND PROCESSES


(July 09, 2017)

AIRCRAFT MATERIALS AND PROCESSES release of the load. The aim in aircraft design is to keep the
stress below this point.
METALS
Other Strength

Terms Stress is the load per unit are acting on a material


Strain is the deformation of a material caused by an applied
load
Proportional Limit is the greatest stress at which strain
(deformation) is directly proportional to stress.
Proof Stress is a stress a material can withstand without
resulting in permanent elongation of more than 0.0001 inch
per inch of gage length after complete release of stress.
Elongation is the difference in gage length before being
PROPERTIES OF METALS subjected to any strength and after rupture.
Reduction of Area is the difference between the original
Strength cross-sectional area and the least cross-sectional area after
One way to classify metals is according to the amount of rupture.
strength they possess. A metal's strength is determined by Permanent Set (also called set, permanent deformation,
the percentage of parent metal and other elements used to plastic strain, or plastic deformation). This is any strain
make an alloy. remaining after removing the stress.
Ultimate Factor (Factor of Safety) is the ratio of ultimate
Tensile Strength stress to limit stress. For nearly all aircraft design, the
It is the maximum tensile load per unit area which a material ultimate factor is 1.5
can withstand. Margin of Safety ultimate factor minus 1
Stress Ratio the ratio of maximum to minimum stress
Yield Strength applied in one cycle of loading in fatigue test.
It is the ability of metal to resist deformation. Once the yield Stiffness Ratio is the ratio of applied load per deformation
point is reached the metal deforms without an increase in the
applied stress.

Ultimate Strength
It is the maximum stress a material can sustain without
rupture.

Limit Strength It is the maximum stress expected in any


structural member. Compression members have lower limit
load due to stability (buckling and crippling).

Shear Strength
Shear strength describes a metal's ability to resist opposing
forces. A rivet holding two or more sheets of metal together
resisting the force of the sheets trying to slide apart is an
example of a shear load.

Bearing Strength
Bearing strength is the ability of a joint to withstand any form
of crushing or excessive compressive distortion. Material
under a compression load usually fails by buckling or bending.
The force at which something buckles while being
compressed varies with an object's length, cross-sectional
area, and shape.

Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture, Bend Strength, or


Fracture Strength)
Resilience capacity of a material to absorb energy in the
It is defined as a material's ability to resist deformation under
elastic range
load. The flexural strength represents the highest stress
Modulus of Resilience ratio of maximum energy absorbed
experienced within the material at its moment of rupture.
per unit volume
Toughness energy absorption in the plastic range
Elastic Limit is the greatest stress a material can withstand
Modulus of Toughness - Amount of work per unit volume of
without a permanent deformation remaining upon complete
a material required to carry that material to failure under

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static loading. Equal to the area under the entire stress-strain


curve. Expansion and Contraction
The property of a metal to expand when heated and shrink
HARDNESS when cooled is called thermal expansion. The amount of
A metal's hardness refers to its ability to resist cutting, expansion or contraction is predictable at specific
penetration, or abrasion. The tensile strength of steel relates temperatures and is called its coefficient of expansion. All
directly to its hardness, but for most metals this relationship aircraft experience thermal expansion and contraction as the
is not absolute. Some metals are hardened through heat- ambient temperature changes.
treating or work-hardening, while others are softened by a
process called annealing.AER Fusibility
The ability of metal to be joined by heating and melting is
Brittleness O HOR defined as fusibility. To fuse metal means to melt two or
Brittleness describes a material's tendency to break or shatter more compatible pieces of metal into one continuous part.
when exposed to stress, and is the opposite of ductility and The correct term is called fusion joining or welding.
malleability. A brittle metal is more apt to break or crack
before it changes shape. Because structural metals are often DENSITY
subjected to shock loads, brittleness is not a desirable Density is a material's mass per unit volume. The standard
property. Cast iron, cast aluminum, and very hard steel are from which a metal's density is determined is water with a
examples of brittle metals. IZONS density of 1g/cc.

Malleability
A material's ability to be bent, formed, or shaped without
cracking or breaking is called malleability. It is this property
that permits the manufacture of sheets, bar stocks, forgings,
and fabrication by bending and hammering. Hardness and
malleability are generally considered opposite characteristics.
To help increase malleability, several metals are annealed, or
softened. In this condition complex shapes can be formed.
After forming is complete, the metal is then heat treated to
increase its strength.
METALWORKING PROCESSES
Ductility After metal alloys are produced, they must be formed into
The ability of metal to be drawn into wire stock, extrusions, or useful shapes. Wrought objects are those formed by
rods is called ductility. Ductile metals are preferred for physically working the metal into shape, whereas cast items
aircraft use because of their ease of forming and resistance to are formed by pouring molten metal into molds. When it
failure under shock loads. For this reason, aluminum alloys comes to mechanically working metal into a desired shape,
are often used for cowlings, fuselage and wing skins, and there are three methods commonly used. They are hot-
formed or extruded parts such as ribs, spars, and bulkheads. working, cold-working, and extruding.

Hot-Working
Toughness Hot-working is the process of forming metal at an elevated
Toughness is a material's ability to resist tearing or breaking temperature when it is in its annealed, or soft condition.
when it is bent or stretched. Hammer faces and wrenches are Almost all steel is hot-worked from the ingot into a form
examples of metal that must be tough as well as hard to be which is either hot- or cold-worked to a finished shape.
useful.
Rolling consists of forming hot metal ingots with rollers to
Elasticity form sheets, bars, and beams.
Elasticity describes a metal's tendency to return to its original
shape after normal stretching and bending. The flexibility of Forging is a process wherein a piece of metal is worked at
spring steel used for the construction of landing gear is a temperatures above its critical range.
good example of elasticity. Another form of elasticity is
demonstrated when aircraft skins expand and contract when
an aircraft is pressurized.
Soft materials such as lead, copper, and pure aluminum have
very low elastic limits, while the elastic limit of hard spring
steel is very high.

Conductivity
Conductivity is the property which enables a metal to carry
heat or electricity. The ability to carry heat is called thermal
conductivity while the ability to carry electrons is electrical
conductivity. The best electrical conductors are gold, silver, Rolling is a process of reduction of the cross-sectional area or
copper, and aluminum.
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shaping a metal piece through the deformation caused by a cavity and then applying pressure through a plunger to form a
pair of rotating in opposite directions metal rolls. compact mass. This mass holds its shape when removed from
Bloom 6x6 .in or larger; approximately square the die by reason of the interlocking of the finely-powdered
Billet less than 6x6 in; approximately square particles.
Slabs rectangular sections in which the width is greater
than twice the thickness Cold-Working
Cold-working is performed well below a metal's critical
temperature and ranges from the manual bending of sheet
metal for skin repairs to drawing seamless tubing and wire.

Cold-rolling usually refers to the rolling of metal at room


temperature to its approximate size. Once this is done, the
metal is pickled to remove any scale, and then passed
through chilled finishing rolls.

Cold-drawing is used in making seamless tubing, wire,


streamlined tie rods, and other forms of stock. Wire is made
from hot-rolled rods of various diameters.
Hammer forging (drop forging) is forming a preheated
workpiece by using impact energy of the falling hammer
Me talworking Processes AERO
HOR
forcing the metal to fill the space between the punch (a part
attached to the hammer) and the forging die (a part attached
to the anvil). The surplus metal which has been squeezed out
into the relieved section is called the fin or flash. This fin is
trimmed off the finished part.

Pressing is used to form large and heavy parts. Since a press


is slow acting, its force is uniformly transmitted to the center
of the material being pressed. This affects the interior grain
structure resulting in the best possible structure throughout.

Drop forging is a hammering process whereby a hot ingot is


placed between a pair of formed dies in a machine called a
drop hammer and a weight of several tons is dropped on the
IZONS
upper die.

Hammering (smith forging ) is a type of forging that is


usually used on small parts because it requires a metalworker
to physically hammer a piece of metal into its finished shape.
The advantage of hammering is that the operator has control
over both the amount of pressure applied and the finishing
temperature.

Upset forging is a forging operation which is employed for


manufacturing head of bolts, valves, artillery shells and other
parts where increase of cross section dimensions of the
Extrusion
workpiece is desired.
Extrusion is the process of forcing metal through a die which
imparts a required cross-section to the metal. Some metals
Roll forging (Swaging) is a forging operation involving
such as lead, tin, and aluminum may be extruded cold,
reduction of the workpiece diameter (with increase of its
however, most metals are heated. The principal advantage of
length) by rolling it between two grooved rolls rotating at the
the extrusion process is its flexibility.
same rotating direction.
ENGIN EERING SERVICE
Pressed Powdered Metal Parts
The process of pressing powdered-metal parts is a method by
which combinations of different metals, or of metals and
non-metals, that do not ordinarily alloy can be joined
together.

Pressed powdered-metal parts are formed on a press by CASTING


placing a measured quantity of finely powdered metal in a die Casting are being more generally used in aircraft construction
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as a result of improved quality and the development of high-


strength heat treatment. Steel casting should not be used in
place of forgings unless a definite advantage is gained
thereby. This advantage might be the avoidance of excessive
or difficult machining operations.

In general, forgings have better impact strength, fatigue


resistance, and toughness.

Static Casting consists of the manufacture of pattern,


pouring the metal into the mold, and the removal and
finishing of the casting after it has solidified in the mold.
Centrifugal Casting devised as a method for applying
pressure to the molten metal during the casting operation.
Pressure is obtained by whirling the mold. Some advantages
are improved surface appearance, good directional
solidification, and uniformly dense, fine-grained structure.
True centrifugal only a external mold is used and is spun
around its own axis
Semicentrifugal an inside core is used as well as external
mold
Centrifuge work is rotated around an independent central
axis about which the molds are grouped radially.
Precision Casting lost wax process of casting is used for
intricate parts that must be held to high accuracy in size and
shape at a reasonable cost.

NONFERROUSMETALS
Much of the metal used on today's aircraft contains no iron.
The term that describes metals which have elements other
than iron as their base is nonferrous. Aluminum, copper,
titanium, and magnesium are some of the more common
nonferrous metals used in aircraft construction and repair.
Aluminum and Its Alloys
Aluminum is found in most clays, soils and rocks, but the
principal commercial source is the ore bauxite. Bauxite is
largely aluminum oxide mixed with impurities. These
impurities are removed by a chemical process leaving the
pure aluminum oxide, alumina. An electrolytic process is used
to obtain aluminum from that oxide.

Pure aluminum lacks sufficient strength to be used for aircraft


construction. However, its strength increases considerably
when it is alloyed, or mixed, with other compatible metals.
For example, when aluminum is mixed with copper or zinc,
the resultant alloy is as strong as steel with only one third the
weight. Furthermore, the corrosion resistance possessed by
the aluminum carries over to the newly formed alloy.

