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sources of new and stimulating


information. Consequently, even beyond
the updates posted by our connections,
Why do we like social social media sites generally update their
design every couple of months, simply to
keep our attention.
media? In terms of behaviour per se, the main
labour of social media users is adding
new connections. However, in building
Ciarn Mc Mahon considers the psychology behind Facebook and more the network, I cannot connect with
everyone equally. For example, if I click
add as friend on Facebook, that person
It has been around a decade since hen I first considered writing an must accept my request for me to be able
social networking websites first
entered public consciousness now
they seem like an indispensable
W
article like this some years ago,
I imagined that Facebook would
become supplanted by some other
to see their updates (generally speaking).
On Twitter, clicking follow means I will
see their updates straightaway (usually),
part of daily life for many of us. website, in the same way that it had though at the same time they may or may
What has psychological research displaced MySpace. Yet Facebook is now not follow me in return. In both cases,
shown about why these sites have more globally dominant than ever, and, the user can choose to positively reinforce
become so popular? as if to underline my hubris, MySpace is my behaviour with their reward of their
resurgent. Often personal information
written off as passing though it is by no
fads for teenagers, means certain that
these websites now they will do so. So
have billions of users my behaviour of
not only with making a connection
Facebook, Twitter, request follows
Google Plus, YouTube, a variable schedule
Instagram and reinforcement (Ferster
MySpace in the West, & Skinner, 1957)
We are witnessing something of a boom
questions

but with hugely paradigm: sometimes


in social sciences scholarship pertaining popular sites like it is rewarded, and
to social media (see example resources Tencent Weibo, sometimes it is not,
below). Naturally, communications Vkontakt and Orkut meaning that I am
studies have been to the forefront, but in the rest of the very likely to continue
it could be argued that psychology as world. Social media to engage in it.
a discipline has been slow to pick up on marches on. But, Cleverly, many
social media as a topic of study. Why is from the point of view social media websites
this, do you think? of peer-reviewed have concentrated this
If we were to review the disciplines psychological research, Often written off as passing fads reinforcement
body of work as a whole, and apply it what do we know about for teenagers, social media sites paradigm across several
to website design, what kind of social what makes these march on activities into a single
media should result? websites popular? signal: the notification
icon. By creating
a bright, and usually red, +1 for every
Behavioural and cognitive time we have received a new piece of
resources

The Psychology of Cyberspace:


http://psycyber.blogspot.co.uk Almost a truism at this stage, the human information whether it is a friend
Attrill, A. (Ed.). (2015). Cyberpsychology. preference for novelty first described by request accepted, a new message, new
New York: Oxford University Press. Lord Kames (Home, 1823) plays into the photo liked or favorite social media
Social Media + Society open access attractiveness of social media. Web websites encourage us to keep checking
journal: http://sms.sagepub.com designers fret over not delivering enough them. These icons are not constant
fresh content to users, because we prefer features of social media websites (unless
references

Aiken, M. & Mc Mahon, C. (2014). A Bakshy, E., Messing, S. & Adamic, L. (2011). 4chan and /b/: An analysis of network sites. In D. Buckingham
primer on research in mediated (2015). Exposure to ideologically anonymity and ephemerality in a (Ed.) MacArthur Foundation Series on
environments: Reflections on diverse news and opinion on large online community. In ICWSM, Digital Learning Youth, Identity, and
cybermethodology. Available at Facebook. Science, 58(4), 707731. Association for the Advancement of Digital Media (pp.126). Cambridge,
http://ssrn.com/abstract=2462700 Bauer, L., Cranor, L.F., Komanduri, S. et Artificial Intelligence (pp. 18). MA: MIT Press.
Asch, S.E. (1951). Effects of group al. (2013). The post anachronism. In Blanco, K., Briceno, A., Steele, A. et al. Bucher, T. (2012). Want to be on the top?
pressure upon the modification and Proceedings of the 12th ACM (2013). The dynamics of offensive Algorithmic power and the threat of
distortion of judgments. In H. workshop on privacy in the electronic messages in the world of social invisibility on Facebook. New Media &
Guetzkow (Ed.) Groups, leadership society. (pp.112). New York: ACM media. Available at Society, 14(7), 11641180.
and men (pp.177190). Oxford: Press. http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.0694 Cialdini, R.B. (2001). The science of
Carnegie Press. Bernstein, M.S., Harry, D., Andr, P. et al. boyd, d. (2007). Why youth (heart) social persuasion. Scientific American,

