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Cambridge University Press

978-1-107-69769-0 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics

David Sang Graham Jones Gurinder Chadha and Richard Woodside
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David Sang, Graham Jones,

Gurinder Chadha and Richard Woodside
Cambridge International AS and A Level

Second Edition

in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom

Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.

It furthers the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of
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Cambridge University Press 2010, 2014
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
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no reproduction of any part may take place without the written
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First published 2010
Second edition 2014
Printed in the United Kingdom by Latimer Trend
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ersity Press www.cambridge.org

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anthology and reproduction for the purposes of setting examination questions.

Example answers and all other end-of-chapter questions were written by the authors.
Introduction vii Chapter 5: Work, energy and power 69
Doing work, transferring energy 71
How to use this book viii
Gravitational potential energy 75
Chapter 1: Kinematics describing motion 1 Kinetic energy 76
g.p.e.k.e. transformations 76
Speed 2
Down, up, down energy changes 77
Distance and displacement, scalar and vector 4
Energy transfers 78
Speed and velocity 5
Power 80
Displacementtime graphs 6
Combining displacements 8 Chapter 6: Momentum 85
Combining velocities 10
The idea of momentum 86
Chapter 2: Accelerated motion 14 Modelling collisions 86
Understanding collisions 89
The meaning of acceleration 15
Explosions and crash-landings 91
Calculating acceleration 15
Collisions in two dimensions 93
Units of acceleration 16
Momentum and Newtons laws 95
Deducing acceleration 17
Understanding motion 96
Deducing displacement 17
Measuring velocity and acceleration 18 Chapter 7: Matter and materials 101
Determining velocity and acceleration in
Density 102
the laboratory 18
Pressure 102 iii
The equations of motion 20
Compressive and tensile forces 104
Deriving the equations of motion 22
Stretching materials 105
Uniform and non-uniform acceleration 24
Elastic potential energy 108
Acceleration caused by gravity 25
Determining g 25 Chapter 8: Electric fields 116
Motion in two dimensions projectiles 28
Understanding projectiles 29 Attraction and repulsion 117
ersity Press www.cambridge.org
The concept of an electric field 118
Chapter 3: Dynamics explaining motion 37 Electric field strength 119
Force on a charge 122
Calculating the acceleration 38
Understanding SI units 39 Chapter 9: Electric current, potential
The pull of gravity 41 difference and resistance 127
Mass and inertia 43
Top speed 44 Circuit symbols and diagrams 128
Moving through fluids 45 Electric current 129
Identifying forces 47 An equation for current 132
Newtons third law of motion 49 The meaning of voltage 134
Electrical resistance 135
Chapter 4: Forces vectors and moments 53 Electrical power 136
Combining forces 54 Chapter 10: Kirchhoffs laws 143
Components of vectors 56
Centre of gravity 59 Kirchhoffs first law 144
The turning effect of a force 59 Kirchhoffs second law 145
The torque of a couple 63 Applying Kirchhoffs laws 146
Resistor combinations 148
Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics

Chapter 11: Resistance and resistivity 156 P1: Practical skills at AS level 239
The IV characteristic for a metallic conductor 157 Practical work in physics 240
Ohms law 158 Using apparatus and following instructions 240
Resistance and temperature 159 Gathering evidence 241
Resistivity 162 Precision, accuracy, errors and uncertainties 241
Finding the value of an uncertainty 243
Chapter 12: Practical circuits 168 Percentage uncertainty 245
Internal resistance 169 Recording results 246
Potential dividers 172 Analysing results 246
Potentiometer circuits 172 Testing a relationship 248
Identifying limitations in procedures and
Chapter 13: Waves 178 suggesting improvements 250
Describing waves 179
Longitudinal and transverse waves 181
Chapter 17: Circular motion 258
Wave energy 182 Describing circular motion 259
Wave speed 183 Angles in radians 260
The Doppler effect 184 Steady speed, changing velocity 261
Electromagnetic waves 185 Angular velocity 261
Electromagnetic radiation 186 Centripetal forces 262
Orders of magnitude 187 Calculating acceleration and force 264
The nature of electromagnetic waves 188 The origins of centripetal forces 265