Aluminum Alloy Designation - Wrought


NONFERROUSMETALS
NONFERROUSMETALS
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permanently welded to the base material in a rolling process


1xxx Series at high temperature. Other than electroplated stock, clad
The lxxx series of aluminum alloys represents commercially material can be formed. The thickness of the clad layers is
pure aluminum, of 99 percent or higher purity. Pure about 3 or 5 % of the material thickness. An ink print on US
aluminum offers high corrosion resistance, excellent thermal sheet metal that reads Alclad, Clad or ALC indicates that such
and electrical properties, and is easily worked. However, pure sheet is clad.
aluminum is very low in strength.
Alclad, a registered trademark, usually refers to the products
2xxx Series of Aluminum Company of America. Pureclad is the equivalent
Alloys within the 2xxx series utilize copper as the principle name for material manufactured by the Reynolds Metal
alloying agent. When aluminum is mixed with copper, certain Company.
metallic changes take place in the resultant alloy's grain
structure. For the most part, these changes are beneficial and
produce greater strength. However, a major drawback to
aluminum-copper alloys is their susceptibility to inter-
granular corrosion when improperly heat-treated. Most
aluminum alloy used in aircraft structures is an aluminum-
copper alloy. Two of the most commonly used in the
construction of skins and rivets are 2017 and 2024.

3xxx Series
The 3xxx series alloys have manganese as the principle
alloying element, and are generally considered non-heat
treatable. The most common variation is 3003, which offers Casting for Aluminum Alloys
moderate strength and has good working characteristics.
3 Ways of Casting Aluminum Alloys
4xxx Series
The 4xxx series aluminum is alloyed with silicon, which lowers 1.Sand Casting is the most common and is used for
a metal's melting temperature. This results in an alloy that complicated shapes or where only a few parts are required.
works well for welding and brazing.
2.Permanent-mold Casting is similar to sand casting, but a
5xxx Series metal mold is used which permits the making of many parts
Magnesium is used to produce the 5xxx series alloys. These with better accuracy than sand casting. Casting with
alloys possess good welding and corrosion-resistance complicated cores cannot be manufactured in metal molds.
characteristics. However, if the metal is exposed to high Sometimes cores are fabricated of sand in the metal mold
temperatures or excessive cold working, its susceptibility to and is called semipermanent-mold casting.
corrosion increases.
3.Die Casting is used when small parts must be made and
6xxx Series held to close tolerances. It works by forcing metal into water
If silicon and magnesium are added to aluminum, the cooled dies.
resultant alloy carries a 6xxx series designation. In these
alloys, the silicon and magnesium form magnesium silicide Temper Designation System
which makes the alloy heat-treatable. Furthermore, the 6xxx
series has medium strength with good forming and corrosion-
resistance properties.

7xxx Series
When parts require more strength and little forming, harder
aluminum alloys are employed. The 7xxx series aluminum
alloys are made harder and stronger by the addition of zinc.
Some widely used forms of zinc-aluminum alloys are 7075
and 7178. The aluminum-zinc alloy 7075 has a tensile
strength of 77 KSI and a bearing strength of 139 KSI.
However, the alloy is very hard and is difficult to bend. An
even stronger zinc alloy is 7178 which has a tensile strength
of 84 KSI and a bearing strength of 151 KSI.

Aluminum Clad Temper Designation for Heat Treatable Alloy


Several aluminum alloys as for example 2024 and 7075 are T1 Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process
very susceptible to corrosion. Sheets of such material are clad and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition
with a thin layer of pure aluminum with 1 % zinc on both NONFERROUSMETALS
sides as a means of corrosion protection. These layers are

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T2 Annealed elapse between removal of an alloy from the furnace and the
T3 Solution heat treated and cold worked. quench. . The reason for this is that when metal leaves the
T4 Solution heat treated and naturally aged. furnace and starts to cool, its alloying metals begin to
T42 Solution heat treated from 0 temper to demonstrate precipitate out of the base metal. If this process is not
response to heat treatment by the user, and naturally aged to stopped, large grains of alloy become suspended in the
a substantially stable condition aluminum and weaken the alloy. Excessive precipitation also
T5 Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process increases the likelihood of intergranular corrosion. After
and artificially aged quenching the material initially is soft and ductile.
T6 Solution heat treated and artificially aged.
T62 Solution heat treated from 0 F temper to demonstrate 3. Age Hardening The aging process can be accelerated by
response to heat treatment by the user, and artificially aged reheating a metal and allowing it to soak for a specified
T7 Solution heat treated and stabilized period of time.
T8 Solution heat treated, cold worked, and artificially aged
T9 Solution heat treated, artificially aged, and cold worked
T10 Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, AERO
cold worked, and artificially aged. AERO

Heat Treatment

Methods of Heat Treatment

Types of Heat Treatment


Annealing is a form of heat treatment that softens steel and
relieves internal stress. It is heated about 50 degrees F above
its critical temperature, soaked for specified time then
Heat Treatment for Aluminum Alloys cooled.
Normalizing the process of forging, welding, or machining
usually leave stresses to the steel that could lead to failure.
To normalize, it is heated about 100 degrees F above its
critical temperature and held there until the metal is
uniformly heat soaked, then removed from the furnace and
allowed to cool in still air.
Tempering Tempering reduces the brittleness imparted by
hardening and produces definite physical properties within
the steel. Tempering always follows, never precedes, the
hardening operation. In addition to reducing brittleness,
tempering softens the steel. It is heated to a level
considerable below its critical temperature and held there
until it becomes heat soaked, then allowed to cool to room
temperature in still air. AERO

Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys
Methods of Heat Treatment Commercially pure aluminum does not benefit from heat
treatment since there are no alloying materials in its
1.Solution Heat Treat In this procedure, metal is heated in structure. By the same token, 3003 is an almost identical
either a molten sodium or potassium nitrate bath or in a hot- metal and, except for a small amount of manganese, does not
air furnace to a temperature just below its melting point. The benefit from being heat treated. Both of these metals are
temperature is then held to within about plus or minus 10 lightweight and somewhat corrosion resistant. However,
degrees Fahrenheit of this temperature and the base metal is neither has a great deal of strength and, therefore, their use
soaked until the alloying element is uniform throughout. in aircraft is limited to nonstructural components such as
2.Quenching Once the metal has sufficiently soaked, it is fairings and streamlined enclosures that carry little or no
removed from the furnace and cooled or quenched. It is load.
extremely important that no more than about ten seconds Alloy 5052 is perhaps the most important of the nonheat-
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treatable aluminum alloys. It contains about 2.5 percent


magnesium and a small amount of chromium. It is used for Titanium and Its Alloys
welded parts such as gasoline or oil tanks, and for rigid fluid Titanium and its alloys are light weight metals with very high
lines. Its strength is increased by cold working. strength. Pure titanium weighs .163 pounds per cubic inch,
which is about 50 percent lighter than stainless steel, yet it is
Reheat Treatment approximately equal in strength to iron. Furthermore, pure
Material which has been previously heat-treated can titanium is soft and ductile with a density between that of
generally be reheat treated any number of times. As an aluminum and iron.
example, rivets made of 2017 or 2024 are extremely hard and In addition to its light weight and high strength, titanium and
typically receive several reheat treatments to make them soft its alloys have excellent corrosion resistance characteristics,
enough to drive. particularly to the corrosive effects of salt water. However,
As discussed earlier, the number of solution heat-treatments since the metal is sensitive to both nitrogen and oxygen, it
allowed for clad materials is limited due to the increased must be converted to titanium dioxide with chlorine gas and
diffusion of core material into the cladding. This diffusion a reducing agent before it can be used.
results in decreased corrosion resistance. As a result, clad
material is generally limited to no more than three reheat 3 Basic Types of Crystals
treatments. A (alpha) all around performance; good weldability;
tough and strong both cold and hot, and resistant to
Magnesium and Its Alloys oxidation. (8Al-1Mo-1V-Ti or Ti-8-1-1). This series of numbers
AEROR indicates that the alloying elements and their percentages are
Magnesium alloys are used for castings and in its wrought 8 percent aluminum, 1 percent molyb-denum, and 1 percent
form is available in sheets, bars, tubing, and extrusions. vanadium.)
Magnesium is one of the lightest metals having sufficient B (beta) bendability; excellent bend ductility; strong both
strength and suitable working characteristics for use in cold and hot, but vulnerable to contamination.
aircraft structures. It has a density of 1.74, compared with C (combined alpha and beta for compromise
2.69 for aluminum. In other words, it weighs only about 2/3 performances)strong when cold and warm, but weak when
as much as aluminum. hot; good bendability; moderate contamination resistance;
excellent forgeability.
Magnesium is obtained primarily from electrolysis of sea
water or brine from deep wells, and lacks sufficient strength
in its pure state for use as a structural metal. However, when
it is alloyed with zinc, aluminum, thorium, zirconium, or
manganese, it develops strength characteristics that make it
quite useful.

In addition to cracking and corroding easily, magnesium burns


readily in a dust or small particle form. For this reason,
caution must be exercised when grinding and machining
magnesium O This table illustrates the composition, tensile strength, and
elongation of titanium alloys. The degree of strength is
The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) has denoted by the smaller hole elongation percentage shown in
developed a classification system for magnesium alloys that the last column. The titanium alloy most commonly used by
consists of a series of letters and numbers to indicate alloying the aerospace industry is an alpha-beta heat-treated alloy
agents and temper condition. called 6AI-4V. This alloy has a tensile strength of 180 KSI, or
180,000 pounds per square inch. It is frequently used for
special fasteners.

Because of its high strength-to-weight ratio, titanium is now


used extensively in the civilian aerospace industry. Although
once rare on commercial aircraft, modern jet transports now
utilize alloys containing 10 to 15 percent titanium in
structural areas

Nickel and Its Alloys

Monel
Monel contains about 68 percent nickel and 29 percent
copper, along with small amounts of iron and manganese. It
Magnesium alloys use a different designation system than can be welded and has very good machining characteristics.
aluminum. For example, the designation AZ31A-T4 identifies Certain types of monel, especially those containing small
an alloy containing 3 percent aluminum and 1 percent zinc percentages of aluminum (K-Monel), are heat-treatable, to
that has been solution heat-treated. tensile strengths equivalent to steel. Monel works well in
gears and parts that require high strength and toughness, as
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well as for parts in exhaust sys-tems that require high ductile in its pure form. It is silvery white in color and is quite
strength and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. heavy, having a density of 7.9 grams per cubic centimeter.
Iron combines readily with oxygen to form iron oxide, which
Inconel is more commonly known as rust.
The International Nickel Company, Inc., produces a series of Iron is produced by mixing iron ore with coke and limestone
high strength, high temperature alloys containing and submitting it to hot air. The limestone reacts with
approximately 80 percent nickel, 14 percent chromium, and impurities in the iron and coke to form a slag which floats on
small amounts of iron and other elements. The alloys, top of the molten iron. The slag is removed and the refined
commonly referred to as inconel, find frequent use in turbine metal is then poured from the furnace. The resulting metal is
engines because of their ability to maintain their strength and known as pig iron and is typically remelted and cast into cast-
corrosion resistance under extremely high temperature iron components, or converted into steel.
conditions.
STEEL
Inconel and stainless steel are similar in appearance and are
frequently used in the same areas. Therefore, it is often To make steel, pig iron is re-melted in a special furnace. Pure
necessary to use a test to differentiate between unknown oxygen is then forced through the molten metal where it
metal samples. A common test involves applying one drop of combines with carbon and burns. A controlled amount of
cupric chloride and hydrochloric acid solution to the unknown carbon is then put back into the molten metal along with
metal and allowing it to remain for two minutes. At the end other elements to produce the desired characteristics
of the dwell period, a shiny spot indicates that the material is
inconel, whereas a copper-colored spot identifies stainless Much of the steel used in aircraft construction is made in
steel. electric furnaces, which allow better control of alloying
agents than gas-fired furnaces. An electric furnace is loaded
Copper and Its Alloys with scrap steel, limestone, and flux. . The intense heat from
the arcs melts the steel and the impurities mix with the flux.
Neither copper nor its alloys find much use as structural Once the impurities are removed, controlled quantities of
materials in aircraft construction. However, due to its alloying agents are added, and the liquid metal is poured into
excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, copper is the molds.
primary metal used for electrical wiring.
SAE Classifications of Steel
Brass
Brass is a copper alloy containing zinc and small amounts of The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has classified
aluminum, iron, lead, man-ganese, magnesium, nickel, steel alloys with a four-digit numerical index system. For
phosphorous, and tin. Brass with a zinc content of 30 to 35 example, one common steel alloy is identified by the
percent is very ductile, while brass containing 45 percent zinc designation SAE 1030. The first digit identifies the principal
has relatively high strength alloying element in the steel, the second digit denotes the
percent of this alloying element, and the last two digits give
Bronze the percentage in hundredths of a percent of carbon in the
Bronze is a copper alloy that contains tin. A true bronze steel.
consists of up to 25 percent tin and, along with brass, is used
in bushings, bearings, fuel-metering valves, and valve seats.
Bronzes with less than 11 percent tin are used in items such
as tube fittings.