724 vol 28 no 9 september 2015


social media

we engage with other users incessantly,


in which case, job well done by the sites
engineers) they are unpredictable.
Because we can never be certain how
Potentials and pitfalls
many notifications we will have before Last July controversy esteem (Gonzales & insights, but ethical
we log back into these sites, they erupted with what became Hancock, 2011). A cross- conundrums. In Kramer
reinforce our behaviour with all the known as the Facebook sectional survey of Twitter et al. (2014), the data had
power of a Skinner box, randomly Emotion Study (Kramer users found correlations already been gathered by
delivering food pellets in response to et al., 2014). The study between levels of suicidal Facebook, passed to the
a rats lever presses. demonstrated a small ideation and whether or not researchers after having
Interestingly, biological research emotional contagion they had posted tweets as been anonymised, with
has shown that Facebook usage may effect: users who saw more such (Sueki, 2014). Content institutional review not
be associated with a specific emotional content were analysis of Facebook profile deemed necessary, because
psychophysiological pattern (Mauri et al., more likely to post similar photographs found no there didnt seem to be any
2011). This research suggests that there is content themselves. Debate significant difference across human participation.
a core flow state present when browsing centred on its methodology, genders (Hum et al., 2011). In smaller studies, it is
Facebook that is significantly different as the newsfeeds of 689,003 The attraction of social easy to remember that data
from stress and relaxation on a number Facebook users were altered media for teenagers has represent people this may
of indices of somatic activity. Being on without their being been explored using be more difficult in larger
a social media site is a positive experience informed: experimental ethnographic methods studies. Yet another
it feels good and this is why we enjoy participation without (boyd, 2007). A focus group controversial Facebook study
using it. Strikingly, a controversial study consent. While websites of London undergraduates has been published which,
from last year found that there is some often restructure, that revealed many interesting while without experimental
evidence for emotional contagion seldom is described as findings (Lewis & West, manipulation, utilised
(Kramer et al., 2014: see box) when research, nor is it for the 2009), such as possibly the anonymised data from 10.1
we see expressions of either positive or explicit purpose of trying to first academic description of million users (Bakshy et al.,
negative emotions on Facebook, we are make visitors feel better or Facebook stalking! 2015). Cyberpsychology
more likely to express emotions of that worse. Consequently, the On the other hand, speaks of online disinhibition
valence in our updates too. study began a conversation newer methods are (Suler, 2004) but perhaps
It is to be expected that new users of about research ethics in increasingly common. researchers should also
social media will first connect with other cyberspace (Aiken & Mc Network analysis has think about N-line
users they already know, who should be Mahon, 2014). revealed how information disinhibition: becoming
most likely to accept their invitations. On the one hand, flows through adolescents overawed by huge amounts
Subsequently, there will inevitably be traditional methods are groups of friends (Van of data. Dignity of
diminishing returns on behaviour in the common with social media. Cleemput, 2010) and data- participants, long a hallmark
users early days on a site, in that the An experiment with mining has illustrated the of psychological research,
same amount of effort will produce Facebook users found that dynamics of cyberbullying on may be an mounting issue in
decreasing reward. Social media engineers when asked to edit their Twitter (Blanco et al., 2013). cyberpsychological research:
can rely on negative automaintenance profiles they experienced These present a challenge are we our social media
(Williams & Williams, 1969) for a time a relative increase in self- for research: fascinating data?
we will continue to engage in the same
way even we are not being rewarded at
all. For example, after we have run out
of people we know, we will move on to multitasking. Instead of spending that those who most engage in this type
people we only slightly know, who are extended periods of time on them, we of internet browsing tend to have lower
less likely to reciprocate when we add dip into and out of these sites all day long, levels of educational achievement (Rosen
as friend or follow them. checking for updates from friends and et al., 2013). Interestingly, while
Consequently, web developers can family, as well as news and information. multitasking on the whole has cognitive
expect a decline in user activity after their Research has shown, unsurprisingly, that costs, it provides emotional gratifications
first few weeks, which inevitably plays Facebook is the most common activity that its users do not actively seek (Wang
into what might be the dominant that university students switch to when & Tchernev, 2012).
cognitive state of our era: media studying. Worryingly, it has also found In addition, research has also shown