Chapter 14: Superposition of waves 192 Chapter 18: Gravitational fields 271
The principle of superposition of waves 193 Representing a gravitational field 272
iv Diffraction of waves 194 Gravitational field strength g 274
Interference 196 Energy in a gravitational field 276
The Young double-slit experiment 200 Gravitational potential 276
Diffraction gratings 203 Orbiting under gravity 277
The orbital period 278
Chapter 15: Stationary waves 210 Orbiting the Earth 279
ersity Press From moving to stationary 211
Nodes and antinodes 212
19: Oscillations 285
Formation of stationary waves 212 Free and forced oscillations 286
Determining the wavelength and speed of sound 216 Observing oscillations 287
Describing oscillations 288
Chapter 16: Radioactivity 222 Simple harmonic motion 289
Looking inside the atom 223 Representing s.h.m. graphically 291
Alpha-particle scattering and the nucleus 223 Frequency and angular frequency 292
A simple model of the atom 225 Equations of s.h.m. 293
Nucleons and electrons 226 Energy changes in s.h.m. 296
Forces in the nucleus 229 Damped oscillations 297
Fundamental particles? 229 Resonance 299
Families of particles 230
Discovering radioactivity 231
Chapter 20: Communications systems 309
Radiation from radioactive substances 231 Radio waves 310
Discovering neutrinos 232 Analogue and digital signals 314
Fundamental families 232 Channels of communication 317
Fundamental forces 232 Comparison of different channels 319
Properties of ionising radiation 233

Chapter 21: Thermal physics 327 Chapter 27: Charged particles 422
Changes of state 328 Observing the force 423
Energy changes 329 Orbiting charges 423
Internal energy 331 Electric and magnetic fields 427
The meaning of temperature 332 The Hall effect 428
Thermometers 334 Discovering the electron 429
Calculating energy changes 336
Chapter 28: Electromagnetic induction 435
Chapter 22: Ideal gases 345 Observing induction 436
Particles of a gas 346 Explaining electromagnetic induction 437
Explaining pressure 348 Faradays law of electromagnetic induction 441
Measuring gases 348 Lenzs law 443
Boyles law 349 Using induction: eddy currents, generators
Changing temperature 350 and transformers 445
Ideal gas equation 351
Modelling gases the kinetic model 352 Chapter 29: Alternating currents 451
Temperature and molecular kinetic energy 354 Sinusoidal current 452
Alternating voltages 453
Chapter 23: Coulombs law 359 Power and a.c. 455
Electric fields 360 Why use a.c. for electricity supply? 457
Coulombs law 360 Transformers 458
Electric field strength for a radial field 362 Rectification 460
Electric potential 363
Comparing gravitational and electric fields 366 Chapter 30: Quantum physics 466
Modelling with particles and waves 467 v
Chapter 24: Capacitance 372 Particulate nature of light 468
Capacitors in use 373 The photoelectric effect 471
Energy stored in a capacitor 375 Line spectra 475
Capacitors in parallel 377 Explaining the origin of line spectra 476
Capacitors in series 378 Photon energies 477
ersity Press
Comparing capacitors and resistors 379 Electron energies in solids
Capacitor networks 380 The nature of light waves or particles? 480
Electron waves 480
Chapter 25: Electronics 386
Components of an electronic sensing system 387 Chapter 31: Nuclear physics 489
The operational amplifier (op-amp) 393 Balanced equations 490
The inverting amplifier 397 Mass and energy 491
The non-inverting amplifier 398 Energy released in radioactive decay 494
Output devices 398 Binding energy and stability 494
Randomness and decay 496
Chapter 26: Magnetic fields and The mathematics of radioactive decay 497
electromagnetism 406 Decay graphs and equations 499
Producing and representing magnetic fields 407 Decay constant and half-life 501
Magnetic force 409
Magnetic flux density 411
Measuring magnetic flux density 411
Currents crossing fields 413
Forces between currents 415
Relating SI units 416
Comparing forces in magnetic, electric
and gravitational fields 417
Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics

Chapter 32: Medical imaging 506

The nature and production of X-rays 507
X-ray attenuation 509
Improving X-ray images 511
Computerised axial tomography 513
Using ultrasound in medicine 516
Echo sounding 518
Ultrasound scanning 520
Magnetic resonance imaging 522