Beryllium
Beryllium copper is probably one of the most used copper
alloys. It consists of approximately 97 percent copper, 2
percent beryllium, and sufficient nickel to increase its
strength. Once heat treated, beryllium copper achieves a
tensile strength of 200,000 psi and 70,000 psi in its annealed
state. This makes beryllium extremely useful for diaphragms,
precision bearings and bushings, ball cages, and spring
washers

FERROUS METALS
Any alloy containing iron as its chief constituent is called a
ferrous metal. The most common ferrous metal in aircraft
structures is steel, an alloy of iron with a controlled amount
of carbon added.

Iron

Iron is a chemical element which is fairly soft, malleable, and


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such as bolts, nuts, rod ends, and pins. AERO

Chromium
Chromium is alloyed with steel to increase strength and
hardness as well as improve its wear and corrosion
Alloying Agents in Steel resistance. Because of its characteristics, chromium steel is
used in balls and rollers of antifriction bearings.
Carbon Carbon is the most common alloying element found In addition to its use as an alloying element in steel,
in steel. When mixed with iron, compounds of iron carbides chromium is electrolytically deposited on cylinder walls and
called cementite form. It is the carbon in steel that allows the bearing journals to provide a hard, wear-resistant surface.
steel to be heat-treated to obtain varying degrees of
hardness, strength, and toughness. The greater the carbon Nickel-Chromium Steel
content, the more receptive steel is to heat treatment and, Nickel toughens steel, and chromium hardens it. Therefore,
therefore, the higher its tensile strength and hardness. when both elements are alloyed they give steel desirable
However, higher carbon content decreases the malleability characteristics for use in high-strength structural applications.
and weldability of steel. Nickel-chrome steels such as SAE 3130, 3250, and 3435 are
used for forged and machined parts requiring high strength,
Low-carbon steels contain between 0.10 and 0.30 percent ductility, shock resistance, and toughness.
carbon and are classified as SAE 1010 to SAE 1030 steel. AERO
These steels are primarily used in safety wire, cable bushings, Stainless Steel (Corrosion Resistant Steel, CRES)
and threaded rod ends. In sheet form, these steels are used Stainless steel is a classification of corrosion-resistant steels
for secondary structures where loads are not high. Low- that contain large amounts of chromium and nickel. Their
carbon steel is easily welded and machines readily, but does strength and resistance to corrosion make them well suited
not accept heat treatment well. for high-temperature applications such as firewalls and
exhaust system components.
Medium-carbon steels contain between 0.30 and 0.50 The corrosion-resistant steel most often used in aircraft
percent carbon. The increased carbon helps these steels construction is known as 18-8 steel because it contains 18
accept heat treatment, while still retaining a reasonable percent chromium and 8 percent nickel. One of the
degree of ductility. This steel is especially adaptable for distinctive features of 18-8 steel is that its strength may be
machining or forging and where surface hardness is desirable. increased by cold-working.
These steels can be divided into three general groups based
High-carbon steels contain between 0.50 and 1,05 percent on their chemical structure: austenitic, ferritic, and
carbon, and are very hard. These steels are primarily used in martensitic.
springs, files, and some cutting tools.
Austenitic steels, also referred to as 200 and 300 series
Sulfur stainless steels, contain a large percentage of chromium and
Sulfur causes steel to be brittle when rolled or forged and, nickel, and in the case of the 200 series, some manganese.
therefore, it must be removed in the refining process. If all When these steels are heated to a temperature above their
the sulfur cannot be removed its effects can be countered by critical range and held there, a structure known as austenite
adding manganese. The manganese combines with the sulfur forms. Austenite is a solid solution of pearlite, an alloy of iron
to form manganese sulfide, which does not harm the finished and carbon, and gamma iron, which is a nonmagnetic form of
steel. In addition to eliminating sulfur and other oxides from iron. Austenitic stainless steels can be hardened only by
steel, manganese improves a metal's forging characteristics coldworking while heat treatment serves only to anneal
by making it less brittle at rolling and forging temperatures. them.

Silicon Ferritic steels are primarily alloyed with chromium but many
When silicon is alloyed with steel it acts as a hardener. When also contain small amounts of aluminum. However, they
used in small quantities, it also improves ductility. contain no carbon and, therefore, do not respond to heat
treatment.
Phosphorus
Phosphorous raises the yield strength of steel and improves Martensitic steel is a 400 series of stainless steel. These
low carbon steel's resistance to atmospheric corrosion. steels are alloyed with chromium only and therefore are
However, no more than 0.05 percent phosphorous is magnetic. Martensitic steels become extremely hard if
normally used in steel, since higher amounts cause the alloy allowed to cool rapidly by quenching from an elevated
to become brittle when cold. temperature.
Nickel Molybdenum One of the most widely used alloying elements
Nickel adds strength and hardness to steel and increases its for aircraft structural steel is molybdenum. It reduces the
yield strength. It also slows the rate of hardening when steel grain size of steel and increases both its impact strength and
is heat-treated, which increases the depth of hardening and elastic limit. Molybdenum steels are extremely wear resistant
produces a finer grain structure. The finer grain structure and possess a great deal of fatigue strength. This accounts for
reduces steel's tendency to warp and scale when heat- its use in high-strength structural members and engine
treated. SAE 2330 steel contains 3 percent nickel and 0.30 cylinder barrels.
percent carbon, and is used in producing aircraft hardware
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Chrome-Molybdenum
Chrome-molybdenum (chrome-moly) steel is the most
commonly used alloy in aircraft. Its SAE designation of 4130
denotes an alloy of approximately 1 percent molybdenum
and 0.30 percent carbon. It machines readily, is easily welded
by either gas or electric arc, and responds well to heat
treatment. Heat-treated SAE 4130 steel has an ultimate
tensile strength about four times that of SAE 1025 steel,
making it an ideal choice for landing gear structures and
engine mounts. Furthermore, chrome-moly's toughness and
wear resistance make it a good material for engine cylinders
and other highly stressed engine parts.

Vanadium
When combined with chromium, vanadium produces a
strong, tough, ductile steel alloy. Amounts up to 0.20 percent
improve grain structure and increase both ultimate tensile Internal Structure of Steel
strength and toughness. Most wrenches and ball bearings are The internal structure of steel is almost wholly dependent
made of chrome-vanadium steel. upon the exact relationship of iron and carbon.

Tungsten
Tungsten has an extremely high melting point and adds this
characteristic to steel it is alloyed with. Because tungsten
steels retain their hardness at elevated operating
temperatures, they are typically used for breaker contacts in
magnetos and for high-speed cutting tools.

Heat Treatment of Steel

Critical Range

Materials are said to be allotropic when they possess the


property that permits them to exist in various forms without
a change in chemical composition. Carbon which exists as
diamond, graphite and charcoal, is a common allotropic
substance. Pure iron is also allotropic, existing in three states,
namely: alpha, beta, and gamma iron.

In this case each of these states is stable only between very Theory of Heat Treatment
definite temperature limits alpha iron up to 1400F, beta Hardening consists of heating the steel just above the
iron from 1400F to 1652F, and gamma iron above the latter critical range, holding the metal at that temp. until
temperature. thoroughly heated (soaking), and then rapidly cooling
(quenching) by immersing the hot steel in cold water or oil.

Drawing or Tempering consists of reheating the hardened


steel to a temp. well below the critical range, followed by
soaking and quenching.

Martensite main constituent of hardened steel. It is an


intermediate form of cementite in alpha iron. Martensite is
the hardest structure obtained in steel.

Troostite intermediate form, similar to martensite. It is


Critical Points of Steel present in drawn steels whereas martensite is not.
Sorbite third intermediate form between austenite and
pearlite. It is the main constituent of drawn steel that gives it
maximum strength and ductility.

Bainite equivalent to tempered martensite; makes a hard


but ductile, tough material

Hardened Steel consists almost entirely of martensite and

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some troosite. and heated.


Gas Carburizing is similar to pack carburizing except the
Annealing heating the metal to just above Ac3, soaking at carbon monoxide gas combines with gamma iron and forms a
that temp. for a definite time, and cooling very slowly in the high-carbon surface.
furnace itself. In the annealed state, steel has the lowest
strength. Liquid Carburizing produces a high-carbon surface when a
part is heated in a molten salt bath of sodium cyanide or
Process Annealing commonly used in sheets and wire barium cyanide.
industries to restore ductility
2. Nitriding hardening by heating the metal in contact with
ammonia gas or other nitrogenous material. A harder case is
Spheroidizing applied particularly to high-carbon steels to
obtainable by nitriding than by carburizing.
improve their machinability.
3. Cyaniding is a fast method of producing surface hardness
Shop Annealing heating steel in a welding torch 900F to on an iron-based alloy of low carbon content. Hardening is
1000F and dropping it into a pail of ashes or lime to restrict obtained by heating it in contact with a cyanide salt, followed
the cooling rate. by quenching.

Normalizing is a form of annealing which consist in heating


Induction Hardening Induction heating is the process of
the steel above Ac3 and then cooling in still air. Due to rapid
heating metallic substances by means of a powerful, rapidly
quenching obtained by air-cooling, the steel is harder and
alternating magnetic field. It is a differential heating, that is,
stronger but less ductile than annealed material. Normalizing
the surface of the work heats up first very rapidly and then
is required whenever it is desired to obtain material of
the core of the material.
uniform physical characteristics.
AERO
Dielectric Heating Dielectric heating is similar to induction
Interrupted Quenching
heating but is only applicable to nonconducting materials
Interrupted quenching procedures has been made to attain
(dielectrics) such as might be used for electrical insulations.
special characteristics or economies in the heat treating of
Plastics and compressed woods are typical applications.
steel.
Shot Peening (Shot Blasting) Shot peening is a recent
Cycle Annealing a process in which austenite is
development that improves the fatigue and abrasion
transformed isothermally to pearlite at high temperatures,
resistance of metal parts. It is applicable on ferrous and
and this latter structure is retained when the work is cooled
nonferrous parts, but is mostly used on steel surfaces. This
to room temperature. It gives better control of the final
process increases the life of parts subjected to repeated
annealed structure and can be accomplished in a fraction of a
stresses from 3 to 13 times. AERO
time required for full annealing and spheroidizing operations.