284(2), 7681. Ellison, N.B., Vitak, J., Gray, R. & Lampe, Political Theory, 21(2), 198227. Communication & Society, 18(3),
Deutsch, M. & Gerard, H.B. (1955). A C. (2014). Cultivating social resources Fullwood, C., Quinn, S., Chen-Wilson, J., 255268.
study of normative and informational on social network sites. Journal of et al. (2015). Put on a smiley face: Gilder, G. (1993). Metcalfes law and
social influences upon individual Computer-Mediated Communication, Textspeak and personality legacy. Forbes ASAP. Retrieved from
judgement. Journal of Abnormal 19(4), 855870. perceptions. Cyberpsychology, http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~gaj1/me
Psychology, 51, 629636. Ferster, C.B. & Skinner, B.F. (1957). Behavior and Social Networking, 18(3), tgg.html
Ellison, N.B., Steinfield, C. & Lampe, C. Schedules of reinforcement. East 147151. Gray, K.L. (2012). Intersecting
(2007). The benefits of Facebook Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century- Gibbs, M., Meese, J., Arnold, M. et al. oppressions and online communities.
Friends. Journal of Computer- Crofts. (2014). #Funeral and Instagram: Information, Communication & Society,
Mediated Communication, 12(4), Foucault, M. (1993). About the beginning Death, social media, and platform 15(3), 411428.
11431168. of the hermeneutics of the self. vernacular. Information, Gonzales, A.L. & Hancock, J.T. (2011).

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk 725


social media

that there are personality differences in


the social media sites preferred by users,
with those who preferred Twitter
displaying higher need for cognition, and
those who preferred Facebook displaying
higher sociability, extraversion and
neuroticism (Hughes et al., 2012).

Social
Paradoxically, given the extent of social
medias popularity, at least a certain
amount of the growth of these sites is
their exclusivity. Early in Facebooks
history, it was only available to students
at lite North American universities.
This was gradually extended to global
universities, then all adults, and
eventually high school pupils, but its site, it is very hard to avoid such Maintenance Behaviours, such as
growth relied initially on a variation on normative social influence (Deutsch & responding to a friends good news,
the scarcity heuristic (Cialdini, 2001). Gerard, 1955). Again, this has a corollary requests for help or advice and so on,
While not many other sites have used this in what has become known as fear of underlie bridging social capital (Ellison et
particular gradation mechanism, nearly all missing out (FOMO) removing oneself al., 2014). The researchers conclude that
new services begin life with invite only from such a website has psychological Facebook users take advantage of the
or waiting list messages. While their side-effects. Interestingly, there has been sites design features (e.g. birthday
marketing departments try to stir up empirical research that shows that FOMO reminders) to strengthen the weak ties
publicity, the fact that the public cant yet has significant motivational, emotional that underlie bridging social capital. In
access the new cool website only serves to and behavioural correlates (Przybylski et other words, the sites affordances allow
increase its attractiveness. al., 2013). you to tell someone you dont know very
The flipside of this effect is known However, why we stay members of well that you are still paying attention to
as Metcalfes law, or the network effect social media is to do with social capital: them.
(Gilder, 1993). While technically defined the tangible benefits we receive from Interestingly, on Israeli social media
as the value of a telecommunications being members of a group. One of the site Shox, Schwarz (2010) describes how
network is proportional to the square earliest research teams to look seriously teenagers use self-portraits (selfies,
of the number of connected users of the at Facebook found that while using the though that term was not common at the
system, it basically means that there is site didnt seem to have much effect on time) as a form of corporeal social capital.
little point in joining a service unless bonding social capital advantages As these young people are not yet part of
your friends are on it. Again this shows gained from close friends and family, the grown-up society, they do not have
why Facebook originally concentrated sort of people who would do anything for access to the established methods of
on specific universities as these provided you (Ellison et al., 2007) users did seem social influence that adults do, so they
readymade populations of interconnected to benefit from greater bridging social use self-portraits as a means of presenting
individuals. Several other services the capital low-level information, news and themselves, comparing themselves to
dating app Tinder, for example have advice. For example, you may be friends each other and thereby building social
used the same strategy in concentrating on Facebook with someone you only met relationships, both online and offline.
market targeting on college students. once, which may seem a little pointless There is, Schwarz notes, a certain amount
Once a whole class join a service, it is but if they post a status update about a of liberation in the social capital of self-
extremely useful to them but if only job vacancy that you might be interested imagery, but it does come at a price not
one or two join, its relatively useless. in, you could be glad you hadnt everyone can play this game, and not
Beyond that point, social media unfriended them! everyone succeeds, much like the
became popular from the very basic Continuing with this line of research, celebrity culture that it mimics.
principle of conformity (Asch, 1951). the same research team has explored how Furthermore, and what is critical for
If everyone we know is on a particular certain Facebook Relationship psychological research to recognise in

Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Volume 1 (4th Americ.). New York: S. of Facebook profile photographs. European Journal of Psychological
Effects of exposure to Facebook on Campbell & Son, E. Duyckinck [etc.]. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), Assessment, 31, 177192.
self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, Hughes, D.J., Rowe, M., Batey, M. & Lee, 18281833. Kramer, A.D.I., Guillory, J.E. & Hancock,
Behavior and Social Networking, A. (2012). A tale of two sites: Twitter Johnson, B.K. & Knobloch-Westerwick, J.T. (2014). Experimental evidence of
14(12), 7983. vs. Facebook and the personality S. (2014). Glancing up or down: Mood massive-scale emotional contagion
Hogan, B. (2010). The presentation of self predictors of social media usage. management and selective social through social networks. Proceedings
in the age of social media: Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), comparisons on social networking of the National Academy of Sciences,
Distinguishing performances and 561569. sites. Computers in Human Behavior, 111(24), 87888790.
exhibitions online. Bulletin of Science, Hum, N.J., Chamberlin, P.E., Hambright, 41, 3339. Lewis, J. & West, A. (2009). Friending:
Technology & Society, 30(6), 377386. B.L. et al. (2011). A picture is worth a Joinson, A.N. (2001). Self-disclosure in London-based undergraduates
Home, H. (1823). Elements of criticism: thousand words: A content analysis computer-mediated communication. experience of Facebook. New Media

726 vol 28 no 9 september 2015


social media

these contexts such as funeral research technologies of the self techniques by photographs more often, and to
on Instagram (Gibbs et al., 2014) is that which people manipulate their bodies, emphasise friendships in those
each particular social media site has its minds and behaviour in order to reach photographs. Continuing that vein of
own platform vernacular. In other words, some ideal of psychological perfection. investigation, more recent research has
to appreciate any social media site fully, While he wrote largely about ancient also shown that the language we use on
researchers need to understand its practices like mediation and diary- social media has a critical effect on how
language practices, which are often keeping, it is clear that there are many we are perceived by others. Fullwood et
unique to it. such technologies present today. These al. (2015) found that people whose
That said, it does seem like we websites are how many of us now choose profiles used textspeak (including
associate with other people on social to refine and manage our identities. emoticons) were deemed to be less
media at least in part because of the how A Foucauldian analysis of social media conscientious and less open but more
good they make us look, and social would necessarily have to incorporate emotionally stable. Interestingly, the
comparison research remains intriguing. notions of power and governance: social amount of textspeak used was not
There is long-standing research media as an outlet for comparative self- important even small amounts were
demonstrating that if our Facebook development. LinkedIn, for example, as enough to shift perceptions.
friends are good-looking, we too will be a professional and business-oriented These processes hark back very much
perceived as better looking (Walther et social media site is extensively used for to the work of Erving Goffman, namely
al., 2008). Additionally, it has also been marking personal progress and the idea of the presentation of self, which
shown that users of social media sites improvement. Research has shown that Hogan (2010) has interpreted in the
compare themselves to each other in an on Xing, a similar professional social social media context as involving both
effort to manage their mood (Johnson & network, there is a high degree of performances (synchronous, real-time,
Knobloch-Westerwick, 2014) that when authenticity, rather than idealism, present co-present) and exhibitions
we are in a negative mood we prefer to in users profiles (Sievers et al., 2015). (asynchronous, not necessarily co-
make more downward social But the major use of social media present). The tricky thing about social
comparisons, against those we view as in this regard has been by teenagers and media in this regard, Hogan notes, is that
less successful or attractive as ourselves. young adults, and has been repeatedly while users may choose to present or hide
Interestingly, it has been shown that demonstrated by danah boyd (e.g. boyd, certain aspects of their digital selves,
even anonymous websites have complex 2007). The ethnographic work of boyd some of this process is taken over by the
community structures. On 4chan, even demonstrates that within such mediated code of the particular site, which decides
though it is impossible to distinguish the environments networked publics which content rises to the top of
author of one post from the next in such young users of MySpace engage in a newsfeeds. What Bucher (2012) calls the
an environment, and posts disappear if no considerable amount of time editing and threat of invisibility to these algorithms
one interacts with them, Bernstein et al. managing their profiles in a process of is an under-appreciated factor in the
(2011) have shown that there is still a impression management with regard to attraction of these social media sites:
distinct social hierarchy at work. By using their imagined audiences. Critically, boyd once we engage with them, we are at
distinctive identity signs, such as difficult- was one of the first to underline how their mercy. The trouble is, as Bucher
to-reproduce Unicode character displays teenagers turned to the (appropriately notes, the algorithms that decide which
or time-stamped photographs, 4chan has named) MySpace as their physical spaces content is highlighted and which is
a distinctive community culture and were restricted by their parents. These obscured, are proprietary and secret.
hierarchy of participation. This gives rise days, with geolocation services present on I have no way of knowing if Facebook
to the most exquisite aspect of both the likes of Instagram and Foursquare, we will push my post to the top of my
internet and teenage culture: the in-joke. are now seeing research on the spatial self friends newsfeeds. Again, though in
Fundamentally, social media allows its (Schwartz & Halegoua, 2014). Users of a much subtler way, this harks back to
users to socialise with similarly-minded such services portray their social the variable schedule reinforcement
individuals. identities according to the places they conditioning mentioned above.
have been: we like to show our friends The thing is, while these opaque
that we are getting out. algorithms do have a certain amount of
Self and identity On the whole, self-presentation control over our social media, we tend to
Additionally, there is ample cultural work affordances are a critical aspect of social change our minds about our identities
that is useful in understanding the medias popularity. On Facebook, Strano quite a lot. As has been argued in
psychology of social media sites (2008) found that female adult users philosophy since the early modern period
popularity. Foucault (1993) speaks of were more likely to change their profile (e.g. Locke, 1700), while there is a