P2: Planning, analysis and evaluation 529

Planning 530
Analysis of the data 532
Treatment of uncertainties 536
Conclusions and evaluation of results 538

Appendix 1: Physical quantities and units 542

Prefixes 542
Estimation 542

Appendix 2: Data, formulae and

relationships 543
Data 543
Conversion factors 543
Mathematical equations 544
Formulae and relationships 544

Appendix 3: The Periodic Table 545

Glossary 546
ersity Press www.cambridge.org
Index 555

Acknowledgements 564

Terms and conditions of use for

the CD-ROM 566
This book covers the entire syllabus of Cambridge In your studies, you will find that certain key concepts
International Examinations AS and A Level Physics. It is come up again and again, and that these concepts form
designed to work with the syllabus that will be examined themes that link the different areas of physics together. It
from 2016. It is in three parts: will help you to progress and gain confidence in tackling
Chapters 116 and P1: the AS level content, covered in the problems if you take note of these themes. For this
first year of the course, including a chapter (P1) dedicated to Coursebook, these key concepts include:
the development of your practical skills Models of physical systems
Chapters 1732 and P2: the remaining A level content, Testing predictions against evidence
including a chapter (P2) dedicated to developing your ability Mathematics as a language and problem-solving tool
to plan, analyse and evaluate practical investigations
Matter, energy and waves
Appendices of useful formulae, a Glossary and an Index.
Forces and fields
The main tasks of a textbook like this are to explain the
In this Coursebook, the mathematics has been kept to
various concepts of physics that you need to understand
the minimum required by the Cambridge International
and to provide you with questions that will help you to test
Examinations AS and A Level Physics syllabus. If you
your understanding and prepare for your examinations.
are also studying mathematics, you may find that more
You will find a visual guide to the structure of each chapter
advanced techniques such as calculus will help you with
and the features of this book on the next two pages.
many aspects of physics.
When tackling questions, it is a good idea to make
Studying physics can be a stimulating and worthwhile
a first attempt without referring to the explanations in
experience. It is an international subject; no single
this Coursebook or to your notes. This will help to reveal
country has a monopoly on the development of the ideas. vii
any gaps in your understanding. By working out which
It can be a rewarding exercise to discover how men and
concepts you find most challenging, and by spending more
women from many countries have contributed to our
time to understand these concepts at an early stage, you
knowledge and well-being, through their research into
will progress faster as the course continues.
and application of the concepts of physics. We hope not
The CD-ROM that accompanies this Coursebook
only that this book will help you to succeed in your future
includes answers with workings for all the questions in
studies and career, but also that it will stimulate your
ersity Press the book, as well as suggestions for revising and preparing www.cambridge.org
curiosity and fire your imagination. Todays students
for any examinations you take. There are also lists of
become the next generation of physicists and engineers,
recommended further reading, which in many cases will
and we hope that you will learn from the past to take
take you beyond the requirements of the syllabus, but
physics to ever-greater heights.
which will help you deepen your knowledge and explain
more of the background to the physics concepts covered in
this Coursebook.
Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics

How to use this book

Each chapter begins with a short list of the There is a short context at the beginning of each chapter, containing an example of
facts and concepts that are explained in it. how the material covered in the chapter relates to the real world.
AS Level Physics

1 Describing movement
Chapter 1: Our eyes are good at detecting movement. We notice
even quite small movements out of the corners of

our eyes. Its important for us to be able to judge
movement think about crossing the road, cycling or
driving, or catching a ball.