Austempering a process in which austenite is transformed


isothermally to bainite at moderate temperatures. It is
limited to small sizes and deep hardening steels but greatly
increases the toughness and ductility of steels heat treated to
high hardness.

Martempering a process in which austenite is uniformly


transformed to martensite at low temperatures by
continuous cooling. It is applicable only to relatively small
sizes of deep-hardening steels but minimizes distortion and
cracking due to quenching, reduces internal stresses, and
gives good physical properties.

Surface Hardening
Shot peening is a cold work process, in which the metal part
For some design purposes, it is necessary to have a hard, is struck by a stream of small hard spheres (shot) creating
wear-resisting surface and a strong tough core. The hard case numerous overlapped dimples on the part surface.
resist wear and abrasion, and the soft, tough core resist shock
stresses. The surface material resists to stretching induced by the shots
Case Hardening impacts resulting in a formation of a compressively stressed
skin of about 0.01 (0.25 mm) thickness.
1. Carburizing forms a thin layer of high carbon steel on the
exterior of low carbon steel. Glass, steel or ceramic balls of a diameter from the range
0.007-0.14 (0.18-0.36 mm) are used as shot media.
Pack Carburizing is done by enclosing the metal in a fire-
clay container and packing it with a carbon-rich material such The residual compressive stresses inhibit both crack initiation
as charcoal. The container is then sealed, placed in furnace, and propagation. Therefore shot peening is used mainly for
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increasing fatigue strength. should be the same as the original wood whenever possible.
If using a wood substitute, it is the responsibility of the
Burnishing Burnishing is a cold working process in which the person making the repair to ensure that the wood meets all
surface layer of a work piece is plastically deformed by a hard of the requirements for that repair.
tool: either roller or sliding ball. The combination of the
improved surface finish with the hardened skin provides a AC 43.13-lB outlines information regarding acceptable wood
significant increase in the wear resistance of the material. species substitutions.AERO HORIZONS
AERO

NON-METALS

WOODS

Although wood was used for the first airplanes because of its
favorable strength-to-weight ratio, it is primarily the cost of
Wood Assessment
the additional hand labor needed for wood construction and
maintenance that has caused wood aircraft to become almost
The cut of the wood, slope of the grain, and the number of
entirely superseded by those of all-metal construction.
growth rings are factors to examine when determining
However, there are still many home-built airplanes that
quality. The way wood is cut affects its shrinkage
feature wood construction, and occasionally, commercial
characteristics and strength qualities.
designs intended for low-volume production appear using
some degree of wood in their structures. Orville
The slope of the grain is another factor to consider when
assessing wood. The maximum slope of the grain for aviation-
grade lumber is 1:15. The slope of the grain is the amount of
grain rise over the grain length. In other words, the grain may
not rise more than one inch in a 15-inch section of wood.

Orville Wright's famous first airplane flight.


Quality of Materials According to FAA standards, a grain slope of 1:15 is the
maximum allowable slope allowed in aviation-grade wood.
Sitka spruce is the reference wood used for aircraft
structures because of its uniformity, strength, and excellent
shock-resistance qualities.

Wood Substitution

Other types of wood are also approved for use in aircraft


structures. However, the wood species used to repair a part
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it obsolete for all aircraft structural repairs

Resorcinol glue is a two-part synthetic resin glue consisting


Following are several wood defects the technician must be of a resin and a hardener and is the most water-resistant of
able to identify to properly assess wood quality. the glues used. Resorcinol adhesive meets the strength and
durability requirements of the FAA, making it one of the most
Checks - A lengthwise separation or crack of the wood that common types of glue used in aircraft wood-structure repair.
extends along the wood grain.
Compression failure - Characterized by a buck-ling of fibers Phenol-formaldehyde glue is most commonly used in the
that appear as streaks on the surface of the wood that are at manufacturing of aircraft-grade plywood. Phenol-
right angles to the grain. formaldehyde glue requires high curing temperatures and
pressures making it impractical for use in the field.
Decay - The destruction and eventual reduction of wood to
its component sugars and base ele-ments through attack by
Epoxy resins are two-part synthetic resins that generally
organisms such as fungi and certain insects such as termites
consist of a resin and a hardener mixed together in specific
Dry rot - A term loosely applied to any dry, crumbly rot but quantities. Epoxies have excellent working properties and
especially a wood easily crushed to dry powder in its usually require less attention to joint quality or clamping
advanced stage. pressures as compared to other aircraft adhesives ICE
Heartwood - The inner core of a woody stem or log,
extending from the pith to the sap, which is usually darker in Bonding Process ORIEL M. PURIGAY Woods
color. This part of the wood contains dead cells that no longer
participate in the life processes of the tree. Following are the three most important requirements for a
Knot - That portion of a branch or limb that is embedded in strong and durable structural bond.
the wood of a tree trunk, or that has been surrounded by
subsequent stem growth. Preparation of the wood surface prior to apply ing the
Split - Longitudinal cracks produced by artificially induced adhesive.
stress. Utilization of a good quality aircraft-standard adhesive that
Shakes A separation or crack along the grain, the greater is properly prepared.
part of which may occur at the com mon boundary of two Performing a good bonding technique consistent with the
rings or within growth rings. manufacturer's instructions.
Effect of Shrinkage
Applying The Adhesive
When the moisture content of a wooden part is lowered, the
It is important to observe the orientation of the wood grain
part shrinks. Since the shrinkage is not equal in all directions,
to avoid applying glue to the end grain. End grain is wood
the mechanic should consider the effect that the repair may
that is cut at a 90 angle to the direction of the grain. An
have on the completed structure. The shrinkage is greatest in
acceptable cut of wood has been cut nearly parallel to the
a tangential direction (across the fibers and parallel to the
direction of grain.
growth rings), somewhat less in a radial direction (across the
fibers and perpendicular to the growth rings), and is
Avoid end-grain joints when gluing wood scarf joints. Make
negligible in a longitudinal direction (parallel to the fibers).
sure the wood is cut with the grain of both pieces as close to
parallel as possible. Using end-grain joints increases the
chance of future warping.

Types of AdhesivesAERO HORIZONS ENGINEERING SE


Almost all types of adhesives have four time-periods that are
critical to the bonding process.
Most older airplanes were glued with casein glue, which was
a powdered glue made from milk. Casein glue deteriorates Pot life is the useable life of the glue from the time it is
over the years after it is exposed to moisture in the air and to mixed until the time it must be used. Discard the glue once
wide variations in temperature. the pot life has expired.
The open-assembly time is the allowable time between the
Plastic resin glue is a urea-formaldehyde resin that is water-, application of the glue and the time the joint is assembled. If
insect-, and mold-proof. Plastic resin glue rapidly deteriorates the open-assembly time is too long, the glue will begin to set
in hot, moist environments, and under cyclic stresses, making up on the joint surfaces and the glue line will weaken.
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The closed-assembly time is the allowable length of time strands of molten silica glass that are spun together and
between the assembling of the joint and the application of woven into cloth. One of the disadvantages of fiberglass is
the clamping pressure. Closed-assembly time allows for the that it weighs more and has less strength than most other
movement of parts to place them in the proper alignment. composite fibers. However, with newly developed matrix
The pressing time is the period during which the parts are formulas, fiberglass is an excellent reinforcing fiber currently
pressed or clamped together and is essentially the adhesive used in advanced composite applications.
curing period. Pressing time must be sufficient to ensure that
the joint is strong enough to withstand manipulation or the The two most common types of fiberglass are S-glass and E-
machining process. glass. E-glass, otherwise known as "electric glass" because of
its high resistivity to current flow, is produced from
COMPOSITES borosilicate glass and is the most common type of fiberglass
used for reinforcement. S-glass is produced from magnesia-
Composites are combinations of two or more materials that alumina-silicate, and is used where a very high tensile
differ in composition or form. strength fiberglass is needed.

Advantages
reduces weight, that means if weight can be saved, more
cargo, fuel or passengers can be carried
high strength to weight ratio
reducing of parts and fasteners
reducing wear
corrosion resistance

Disadvantages
generally expensive
not easy to repair; that means you need well trained staff, Aramid
tools, equipment and facilities to repair composite In the early 1970s, DuPont introduced aramid, an organic
components aromatic-polymide polymer, commercially known as Kevlar.
Aramid exhibits high tensile strength, exceptional flexibility,
Abbreviations high tensile stiffness, low compressive properties, and
AERO excellent toughness.
AFRP - Aramid Fiber Reinforced Plastic
CFRP - Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Aramid fibers are non-conductive and produce no galvanic
reaction with metals. Another important advantage is its
GFRP - Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic
strength-to-weight ratio; it is very light compared to other
HOBE - Honeycomb before Expansion composite materials. Aramid-reinforced composites also
MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheet demonstrate excellent vibration-damping characteristics in
NDT - Non Destructive Testing addition to a high degree of shatter and fatigue resistance.
NTM - Non Destructive Testing Manual
Pre-Peg - Pre impregnated Fabric

Elements of Composite Structure

In aircraft construction, most currently produced composites


consist of a reinforcing material to provide the structural
strength, joined with a matrix material to serve as the
bonding substance. The three main parts of a fiber-reinforced
composite are the fiber, matrix, and interface or boundary
between the individual elements of the composite. Carbon/Graphite
Advantages to carbon/graphite materials are in their high
compressive strength and degree of stiffness. However,
1.Reinforcing Fiber carbon fiber is cathodic while aluminum and steel are anodic.
Reinforcing fibers provide the primary structural strength to Thus, carbon promotes galvanic corrosion when bonded to
the composite structure when combined with a matrix. aluminum or steel, and special corrosion control techniques
Reinforcing fibers can be used in conjunction with one are needed to prevent this occurrence. Carbon/graphite
another (hybrids), woven into specific patterns (fiber materials are kept separate from aluminum components
science), combined with other materials such as rigid foams when sealants and corrosion barriers, such as fiberglass, are
(sandwich structures), or simply used in combination with placed at the interfaces between composites and metals
various matrix materials.

Fiberglass (Glass Cloth) Fiberglass is made from small


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also useful for bonding nonporous and dissimilar materials,


such as metal parts to composite components.
Vinyl Ester resin, the corrosion resistance and mechanical
properties are much improved over standard polyester resin
composites.
Phenolic (Phenol-formaldehyde) resin are used for interior
components because of their low smoke and flammability
characteristics.
Carbon/graphite is a black fiber that is very strong, stiff, and Polyimide resins excel in high-temperature environments
used primarily for its rigid strength characteristics. Fiber where their thermal resistance, oxidative stability, low
composites are used to fabricate primary structural coefficient of thermal expansion, and solvent resistance
components such as the ribs and skin surfaces of the wings benefit the design.