& Society, 11(7), 12091229. successful? Cyberpsychology, behavioral correlates of fear of media. New Media & Society.
Locke, J. (1700). An essay concerning Behavior, and Social Networking, missing out. Computers in Human doi:10.1177/1461444814531364 .
humane understanding, in four books 14(12), 723731. Behavior, 29(4), 18411848. Schwarz, O. (2010). On friendship, boobs
(4th edn). London: Awnsham and Postmes, T. & Spears, R. (2002). Behavior Rosen, L.D., Mark Carrier, L. & Cheever, and the logic of the catalogue: Online
John Churchill. online: Does anonymous computer N.A. (2013). Facebook and texting self-portraits as a means for the
Marcia, J.E. (1966). Development and communication reduce gender made me do it: Media-induced task- exchange of capital. Convergence:
validation of ego-identity status. inequality? Personality & Social switching while studying. Computers The International Journal of Research
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(7), 10731083. in Human Behavior, 29(3), 948958. into New Media Technologies, 16(2),
Psychology, 3(5), 551558. Przybylski, A.K., Murayama, K., Dehaan, Schwartz, R. & Halegoua, G.R. (2014). 163183.
Mauri, M., Cipresso, P., Balgera, A. et al. C.R. & Gladwell, V. (2013). The spatial self: Location-based Sievers, K., Wodzicki, K., Aberle, I. et al.
(2011). Why is Facebook so Motivational, emotional, and identity performance on social (2015). Self-presentation in