describing motion Figure 1.1 shows a way in which movement can

be recorded on a photograph. This is a stroboscopic
photograph of a boy juggling three balls. As he juggles,
a bright lamp flashes several times a second so that
the camera records the positions of the balls at equal
Learning outcomes intervals of time.
If we knew the time between flashes, we could Figure 1.1 This boy is juggling three balls. A stroboscopic
You should be able to: measure the photograph and calculate the speed of a lamp flashes at regular intervals; the camera is moved to one
ball as it moves through the air. side at a steady rate to show separate images of the boy.
define displacement, speed and velocity
draw and interpret displacementtime graphs
describe laboratory methods for determining speed
The text and illustrations describe and explain all of the facts and concepts
use vector addition to add two or more vectors Speed
that We
you need to know. The chapters, and often
can calculate the average speed of something moving if
the content within them as
If you look at the speedometer in a car, it doesnt
well,weare arranged
know the distance itin a similar
moves sequence
and the time it takes: to your
tell yousyllabus, but
the cars average with
speed; AS
rather, and
it tells you its
AS Level Physics A Levelaverage
content clearly
distance separated into the two speed halves of the
at the instant when book.
you look at it. This is the cars
speed = instantaneous speed.
In symbols, this is written as:
Figure 13.3 or a similar graph of displacement against
QUESTION throughout the text
time illustrates the following important definitions about v=
t give you a chance to check that
1 Look at Figure 1.2. The runner ran 10 000 m, and
waves and wave motion: Determine
1where v is thethe wavelength
average speed and amplitude of eachtravelled
d is the distance youthehave understood
clock shows the Calculate
the total time taken. topic his
The distance of a point on the wave from its undisturbed in of thet.two
time Thewaves shown in
photograph Figure1.2)
(Figure 13.5.shows Ethiopias youaverage
havespeedjust read
during about. You
the race.
viii position or equilibrium position is called the displacement x. Kenenisa6 Bekele posing next to the scoreboard after
can find the answers to these
Displacement / cm

The maximum displacement of any point on the wave breaking4 the world record in a a mens 10 000 metres race.
from its undisturbed position is called the amplitude A.
The amplitude of a wave on the sea is measured in units
The time2 on the clock in the photograph
b enables us to questions on the CD-ROM.
work out his average
2 5 10 speed. 15 20 25 30 35
of distance, e.g. metres. The greater the amplitude of the In the Systme Internationale dUnits (the SI system),
If the
4 object is moving at a constant speed, this
wave, the louder the sound or the rougher the sea! distance is measured in metres (m) and time in seconds (s).
6 will give us its Distance
speed / cm
during the time taken. If its
The distance from any point on a wave to the next exactly Therefore, speed is in metres per second. This is written as
similar point (e.g. crest to crest) is called the wavelength speed is changing, then the equation gives us its average
Figure 13.5 Two waves for Question 1. m s1 (or as m/s). Here, s1 is the same as 1/s, or per second.
(the Greek letter lambda). The wavelength of a wave on the speed. Average speed is calculated over a period of time.
There are many other units used for speed. The choice of
sea is measured in units of distance, e.g. metres.
unit depends on the situation. You would probably give the
The time taken for one complete oscillation of a point in a
wave is called the period T. It is the time taken for a point to BOX 13.1: Measuring frequency This
speed of abook does units
snail in different notfromcontain
the speed of a racing
car. Table 1.1 includes
AS Level some alternative units of speed.
ersity Press
move from one particular position and return to that same detailed instructions for doing
position, moving in the same direction. It is measured in You can measure the frequency of soundwww.cambridge.org
waves Note that in many calculations it is necessary to work
units of time, e.g. seconds.. using a cathode-ray oscilloscope (c.r.o.). Figure 13.6 inparticular
SI units (m s1). experiments, but you