Boron Thermoplastic Resins


Boron fibers are made by depositing the element boron onto Thermoplastic resins use heat to form the part into the
a thin filament of tungsten. The resulting fiber is desired shape. However, this shape is not necessarily
approximately .004 inch in diameter, has excellent permanent. If a thermoplastic resin is reheated, it will soften
compressive strength and stiffness, and is extremely hard. and could easily change shape.
However, boron is not commonly used in civil aviation
because it can be hazardous to work with, and is extremely Types of Thermoplastic Material used for Aircraft
expensive. Windshield and Side Windows:

1. Cellulose Acetate transparent and lightweight. It has a


tendency to shrink and turn yellow. When applied with
acetone it softens.
2. Acrylic identified by trade names as Lucite or Plexiglas or
in Britain Perspex. It is stiffer than cellulose acetate. More
transparent and for all purpose is colorless. It burns with a
2. Matrix Material clear flame and produces a fairly pleasant odor. If acetone is
The function of the matrix in a composite is to hold the applied to acrylic it leaves a white residue but remains hard.
reinforcing fibers in a desired position. It also gives the
composite strength and transfers external stresses to the Curing Stages of Resins
fibers. The ability of the matrix to transfer stress is the key to Thermosetting resins use a chemical reaction to cure. There
the strength of a composite structure. are three curing stages, which are called A, B, and C
A stage: The components of the resin (base material and
Resin is an organic polymer used as a matrix to contain the hardener) have been mixed but the chemical reaction has not
reinforcing fibers in a composite material. Polyester resin, an started. The resin is in the A stage during a wet layup
example of an earlier matrix, used in con-junction with procedure.
fiberglass has been used in many non-structural applications B stage: The components of the resin have been mixed and
such as fairings and spinners. the chemical reaction has started. The material has thickened
and is tacky. The resins of prepreg materials are in the B
Resin matrix systems are a type of plastic and include two stage. To prevent further curing the resin is placed in a
general categories: thermoplastic and thermosetting. freezer at 0 F. In the frozen state, the resin of the prepreg
Thermoplastic and thermosetting resins by themselves do not material stays in the B stage. The curing starts when the
have sufficient strength for use in structural applications. material is removed from the freezer and warmed again.
However, plastic matrixes reinforced with other materials C stage: The resin is fully cured. Some resins cure at room
form high-strength, lightweight structural composites. temperature and others need an elevated temperature cure
cycle to fully cure.
Thermosetting Resins Thermosetting resins use heat to form AERO\
and irreversibly set the shape of the part. Thermosetting Working with Resins and Catalyst
plastics, once cured, cannot be reformed even if they are pot life - is the amount of time a catalyzed resin remains in a
reheated. At this time, most structural airframe applications workable state.
are constructed with thermosetting resins. shelf life - is the time that the product is still good in an
Polyester resin, an early thermosetting matrix formula, is unopened container.
mainly used with fiberglass composites to create resin rich - if too much resin is applied to the part.
nonstructural applications such as fairings, spinners, and
resin starved - is one where not enough resin was applied,
aircraft trim.
which weakens the part.
Epoxy resin matrices are two-part systems consisting of a
60:40 fiber to resin ratio - for advanced composite lay-ups is
resin and a catalyst. The catalyst acts as a curing agent by
generally considered the best for strength characteristics
initiating the chemical reaction of the hardening epoxy. Epoxy
resin systems are well known for their outstanding adhesion,
strength, and resistance to moisture and chemicals. They are
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of smaller cells, which produce a much stronger core


material.

Urethane foam can be used with epoxy or polyester resins.


However, urethane cannot be cut with a hot wire. Subjecting
urethane foam to high heat produces a hazardous gas.
The resin and catalyst are divided into separate containers
that are attached on one end. When ready for use, the Other foam core materials include poly vinyl chloride (PVC),
partition, which separates the resin from the catalyst, is and strux (cellular, cellulose acetate) foam. PVC foam can be
broken to allow the two to mix used with either polyester or epoxy resins and cut with a hot
wire. Strux foam is commonly used to build up ribs or other
3. Core Material Core materials are the central members of structural supports.
an assembly and are used extensively in advanced composite
construction. When bonded between two thin face sheets, a Phenolic has very good fire resistant properties and can
component can be made rigid and lightweight. Composite have very low density, but relatively low mechanical
structures manufactured in this manner are sometimes properties.
referred to as sandwich construction while structures not
utilizing core materials are referred to as monolithic Polypropylene is used to make airfoil shapes; can be cut
construction. with a hot wire; compatible with most adhesives and epoxy
resins; not for use with polyester resins, dissolves in fuels and
Honeycomb Cores Honeycomb core materials consist of the solvents.
six-sided shape of a natural honeycomb, which provides a
core with a very high strength-to-weight ratio. Wood Cores Balsa wood or laminations of hard wood which
are bonded to laminates of high-strength materials are
The ribbon direction of a honeycomb core is the direction in occasionally used for other types of composite sandwich
which the honeycomb can be pulled apart. It is important to construction. Wood core materials provide high compressive
line up the ribbon direction of the replacement honeycomb strength to composite structures.
core with that of the original when performing a repair
honeycomb core repair to ensure consistent structural
Fiber Science
strength along with uniform compressive strength
The strength of a reinforcing material within a composite is
dependent upon the weave of the material, the wetting
process (how the matrix is applied), filament tensile strength,
and the design of the part.

The strength and stiffness of a composite buildup depends


upon the orientation of the plies relative to the load direction
while a sheet metal component will have the same strength
no matter in which direction it is tested.

Fabric Orientation When working with composite fibers, it is


important to understand the construction and orientation of
the fabric because all design, manufacturing, and repair work
begins with the orientation of the fabric.

Honeycomb Sandwich Construction

Foam Cores Foam core materials offer different densities


Warp
and temperature characteristics for high-heat applications
and fire resistance. When using foams in a repair operation, it
is important to use the proper type and density. Styrofoam,
urethane foam, poly vinyl chloride (PVC), and strux are
several common types of foam cores used in aircraft
composite construction.
Weft/Fill Weft or fill threads of the fabric are those that run
Styrofoam (Polystyrene) is commonly used on home-built
perpendicular (90) to the warp fibers. The weft threads
aircraft and should only be used with an epoxy resin.
interweave with the warp threads to create the reinforcing
Polyester resins dissolve Styrofoam. Styrofoam is comprised
cloth.
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Selvage Edge The selvage edge of the fabric is the tightly


woven edge parallel to the warp direction, which prevents
edges from unraveling. The selvage edge is removed before Fiberglass mat provides the high strength of glass to reinforce
the fabric is utilized. thermosetting resins without the expense of woven cloth.

Bias The bias is the fiber orientation that runs at a 45 angle Pre-Impregnated Materials
(diagonal) to the warp threads. The bias allows for
manipulation of the fabric to form contoured shapes. Fabrics
Pre-impregnated fabrics, commonly known as "pre-pregs,"
can often be stretched along the bias but seldom along the
are fabrics that have the resin system already saturated into
warp or fill.
the fabric.
Fabric Style Fabrics are pre-impregnated with the proper amount and
weight of a resin matrix to eliminate the mixing and
Fabrics used in composite construction are manufactured in application details such as proper mix ratios and application
several different styles: unidirectional, bi-directional, procedures.
multidirectional, and mat. Component designers can use any
or all of these fabric styles, depending on the strength and
flexibility requirements of the component part.

Unidirectional Unidirectional fiber orientation is one in


which all of the major fibers run in one direction, giving the
majority of its strength in a single direction

Bi-directional/Multi-directional Bi-directional or multi-


directional fabric orientation calls for the fibers to run in two
or more directions. Bi-directional fabrics are woven with the
warp threads usually outnumbering the weft, so there is
usually more strength in the warp direction than the fill.
Another type of bi-directional material is the intraply hybrid
fabric. which gives composites specific strength, flexibility,
Manufacturers often prepare these fabrics by dipping the
and durability characteristics, depending on the combination
woven fabric into a resin solution containing the proper
and proportion of the fibers woven together.
amount of resin and catalyst, weighed and mixed together. A
catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of a chemical
Mats Mat fabrics consist of chopped fibers compressed reaction.
together and typically used in combination with woven or
unidirectional fabrics. A mat is not as strong as a Fillers
unidirectional or bi-directional fabric, and is therefore is not
commonly used alone in repair work.
Fillers, also known as thixotropic agents, are materials added
to resins to control viscosity and weight, to increase pot life
and cured strength, and to make the application of the resin
easier. Fillers increase the volume of the resin, making it less
dense and less susceptible to cracking, as well as lowering the
weight of the material.

Microballoons are small spheres manufactured from plastic


or glass. Plastic microballoons must be mixed with a
compatible resin system that will not dissolve the plastic.
Glass microballoons, on the other hand, are not affected by
resin mixtures, making them the primary thixotropic agent
Unidirectional fabrics are not woven together. Warp fibers used in composite construction. Microballoons reduces the
run parallel to each other and are kept in place by small cross overall weight, and they provide lower stress concentrations
threads. throughout the structure but do not add strength to the
composite structure.

Chopped fibers are made from any type of fiber cut into
certain lengths, commonly 1/4 to 1/2-inch lengths. Flox is the
fuzzy fiber taken from the fabric strands. Both chopped fibers
and flox may be used when added strength is desired.

Adhesives
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Film Adhesives Structural adhesives for aerospace 2.The heat serves to accelerate the curing process of the
applications are generally supplied as thin films supported on matrix. In some instances, a high temperature is required to
a release paper and stored under refrigerated conditions (18 effect a proper cure of the matrix formula.
C, or 0 F).
Paste Adhesives Paste adhesives are used as an alternative 3.The pressure squeezes out excess resin and air pockets
to film adhesive. These are often used to secondary bond from the reinforcing fibers, which helps to produce a more
repair patches to damaged parts and also used in places even blend of fiber and matrix.
where film adhesive is difficult to apply. Paste adhesives for
structural bonding are made mostly from epoxy.
Compression Molding Compression molding is a
Foaming Adhesives Foaming adhesives are used to splice manufacturing process that uses a male and female mold to
pieces of honeycomb together in a sandwich construction form the part. It is normally used to manufacture a large
and to bond repair plugs to the existing core during a prepreg number of precision-formed parts.
repair.

Vacuum Bagging Vacuum bagging is the most commonly


used method to apply pressure to composite repairs. With
this technique, the assembly is placed into a plastic bag and
the air is then withdrawn by the use of a vacuum source.

Filament Winding Another manufacturing method that


produces incredibly strong structures is the filament winding
method. A continuous thread of reinforcing fiber is wound
around a mandrel in the same shape of the desired part.

Wet Lay-up This technique simply involves the mixing of the


fiber reinforcement with the matrix, then laying the wet
fabric over a surface for curing. Although this technique is
less precise than other manufacturing methods, it is the most
flexible procedure available.

1st: Film Adhesives AIRCRAFT HARDWARE


2nd: Paste Adhesives
3rd: Foam Adhesives RIVETS

Manufacturing Process While a number of methods are available for joining metal
parts, few are ideal for joining aluminum sheets. The most
In general, most composite manufacturers augment the common technique of joining sheets of aluminum is riveting.
strength of the finished product by applying heat and A rivet is a metal pin with a formed head on one end. A rivet
pressure to the matrix/fiber mix as it cures, which is inserted into a drilled hole, and its shank is then deformed
accomplishes several things: by a hand or pneumatic tool. Rivets create a union at least as
strong as the material being joined.
1.The heat and pressure facilitates the complete saturation of
the fiber material. A well-designed rivet joint will subject the rivets to shear
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loads.

Specifications and Standards


AMS Aeronautical Material Specifications
AN Air Force-Navy Rivet Codes
AND Air Force-Navy Design
AS Aeronautical Standard Rivets are given part codes that indicate their size, head style,
ASA American Standards Association and alloy material. Two systems are in use today, the Air
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials Force - Navy, or AN system, and the Military Standards 20
MS Military Standard system, or MS20. While there are minor differences between
NAF Naval Aircraft Factory the two systems, both use the same method for describing
NAS National Aerospace Standard rivets.
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
The first component of a rivet part number denotes the
Solid Shank Rivets numbering system used.
The second part of the code is a three-digit number that
Solid shank rivets are generally used in repair work. They are describes the style of rivet head. The two most common rivet
identified by the kind of material of which they are made, head styles are the universal head, which is represented by
their head type, size of shank, and their temper condition. the code 470, and the countersunk head, which is
The temper designation and strength are indicated by special represented by the code 426.
markings on the head of the rivet.
Following the head designation is a one or two-digit letter
code representing the alloy material used in the rivet.
After the alloy code, the shank diameter is indicated in 1/32
inch increments and the length in increments of 1/16 inch.