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk 727


social media

continuity to our consciousness, who we instantly and globally public a essential to understanding the appeal of
are as individuals evolves and changes historically unprecedented psychological this environment, yet remain far less well
over time. Temporality, therefore, is an experience. In this way we are studied a new research frontier for
important aspect of the appeal of social experiencing what has been described as psychology.
media it allows us to edit our identities online disinhibition (Suler, 2004) the It cannot be denied however, that the
in a coherent narrative fashion, of where phenomenon whereby we do and say discipline faces a number of challenges in
we come from, where we currently are things on the internet that we probably this space. We need to get over our
and where we hope to go. would not do in a face-to-face digital dualism: what happens in
The problem though is that we are environment. This is unnerving, as in cyberspace is real. It is not easy keeping
not very good at knowing our place in certain circumstances of anonymity and up with the pace of technological
that chronology. A very interesting study perceived privacy we are more likely to developments, but psychologists must
by Bauer et al. (2013) asked participants engage in self-disclosure of personal not shirk our normative responsibilities.
about the privacy settings on their information online that we would not do In particular, we need greater
Facebook posts asking them both otherwise (Joinson, 2001). interrogation of the affordances of social
longitudinally and retrospectively media sites and apps. Sociology,
about whether or not they would like communication studies and other
their content to remain public or disciplines have joined the social
private. The studys participants media party, and psychology must
predictions about how their visibility ensure it is not excluded, particularly
preferences would change did not with the advent of big data who
correlate well with their actual needs a psychologist if you have
changes in preferences over time. petabytes of social media data being
This appears to be the appeal analysed by the second?
of newer picture social messaging Finally, it is sad to say, but online
applications like Snapchat, which offers Another cyberpsychology concept environments provide refutation of the
a sense of ephemerality to its content, by encourages our participation in social equalisation hypothesis. The hope that
claiming that pictures sent via its service media that of hyperpersonal ICT would level out differences like
will automatically be deleted once viewed communication (Walther, 2007). Because gender stereotypes has not been
by their recipients. Naturally, this appeals much of online communication online is supported (Postmes & Spears, 2002),
greatly to younger users, especially those textual, time-stamped and can be edited, even more so in intersectional studies
within what Marcia (1966) would term its emotional impact is augmented: we (Gray, 2012). This is the toxic online
the identity crisis the developmental know how long our interlocutors were disinhibition Suler (2004) described over
stage when young people attempt to composing their replies, we can spellcheck a decade ago, yet society is a long way
decide who they are by trying out new our messages, and much more besides. from acknowledging it, or its
ways of presenting themselves (which We have yet to get used to this, and this consequences. As the idea of the internet
they may not want to keep permanently). is why social media will continue to be as an aggressive playground dominates
While there is very little academic highly fascinating for some time to come. public discourse, the insinuation that we
psychological research on Snapchat to In a holistic sense, the popularity of must be resilient to online abuse is
date, it seems clear that it appeals very social media has been driven by how disturbingly common. In the past, at
much to a generation who have grown up user-friendly and interactive it has made times of cultural unease, ground-breaking
with perils of permanent internet content modern cyberspace. In the traditional psychological research had profound and
hanging over them. sociological distinction of home, work vital societal impact. Is such a time upon
and third space, we now have an online us again?
environment a fourth space (Soukup,
Conclusions 2006). In effect, social media has created
The major factors driving the popularity a much more massive online space where Ciarn Mc Mahon
of social media usage are fundamentally all kinds of interesting activities are very is in the CyberPsychology
cyberpsychological. We can simply do easy to engage in. Many of these have Research Centre, Royal
things and experience things on social long-standing foundations in psychology College of Surgeons in
media that we cannot do anywhere else. the behavioural, cognitive, social and Ireland
While sitting alone at home, we can make self/identity factors above. However, the ciaranmcmahon@rcsi.ie
our most private and personal thoughts newer cyberpsychological factors are

professional networks. Computers in Cyberspace, 2(2), 1. Retrieved from network approach of adolescents on evaluations of individuals on
Human Behavior, 50, 2530. tinyurl.com/nrwwu6r use of communication media. Facebook. Human Communication
Soukup, C. (2006). Computer-mediated Sueki, H. (2015). The association of Bulletin of Science, Technology & Research, 34(1), 2849.
communication as a virtual third suicide-related Twitter use with Society, 30(2), 7585. Wang, Z. & Tchernev, J.M. (2012). The
place. New Media & Society, 8(3), suicidal behaviour. Journal of Walther, J.B. (2007). Selective self- myth of media multitasking.
421440. Affective Disorders, 170,155160. presentation in computer-mediated Journal of Communication, 62,
Strano, M.M. (2008). User descriptions Suler, J. (2004). The online disinhibition communication. Computers in 493513.
and interpretations of self- effect. CyberPsychology & Behavior, Human Behavior, 23(5), 25382557. Williams, D.R. & Williams, H. (1969).
presentation through Facebook 7(3), 321326. Walther, J.B., Van Der Heide, B., Kim, Auto-maintenance in the pigeon.
profile images. Journal of Van Cleemput, K. (2010). Ill see you on S.-Y. et al. (2008). The role of Journal of the Experimental Analysis
Psychosocial Research on IM, text, or call you: A social friends appearance and behavior of Behavior, 4(4), 511520.

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