The number of oscillations per unit time of a point in a

wave is called its frequency f. For sound waves, the higher
shows how. will find background
m s1 metresinformation
per second
the frequency of a musical note, the higher is its pitch.
A microphone is connected to the input of the about
cm s1 the practical
centimetres yousecond WORKED EXA
c.r.o. Sound waves are captured by the microphone
Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz), where 1 Hz = one
oscillation per second (1 kHz = 103 Hz and 1 MHz = 106 Hz). and converted into a varying voltage which has the need
km s1
7 to do inhow
Calculate these Boxes.
muchkilometres There
per second
gravitational potential 3 Calculate th
The frequency f of a wave is the reciprocal of the period T: same frequency as the sound waves. This voltage is are
km also
h1 or km/h two
energy chapters,
is gained if you climbP1
kilometres aper and
flight of stairs. mass 800 kg
displayed on the c.r.o. screen. mph Assume that you have a mass
miles of 52 kg and that the
per hour 30 m s1.
1 Figure 1.2 Ethiopias Kenenisa Bekele set a new world record P2, which height provide detailed
you lift yourself is 2.5 m.
T forItthe
is best tometres
10 000 think ofrace
a c.r.o. as a voltmeter which
in 2005. Table 1.1 Units of speed. Step 1 Cal
Waves are called mechanical waves if they need a is capable of displaying a rapidly varying voltage. To information
8 A climber of about
mass 100the practical
kg (including the equipment Ek = 12 mv2 =
substance (medium) through which to travel. Sound is one do this, its spot moves across the screen at a steady skills you need to develop during
she is carrying) ascends from sea level to the top
of a mountain 5500 m high. Calculate the change = 160 kJ
speed, set by the time-base control. At the same
example of such a wave. Other cases are waves on strings,
time, the spot moves up and down according to the
your course.
in her gravitational potential energy. Step 2 Cal
seismic waves and water waves (Figure 13.4).
voltage of the input. 9 a A toy car works by means of a stretched rubber Ek = 12 mv2 =
Some properties of typical waves are given on page 183
Hence the display on the screen is a graph of the band. What form of potential energy does the = 360 kJ
in Table 13.1.
varying voltage, with time on the (horizontal) x-axis. car store when the band is stretched?
Step 3 Cal
If we know the horizontal scale, we can determine b A bar magnet is lying with its north pole next
change in k
the period and hence the frequency of the sound to the south pole of another bar magnet. A
student pulls them apart. Why do we say that Hint: Take c
wave. Worked example 1 shows how to do this. (In
the magnets potential energy has increased? by squaring
Chapter 15 we will look at one method of measuring Where has this energy come from? change in s
the wavelength of sound waves.) incorrect va

Kinetic energy
As well as lifting an object, a force can make it accelerate. QUESTIONS
Again, work isequations
done by the forceand other
and energy is transferred
to theare shown
object. inwe
In this case, highlight
say that it hasboxes.
gained kinetic 10 Which has
energy, Ek. The faster an object is moving, the greater its
250 kg tra
kinetic energy (k.e.).
11 Calculate
mass 200
Figure 13.6 Measuring the frequency of sound waves For an object of mass m travelling at a speed v, we have: the groun
Figure 13.4 The impact of a droplet on the surface of a liquid
from a tuning fork. kinetic energy = 12 mass speed2 it at 12.2 m
creates a vibration, which in turn gives rise to waves on the
surface. Ek = 12 mv2

Deriving the formula for kinetic energy A motor drags th
The equation for k.e., Ek = 12mv2, is related to one of the hill. The car runs
equations of motion. We imagine a car being accelerated as it goes (see Fig
from rest (u = 0) to velocity v. To give it acceleration a, it to reach the top o
is pushed by a force F for a distance s. Since u = 0, we can first. It accelerate
write the equation v2 = u2 + 2as as: The motor pro
2 car to the top of t
In the earlier examples, we described how the motion A group of colliding objects always has as much
of one trolley appeared to be transferred to a second momentum after the collision as it had before the collision.
trolley, or shared with it. It is more correct to say that it This principle is illustrated in Worked example 1.
is the trolleys momentum that is transferred or shared.
(Strictly speaking, we should refer to linear momentum, QUESTIONS
because there is another quantity called angular
momentum which is possessed by spinning objects.) 2 Calculate the momentum of each of the following
As with energy, we find that momentum is also objects:
conserved. We have to consider objects which form a a a 0.50 kg stone travelling at a velocity of 20 m s1
closed system that is, no external force acts on them. The b a 25 000 kg bus travelling at 20 m s1 on a road
principle of conservation of momentum states that: c an electron travelling at 2.0 107 m s1.
(The mass of the electron is 9.1 1031 kg.)

Within a closed system, the total momentum in any 3 Two balls, each of mass 0.50 kg, collide as shown in
direction is constant. Figure 6.6. Show that their total momentum before
the collision is equal to their total momentum after
the collision.
How to use this book
The principle of conservation of momentum can also be before after
expressed as follows:
2.0 m s1 3.0 m s1 2.0 m s1 1.0 m s1

For a closed system, in any direction: A B A B

Wherever you
total needof to
momentum know
objects how to use a formula to carry out a calculation,
before collision
there are worked= example
total momentum boxes
of objectsto
collision you howFigure
to do 6.6 this.
For Question 3.