Before a rivet is driven, it should extend beyond the base


material at least one and a half times the rivet's diameter. Complete Part Number: AN470AD4-5
Once driven, the rivet shank expands to fill the hole and the
bucktail (shop head/upset head/formed head) expands to NAS 523 Rivet Codes
one and a half times its original diameter. Once the bucktail
expands to the appropriate diameter it should extend beyond In certain aviation companies the use of the NAS523 rivet
the base material by at least one half the original rivet identification code is used on diagrams and drawings. The
diameter. code embodies a number of details about the rivets to be
used in a single 4-cornered symbol, with a "crosshair" at the
center. Each quadrant is given a compass designation: NW for
northwest, NE for northeast, SW for southwest and SE for
southeast. These compass designations are not shown on the
code, only the details.

Preparation

In the symbol, the upper left NW corner contains the rivet


part number in either AN or MS part numbers, and a rivet
material designation. For example, the letters BJ identify a
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standard MS20470AD rivet, which is made from 2117 alloy. The AN470 rivet now replaces almost all other protruding
The NE quadrant indicates rivet diameter, and the location of head designs. The round head rivet (AN430) was used
the manufacturers head (Near or Far). The SW quandrant extensively on aircraft built before 1955, while the flat head
indicates what special methods should be applied to the rivet (AN442) was widely used on internal structures. Flat
fasteners, such as dimpling or countersinking. For example, D head rivets are still used for applications requiring higher
stands for Dimpling, D2 stands for Dimple both sheets, and head strength. Head Design AERO
D2C means Dimple two top sheets and countersink the third.
The lower right corner specifies fastener length in 1/16"
increments. Example: a 3/8" rivet is shown as a -6.

Which rivets should be selected to join two sheets of .032-


inch aluminum?

A.MS20425D-4-3
B.MS20470AD-4-4
C.MS20455DD-5-3

The two pieces of material to be joined have a total thickness


of 0.064 inch. The rivet used with this metal should have a
diameter of about three times the thickness of the thickest 2. Flush Head
sheet. This would cause us to choose a rivet with a diameter AN426 countersunk (100) rivets were developed to
of 3 x 0.032 inch, or 0.096 inch. The closest rivet to this is one streamline airfoils and permit a smooth flow over an aircraft's
with a diameter of 1/8 inch (0.125 inch). A 1/8-inch rivet wings or control surfaces. However, before a countersunk
should extend through the material for 3/16 inch, or 0.1875 rivet can be installed, the metal must be countersunk or
inch.The total length of the rivet must be 0.064 + 0.1875, or dimpled. Sheet thickness and rivet size determine which
0.2515 inch. method is best suited for a particular application.

We would choose an MS20470AD-4-4 rivet. This is a universal Joints utilizing countersunk rivets generally lack the strength
head rivet, 1/8 inch in diameter and 1/4 inch long. of protruding head rivet joints. One reason is that a portion of
AE the material being riveted is cut away to allow for the
countersunk head.
Rivet Measurements
Rule of thumb: (For the sheet next to the manufactured head
The length of a universal head (AN470) rivet is measured or the upper sheet) .040 or thinner - dimple. Thicker than
from the bottom of the manufactured head to the end of the .040 - countersink.AERO
shank. However, the length of a countersunk rivet (AN426) is
measured from the top of the manufactured head to the end AN426 countersunk (100) rivets were developed to
of the shank. streamline airfoils and permit a smooth flow over an aircraft's
wings or control surfaces. However, before a countersunk
rivet can be installed, the metal must be countersunk or
dimpled. Sheet thickness and rivet size determine which
method is best suited for a particular application. Joints
utilizing countersunk rivets generally lack the strength of
protruding head rivet joints. One reason is that a portion of
the material being riveted is cut away to allow for the
countersunk head.

Universal and countersunk rivet diameters are measured in


the same way, but their length measurements correspond to
their grip length.

As a rule of thumb, the diameter to be used should be three


times the thickness of the thickest sheet.

Head Design

1.Protruding Head The AN470 universal head rivet now


replaces all previous protruding head styles such as AN430
round, AN442 flat, AN455 brazier, and AN456 modified
brazier.
Illustration 1: 100 countersink

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Countersinking Method

Illustration 1: Rivet Length


Illustration 3:Grip Length

The grip length of a rivet is the total thickness of the material


held together by the rivet.

a.Countersinking
Countersinking is a process in which the metal in the top
sheet is cut away in the shape of the rivet head.

To ensure head-to-gunset contact, it is recommended that


countersunk heads be installed with the manufactured head
protruding above the skin's surface about .005 to .007 of an
inch.
A) If a countersunk rivet is set with the rivet head flush with
A micro-stop, or stop countersink, as it is sometimes called, the metal's surface, some of the gunset's driving energy is
uses a cage that can be adjusted to limit the depth that the lost. (B) However, if the rivet head is allowed to protrude
cutter penetrates into the sheet metal. above the metal all of the gunset's energy hits the head
resulting in a stronger joint
To provide a smooth finish after the rivet is driven, the
protruding rivet head is removed using a microshaver. This
rotary cutter shaves the rivet head flush with the skin, leaving
an aerodynamically clean surface.

An alternative to leaving the rivet head sticking up slightly is


to use the Alcoa crown flush rivet. These rivets have a slightly
crowned head to allow full contact with the gunset. This
results in a fully coldworked rivet that needs no microshaving.

Correct Method for Countersinking


To use machine countersinking for installing a countersunk
rivet, the thickness of the material must be greater than the
thickness of the rivet head. Countersinking must not go
through the first sheet. The raised head of a crown flush rivet allows greater contact
area with a rivet set. This results in a stronger countersunk
A finished flush rivet head should not be above or below the joint.
sheet surface by more than two-thousandths (.002) of an
inch (about the thickness of a sheet of typing paper). b. Dimpling Dimpling is a processthat mechanically "dents"
the sheets being joined to accommodate the rivet head.
Dimpled fastener joints can either be double dimpled (both
sheets dimpled) or dimple-countersunk (upper sheet dimple,
lower sheet countersunk).

Double Dimple Method If the finish side sheet is .040 or


1 is preferred. thinner, the double dimple is the fastest method to prepare
2 is acceptable. the sheets.
3 is not acceptable.

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Radius dimpling does not allow the sheets to be nested


unless the bottom sheet is radius dimpled. Radius dimpling is
done because its equipment is smaller than that needed for
coin dimpling, and can be used in locations where access with
coin dimpling tools is not practical.
There are two methods of dimpling sheet metal: coin
dimpling, which forges, or coins, the metal into the dies, and Pre-Dimple Method
radius dimpling, which folds the material down to form the
dimple. Although both techniques are commonly used, coin
dimpling generally provides a slightly tighter fit but tends to This method is used when the sheets are too heavy for the
leave a sharper bend around the rivet head. double-dimple process. The two sheets are taken apart and
then dimpled separately.
Coin Dimpling In coin dimpling, a male die fits through the
rivet hole, and a coining ram in a female die exerts pressure
on the underside of the hole.
Radius Dimpling Radius dimpling is a form of cold
dimpling in thin sheet metal in which a cone-shaped male die
is forced into the recess of a female die, with either a
hammer blow or a pneumatic rivet gun.
Hot Dimpling Magnesium and some of the harder
aluminum alloys, such as 7075, cannot be successfully cold
dimpled, because the material is so brittle it will crack when
the dimple is formed. To prevent cracking, these materials
are heated before dimpling is accomplished.
AERO Dimple-Countersunk Method This method is used when the
top sheet is too thin to countersink and the bottom sheet is
too thick to dimple. The top sheet being under 0.40 in. will be
dimpled and the bottom sheet being over 0.40 in. will be
countersunk.

Coin dimpling is performed by a special pneumatic machine


or press, which has, in addition to the usual dies, a "coining
ram."

NACA Flush Riveting

To aid manufacturers in standardizing riveting techniques, the


National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or NACA,
established a set of standards for riveting aircraft and
aerospace vehicles. When riveting is conducted to these
standards, the process is referred to as NACA riveting.

This method of riveting produces the smoothest surface


possible.

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Rivets made of 2017 can be kept in an annealed condition by


removing them from a quench bath and immediately storing
them in a freezer. Because of this, D-rivets are often referred
to as icebox rivets. These rivets become hard when they
A microshaver is used to smooth the upset ends of rivets warm up to room temperature, and may be reheat-treated as
driven using NACA techniques. many times as necessary without impairing their strength.

Rivet Alloys In response to higher demand for structural strength, the


aluminum industry modified 2017 alloy to produce a new
version of 2017 aluminum, called the crack free rivet alloy.

2024 Aluminum Alloy (DD) DD-rivets are identified by two


raised dashes on their head. Like D-rivets, DD-rivets are also
called icebox rivets and must be stored at cool temperatures
until they are ready to be driven. The length of time the rivets
remain soft enough to drive is determined by the storage
temperature.

Icebox rivets must be completely driven within 15 minutes


after removal from the freezer or dry ice; they are not to be
returned to cold storage once they have been removed.

7050T73 Aluminum Alloy (E) A new and stronger rivet alloy


was developed in 1979 called 7050T73. The letter E is used to
designate this alloy, and the rivet head is marked with a
raised circle. 7050 alloy contains zinc as the major alloying
ingredient and is precipitation heat-treated. This alloy is used
Most aircraft rivets are made of an aluminum alloy. The type by the Boeing Airplane Company as a replacement for
of alloy is identified by a letter in the rivet code and by a mark 2024T31 rivets in the manufacture of the 767 widebody
on the rivet head itself. aircraft.

1100 Aluminum (A) Rivets made of pure aluminum have no Corrosion-Resistant Steel (F) Stainless steel rivets are used
identifying marks on their manufactured head, and are for fastening corrosion-resistant steel sheets in applications
designated by the letter A in the rivet code. Since this type of such as firewalls and exhaust shrouds. They have no marking
rivet is made out of commercially pure aluminum, the rivet on their heads.
lacks sufficient strength for structural applications. Instead,
1100 rivets are restricted to nonstructural assemblies such as Monel (M) Monel rivets are identified with two recessed
fairings, engine baffles, and furnishings. The 1100 rivet is dimples in their heads. They are used in place of corrosion-
driven cold, and therefore, its shear strength increases resistant steel rivets when their somewhat lower shear
slightly as a result of cold working. strength is not a detriment.
2117 Aluminum Alloy (AD) The rivet alloy 2117-T3 is the
most widely used for manufacturing and maintenance of Titanium (T) Titanium rivets are identified by a raised V or
modern aircraft. Rivets made of this alloy have a dimple in T on their head and are used for fastening steel alloy and
the center of the head and are represented by the letters AD titanium alloy.
in rivet part codes. Because AD rivets are so common and AERO
require no heat treatment, they are often referred to as
"field rivets.
The main advantage for using 2117-T3 for rivets is its high Blind Rivets
strength and shock resistance characteristics. The alloy 2117-
T3 is classified as a heat-treated aluminum alloy, but does not There are many places on an aircraft where access to both
require re-heat-treatment before driving. sides of a riveted structure or structural part is impossible, or
AERO where limited space will not permit the use of a bucking bar.
5056 Aluminum Alloy (B) Magnesium structures are riveted Also, in the attachment of many nonstructural parts, such as
with 5056 rivets which contain about 5 percent magnesium. aircraft interior furnishings, flooring, deicing boots, and the
These rivets are identified by a raised cross on their heads like, the full strength of solid shank rivets is not necessary.
and the letter B in a rivet code. The maximum shear strength
of an installed 5056H32 rivet is 28,000 pounds per square For use in such places, special rivets have been designed
inch. which can be bucked from the front. They are sometimes
2017 Aluminum Alloy (D) D-rivets are identified by a raised lighter than solid shank rivets, yet amply strong for their
dot in the center of their head and the letter D in rivet codes. intended use.
Because D-rivets are so hard they must be heat treated
before they can be used. Pop Rivets Pop rivets are frequently used for assembly and
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non-structural applications. They must not be used in areas are subject to moderate or heavy loads.
that are subject to moderate or heavy loads.

Friction-Lock Rivets A friction-lock rivet cannot replace a


solid shank rivet, size for size. When a friction-lock is used to
replace a solid shank rivet, it must be at least one size (1/32
inch) larger in diameter. This is because a friction-lock rivet
loses considerable strength if its center stem falls out due to
damage or vibration.

Mechanical-Lock Rivets Mechanical-lock rivets were


designed to prevent the center stem of a rivet from falling
out as a result of the vibration encountered during aircraft
operation. Unlike the center stem of a friction-lock rivet, a
mechanical-lock rivet permanently locks the stem into place
and vibration cannot shake it loose.

Huck-Loks rivets were the first mechanical-lock rivets and The friction-lock rivet assembly consists of a shell and
are used as structural replacements for solid shank rivets. mandrel or pulling stem. The stem is pulled until the header
However, because of the expensive tooling required for their forms a bucktail on the blind side of the shell. At this point, a
installation, Huck-Loks are generally limited to aircraft weak point built into the stem shears and the stem breaks
manufacturers and some large repair facilities. off. After the stem fractures, part of it projects upward. The
projecting stem is cut close to the rivet head and the small
Cherrylocks often called the bulbed CherryLOCK, was residual portion is filed smooth.
developed shortly after the Huck-Lok. Like the Huck-Lok, the
CherryLOCK rivet is an improvement over the friction-lock
rivet because its center stem is locked into place with a lock
ring. This results in shear and bearing strengths that are high
enough to allow CherryLOCKS to be used as replacements for
solid shank rivets.

Olympic-loks blind fasteners are light weight, mechanically-


locking spindle-type blind rivets. Olympic-loks come with a
lock ring stowed on the head. As an Olympic-lok is installed,
the ring slips down the stem and locks the center stem to the
outer shell. These blind fasteners require a specially designed
set of installation tools.
Unlike friction-lock rivets, Huck-Loks utilize a lock ring
CherryMAX rivet is economical to use and strong enough to that mechanically locks the center stem in place.
replace solid shank rivets, size for size. The economic
advantage of the CherryMAX system is that one size puller
can be used for the installation of all sizes of CherryMAX
rivets.

Cherrylock

Pop rivets are frequently used for assembly and non-


structural applications. They must not be used in areas that
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Rivet Selection

The following rules should govern your selection and use of


rivets:

1.Replacements must not be made with rivets of lower


strength material unless they are larger than those removed.
For example, a rivet of 2024aluminum alloy should not be
replaced by one made of 2017 aluminum alloy unless the
2017 rivet is a size larger. Similarly, when 2117 rivets are used
to replace 2017 rivets, the next larger size should be used.

2. When rivet holes become enlarged, deformed, or


otherwise damaged, you should use next larger size as
replacement.

3.Countersunk rivet heads should be replaced by rivets of the


same type and degree of countersink.

4.All protruding head rivet should be replaced with universal


Olympic-Lok rivet A head rivets.
ERO
5.Rivets less than 1/8 in diameter should not be used for
structural applications.

6.Minimum rivet diameter is equal to the thickness of the


thickest sheet to be riveted.

7.Maximum rivet diameter is equal to three times the


thickness of the thickest sheet to be riveted.

8.The proper r ivet length should be the grip length plus


times the rivet diameter.

Joint Types

There are two basic types of axial riveted joint: the lap joint
and the butt joint.

CherryMAX

Hi-Shear Rivets One of the first special fasteners used by the


Rivet Joint Failure
aerospace industry was the Hi-Shear rivet. Hi-Shear rivets
were developed in the 1940s to meet the demand for
fasteners that could carry greater shear loads. A rivet joint may fail as a result of one( or more) of a number
mechanisms.

Shearing through one section of the rivet (single shear).


Shearing through two sections of the rivet (double shear).
Compressive bearing failure of the rivet.
Shearing of the plate(s) being joined.
Bearing failure of the plate(s) being joined.
Tearing of the plates between the rivets.

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obtaining maximum strength from a riveted repair.

Rivet Gage (Transverse Pitch)


The distance between rows of rivets in a multi-row layout
should be about 75% of the pitch, provided that the rivets in
adjacent rows are staggered. If the rivets are not staggered,
Rivet Layout Pattern
then the pitch will be the same between rows as it is between
rivets in a single row. For most layout patterns, it is most
It is important when making a riveted repair that the rivets be practical to stagger the placement of rivets to reduce the
installed in such a way that they will develop the maximum amount of sheet metal that has to be overlapped.
strength from the sheet metal. To obtain this strength, not
only the rivet and sheet strength must be determined, but
the rivet pattern is also a critical factor so the drilled holes do
not weaken the joint. This means the spacing between rivets
and the distance they remain from the edge of the material
cannot be closer than minimum specifications.

Edge Distance It is important when installing rivets that they


be placed a certain distance from the edge of the material. If
rivets are installed too close to the edge, the sheet metal will
tear out instead of shearing the rivet when extreme loads are
encountered. Conversely, if the rivets are placed too far away
from the edge, the metal sheets can separate, allowing
foreign contaminates to enter the joint, ultimately causing
corrosion.

Pitch (Spacing) The distance between adjacent rivets in a When multiple rows of rivets are used in a lay-out, the
row is called the pitch. To prevent the joint from being transverse pitch should be approximately 75% of the rivet
weakened by too many holes in a row, the adjacent rivets pitch, and the rivets should be staggered. AERO
should be no closer than three diameters to one another. In
contrast, to prevent the sheets from separating between Sample Layout Problem
rivets, the rivet holes should be no further apart than ten to
twelve times the rivet shank diameter. How many MS20470 AD-4-6 rivets will be required to attach a
10 x 5 inch plate, using a single row of rivets, minimum edge
distance, and 4D spacing?
A.56
B.54
C.52
D.58

The plate is 10 inches long and 5 inches wide. The rivets have
a diameter of 1/8 inch and there is an edge distance of two
rivet diameters. This requires two rows of rivets 9-1/2 inches
long and two rows that are 4-1/2 inches long. The total length
of the rivet seams is 28 inches. If the rivets are spaced every
1/2 inch (4D spacing), 56 rivets are needed.

Rivet Installation

Hand Riveting Almost all rivets are driven with either a rivet
gun or squeeze riveter, but there are times when building
small components, or when working in areas without air or
electricity, that it is necessary to drive a rivet by hand.

Edge distance and rivet pitch are critical to Compression Riveting When there are a large number of
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easily accessible rivets to be installed, a compression, or Evaluating Driven Rivets


squeeze riveter, can be used instead of hand or gun riveting.
These riveting tools reduce the time required to install the
rivets and produce a far more uniform shape than can be
driven by hand or with a rivet gun.

Gun Riveting Hand riveting and compression riveting are


used for special conditions, but a rivet gun drives most rivets
used in aircraft construction. These tools look and operate in
a similar fashion to a reciprocating air hammer, but the
number of strokes and force of the impact are considerably
different. As such, only guns designed for riveting should be
used on aircraft structures.

A technician must be able to identify properly driven rivets.


Until the technician has gained enough experience to
evaluate driven head dimensions, special gauges may be
fabricated to check shop head shapes and sizes.

Removal of Rivets

Bucking Bar

When a rivet is driven, the actual compression of the rivet is


not performed by the action of the rivet gun. Instead, the
rivet is backed up by a metal bar that reciprocates in
response to the beats of the rivet gun. This reciprocating
action causes the rivet to be compressed in successive
actions. These metal bars are referred to as bucking bars
because of the method in which the bar bucks, or vibrates, on
the shank of the rivet.

When removing a solid shank rivet from a piece of aircraft


structure, drill to the base of the manufactured head with a
drill one size smaller than the rivet shank. Insert a pin punch
into the hole and pry the head off, then use the pin punch to
drive the rivet shank from the skin.
THREADED FASTENERS
AERO HORIZONS ENGINEERING SERVICE NORIEL M. PURIGAY
THREADED FASTENERS
Threaded fasteners allow parts to be fastened together with
all of the strength unthreaded fasteners provide. However,
unlike rivets and pins, threaded fasteners may be
disassembled and reassembled an almost infinite number of
times.

THREAD TYPE AND FITS


Aircraft bolts, screws, and nuts are threaded in either the
American National Coarse (NC), the American National Fine
(NF), the American Standard Unified Coarse (UNC), or the
Bucking bars are available in different weights and shapes to American Standard Unified Fine (UNF) series.
allow riveting of solid rivets in almost any location. The difference between the American National series and
the American Standard Unified series is the American
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National series has more threads per inch than the American bolt. A bolt's grip length is the length of the unthreaded
Standard Unified series. portion.
Class of fit:
Class 1 thread is a loose fit
Class 2 is a free fit
Class 3 is a medium fit
Class 4 is a close fit
Class 5 fit is a tight fit
Bolt Designation Codes
Designation Codes

Like rivets, threaded fasteners are given a part code


indicating a fastener's diameter in 1/16 inch increments and
its length in 1/8 inch increments.
For example, an AN4-7 identifies a bolt that measures 4/16
or 1/4 inch in diameter and 7/8 inch in length.
For bolts that are longer than 7/8 inch, the code changes.
For example, a 1 inch bolt is identified by a -10 representing 1
inch and no fraction. In other words, there are no -8 or -9
lengths.
Dash numbers go from -7 to -10, from -17 to -20, and from -
27 to -30.
A bolt that is 1 1/2 inches long is identified by a -14.
A bolt with the code AN5-22 identifies an Air Force-Navy
bolt that is 5/16 inch in diameter and 2 1/4 inches long.
For AN3 bolt,machine screw sizes range from 0 to 12. A
number 10 fastener has a diameter of approximately 3/16 To aid in identifying what type of metal a bolt is made of, bolt
inch and a number 5 fastener has a 1/8 inch diameter. heads are marked with a symbol.

Threaded Fasteners Clevis Bolts AERO

This table indicates fastener diameters, the number of Internal Wrenching Bolts
threads per inch, and the bit size required to drill a hole the
fastener will fit into or be tapped. For example, a number 5 MS20004 through MS20024 internal wrenching bolts are
fine thread fastener has 44 threads per inch, a body diameter high-strength steel bolts used primarily in areas that are
of .125 inch, fits in a hole drilled by a number 25 bit, and is subjected to high tensile loads.
tapped into a hole made by a number 38 bit. High-strength internal wrenching bolts can bear high tension
loads and are frequently used to mount engines.
Standard BoltsAERO

A bolt is designed to hold two or more items together. Bolts


that are typically used for air-frame structural applications
have hex heads and range in size from AN3 to AN20.

Bolts are identified by their diameter and length. A diameter


represents the shank diameter while the length represents
the distance from the bottom of the head to the end of the
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Anchor Nuts
Anchor nuts are permanently mounted nut plates that enable
inspection plates and access doors to be easily removed and
NUTS installed.

All nuts used in aircraft construction must have some sort of Anchor nuts simplify the process of installing and removing
locking device to prevent them from loosening and falling off. inspection plates. Some of the more familiar anchor nuts are
shown.
There are two basic types of nuts, self-locking and non self-
locking.

A self-locking nut locks onto a bolt on its own while a non


self-locking nut relies on either a cotter pin, check nut, or lock
washer to hold it in place.

Screws
Self-locking nuts, or lock nuts, employ a locking device in
their design to keep them from coming loose. Screws are probably the most commonly used threaded
Low-temperature self-locking nuts fastener in aircraft. They differ from bolts in that they are
AN365 self-locking nuts are used on bolts and machine generally made of lower strength materials.
screws and are held in position by a nylon insert above the
threads. Screws are typically installed with a loose-fitting thread, and
There are several different types of self-locking nuts available the head shapes are made to engage a screwdriver or
for multiple applications. wrench.

Structural Screws
Structural screws are made of alloy steel, are heat treated,
and can be used as structural bolts.

They have a definite grip and the same shear strength as a


bolt of the same size.

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Self-Tapping Screws

Self-tapping screws have coarse-threads and are used to hold SEALS


thin sheets of metal, plastic, or plywood together.
Sealants / Packings used to contain fuel, maintain cabin
pressure, reduce fire hazards, exclude moisture, prevent
corrosion, and fill gaps and smooth discontinuities on the
aircraft exterior.

Running Seals seals used in units that contain moving parts,


such as actuating cylinders, pumps, and selector valves.

Sealing is a process that confines liquids and gases within a


given area or prevents them from entering areas from which
they must be excluded.

Types of Seals

O-Ring Packings
Cotter Pins O-ring packings effectively seal in both directions and,
therefore, are used to prevent both internal and external
Castellated nuts are locked onto drilled bolts by passing a leakage. O-rings are the most commonly used seals in
cotter pin through the hole and nut castellations and then aviation. In installations subject to pressures above 1,500 psi,
spreading the ends of the cotter pin. backup rings are used with O-rings to prevent the O-ring
from being forced out, or extruded.
There are two methods of securing cotter pins that are
generally acceptable. In the preferred method, one leg of the Backup Rings
cotter pin is bent up over the end of the bolt, and the other For applications such as actuators that subject a seal to
leg is bent down over one of the flats of the nut. pressure from two sides, two backup rings must be used.
When an O-ring is subject to pressure on only one side, a
single backup ring is generally adequate.

V-Ring Packings (Chevron)


V-ring packings (AN6225) are one-way seals that are installed
with the open end of the "V" facing the pressure.
WASHERS
U-Ring Packing
Washers provide a bearing surface area for nuts, and act as U-ring packings (AN6226) and U-cup packings are used in
spacers or shims to obtain the proper grip length for a bolt brake assemblies and brake master cylinders.
and nut assembly.

They are also used to adjust the position of castellated nuts


with respect to drilled cotter pin holes in bolts as well as
apply tension between a nut and a material surface to
prevent the nut from vibrating loose.
TYPES OF SEAL

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Packing rings are manufactured with different profiles to suit Cure time is the time in hours after thawing that is required
varying operating requirements. for the sealant to cure firmly enough to be handled without
damage or deformation
GASKET
LIMITS AND FITS
Gaskets are used in fluid systems around the end caps of
actuating cylinders, valves, and other units. Clearance Fit in this assembly there is a space between the
two parts. The shaft is always smaller than the part it fits into.
A solid copper washer is commonly used for spark plug No manual pressure is required. Applicable for different type
gaskets and some hydraulic fittings that require a of parts.
noncompressible yet semi-soft gasket. When compressed
between two solid surfaces, the copper deforms to provide a Interference Fit in this assembly there is no space between
tight seal. the parts. The shaft is always larger than the part it fits into.
This means that mechanical pressure is required for assembly
Cork Gaskets are often used in areas such as between an and once assembled it is not likely to be disassembled.
engine crankcase and accessories, or anywhere a gasket is
required that can occupy an uneven or varying space. Transition Fit this is a range of fits which can be either
clearance or interference. The shaft can be larger or smaller
Rubber sheeting is often used anywhere a compressible than the part it fits into. Only a light manual pressure is (Close
gasket is required. Its flexibility allows it to compress easily to Tolerance) necessary to assemble the parts. It is applicable
provide a tight seal. However, if rubber seals are exposed to for detachable parts and locating parts but not for moving
gasoline, oil, or some types of hydraulic fluid, they will parts.
deteriorate.

Wipers clean and lubricate the exposed portions of piston


shafts. By literally wiping a surface, they prevent dirt from
entering the system and help protect the piston shaft from
scoring.

SEALING COMPOUNDS

Categories of Compounds
Sealing compounds are divided into two categories, silicone
and nonsilicon.
Silicone compounds are usually white, red, or grey in color
and are used in general where heat resistance is required.
Nonsilicone compounds can be any color and are used
where heat resistance is not required.
TYPES OF AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS
Specification / Classification
The classification system for sealants in Boeing material Rotable anything that needs periodic replacement (Engines,
specifications (BMS) is as follows: generators, pumps, tires, etc)
Class A Brush coat Sealant. Repairable Any part that is usually repaired and then
Class B Filleting Sealant. returned to service as repaired/overhauled or even as new
Class C Faying Surface Sealant. condition. (engines, generators, pumps, large actuators,
Class D Hole-Filling Sealant. electric motors, etc)
Classes E and F Sprayable sealant.
Expendable Any component that is usually just thrown
Properties of Seals away at the end of its useable life, this is usually because it is
not worth repairing or cannot be repaired or overhauled due
Application time is the time in hours after thawing during to its construction and intended use. (hoses, some brake
which can be readily extruded from the sealant gun and components, small actuators, switches, etc)
applied to the structure.
Consumable Any component that is rendered unsuitable for
Squeeze-out life is the time in hours after thawing during reuse when its installed and used. (gaskets, sealants,
which a faying surface can be squeezed out of a joint when compression fittings, etc)
fasteners are installed.
CORROSION
Tack-free is the time in hours after thawing that is required
for the sealant to cure sufficiently so that it will not transfer CORROSION is a natural phenomenon which attacks metal by
to the finger or to a plastic film. chemical or electrochemical action and converts it into a
metallic compound. The corrosion occurs because of the
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tendency of metals to return to their natural state. Causes of Corrosion



STEEL: Corrosion of steel is easily recognized because the Acids and Alkalis
corrosion product is red rust. Salts
Atmosphere
ALUMINUM: Aluminum and its alloys exhibit a wide range of Water
corrosion such as crevice, stress, and fretting corrosion Micro-organism
Uniform Etched Corrosion
Factors for Corrosion Build-Up Pitting Corrosion
Filiform Corrosion
Intergranular Corrosion
Exfoliation Corrosion
Fretting Corrosion
Microbial Corrosion
Stress Corrosion
Fatigue Corrosion
Galvanic Corrosion
Crevice Corrosion

A simple battery explains the formation of corrosion, as


electrons leaving the anode attract chlorine ions from the
electrolyte to form aluminum chloride, which is the visible
evidence of corrosion.

Aluminum alloys have both anodic and cathodic areas.


Corrosion appears at the anodic area when chlorine atoms
from the electrolyte join the aluminum chloride.

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FATIGUE CORROSION - Fatigue corrosion is caused by the


combined effects of cyclic stress and corrosion.

STRESS CORROSION - Stress corrosion cracking is an inter-


granular cracking of the metal which is caused by a
combination of stress and corrosion. Stress may be caused by
internal or external loading. Internal stress are produced by
non-uniform deformation during cold working, by unequal
cooling from high temperatures, and by internal structural
rearrangement involving volume changes.

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ANODIC will give up electrons (corrode easily)


CATHODIC least to corrode

Treatment of Corrosion

Regardless of the type of corrosion or the metal involved,


corrosion treatment requires three basic steps:

1.Remove as much of the corrosion as possible.


2.Neutralize any residual material.
3.Restore the protective surface film.

Treatment of Aluminum Alloys:

In general, corrosion of aluminum can be more effectively


treated on the aircraft than corrosion occurring on other
structural materials.
Treatment includes the mechanical removal of as much of
the corrosion as practicable, the neutralization of residual
materials by chemical means, and, finally, the restoration of
the permanent surface coating.

MECHANICAL CORROSION REMOVAL


After the paint is removed from a corroded area, all traces of
corrosion must be removed from the surface. Very mild
corrosion may be removed by using a neutral household
abrasive cleaner, such as Bon-Ami, but be sure that the
abrasive does not contain chlorine.

Nylon scrubbers, such( as "ScotchBrite" pads, can also be


used to remove mild corrosion. More severe corrosion can be
removed by brushing with aluminum wool or with an
aluminum wire brush.

CHEMICAL NEUTRALIZATION
After removing all corrosion, treat the surface with a five
percent chromic acid solution to neutralize any remaining
corrosion salts.
After the acid has been on the surface for at least five
minutes, it should be washed off with water and allowed to
dry.
Alodine treatment conforming to MIL-C-5541 will also
neutralize corrosion, as well as form a protective film on the
metal's surface.

PROTECTIVE COATING
Although some operators prefer a bare aluminum finish to
Electrode Potential of Metals save weight, most aircraft owners utilize a painted finish.
Paint is not only attractive and dis-tinctive, but also provides
additional protection from impact damage and corrosion.
CLADDING
Coating them with a layer of pure aluminum.
In the manufacture of clad aluminum, pure aluminum is
rolled onto the surface of an aluminum alloy and accounts for
five to ten percent of the total sheet thickness.
The cladding material is anodic as compared to the core
material, and any corrosion that takes place attacks the
cladding rather than the core.

PROTECTIVE COATING
Although some operators prefer a bare aluminum finish to
save weight, most aircraft owners utilize a painted finish.
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Paint is not only attractive and distinctive, but also provides


additional protection from impact damage and corrosion.

CLADDING
Coating them with a layer of pure aluminum.
In the manufacture of clad aluminum, pure aluminum is
rolled onto the surface of an aluminum alloy and accounts for
five to ten percent of the total sheet thickness.
The cladding material is anodic as compared to the core
material, and any corrosion that takes place attacks the
cladding rather than the core.

SURFACE OXIDE FILM


The process of applying an oxide film is performed in the
factories by an electrolytic process known as anodizing.
The anodizing process is an electrolytic treatment in which a
part is bathed in a lead vat containing a solution of chromic
acid and water. This process forms an oxide film on the part
that protects the alloy from further corrosion.

Corrosion Inspection

Visual inspection
Magnifying glass,
Mirrors,
Borescope, fiber optics,

Dye penetrant inspection


Ultrasonic inspection
Pulse-echo method
Resonance method

Eddy current inspection


X-ray inspection

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