1 In Figure 6.5, trolley A of mass 0.80 kg travelling at a Step 1 Make a sketch using the information given in the
velocity of 3.0 m s1 collides head-on with a stationary question. Notice that we need two diagrams to show
trolley B. Trolley B has twice the mass of trolley A. The the situations, one before and one after the collision.
trolleys stick together and have a common velocity of Similarly, we need two calculations one for the
1.0 m s1 after the collision. Show that momentum is momentum of the trolleys before the collision and one
conserved in this collision. for their momentum after the collision.
Step 2 Calculate the momentum before the collision:
momentum of trolleys before collision
before positive after = mA uA + mB uB
= (0.80 3.0) + 0
uA = 3.0 m s1 uB = 0 vA+B = 1.0 m s1 = 2.4 kg m s1
A Level Physics
Trolley B has no momentum before the collision,
because it is not moving. AS Level Physics
0.80kg A 0.80kgB
0.80 kg 0.80 kg 0.80 kg 0.80 kg Step 3 Calculate the momentum after the collision: Key words are highlighted in the text

momentum of trolleys after collision
= (mA + mB) vA+B
= (0.80 + 1.60) 1.0
when they are first introduced.
Base units, derived units QUESTION
The metre, kilogram and second are three of the seven SI
Figure 6.5 The state of trolleys A and B, before and after = 2.4 kg m s1 see thermodynamic scale. The pull
absolute scale of temperature; base
These areThe defined
numberwithofgreat precision
particles in one so that 4
the collision. weight) i
So, both before and after the
absolute collision,
zero every
mole of
the trolleys have
The temperature standards
at which a system has laboratory
any substance can reproduce
approximately (6.02them
a combined momentum of 2.4 kg m s1energy;
. Momentum OtherNunits,
has to 273.15 C. such as units of speed (m s1) and internati
minimum internal denoted
equivalent A. of force a
been conserved. acceleration
band theory(m Thes2idea
) are that
known as derived
electrons unitsor
in a solid because
absorption line spectrum A dark line of a unique reasons
wavelength seen in a continuous spectrum. You willthey also
can have find
are combinations
energies definitions
withinof certain
base units. ofSome
ranges or derived units,
bands, between useful de
such as the newton and the joule, have special names
acceleration The rate of change of an objects velocity: these words which are in the
forbidden Glossary.
which are more convenient to use than giving them in
v bandwidth (communications) A measure of the width of
terms of base units. The definition of the newton will show
t a range of frequencies being transmitted. Other SI un
you how this works.
Unit: m s2 . base units Defined units of the SI system from which all Using only seve

accuracy An accurate value of a measured quantity is one

other units are the newton
derived. of quantities ha
Cambridge International AS Level Physics Isaac
best fit Newton
line A(16421727)
straight lineplayeddrawnaas significant
closely aspart
possible to
would be confu
which is close to the true value of the quantity. units were also
points of athe graph scientific
so thatidea of force.
similar Building
numbers on lie
of points
acoustic impedance Acoustic impedance Z is the product were defined as
above andearlierbelowthinking,
the line. he explained the relationship
of the density of a substance and the speed c of sound in of water would
between force, mass
binding energy Theand acceleration,
minimum external which we now
energy write
that substance (Z = c). Unit: kg m2 s1. unlikely that th
as F = ma. For thisneutrons
reason, the andSIprotons
unit of of force is named
There is a summary of to separate all the a nucleus.
Summary activity The rate of decay or disintegration of nuclei in a after him.
bit A basic unit of information storage, the amount of
exactly the mas
key points at the end radioactive sample. kilogram, whic
which ix
We can use the equation F = ma to define the newton (N).
Forces are vector quantities that can be added by The principle of moments states that, for information
any object stored by a device that exists in only two all mass
of each chapter. You ampere The SI unit of electric current (abbreviated A).
means of a vector triangle. Their resultant can be distinct states, usually given as the binary digits 0 and 1.
that is in equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise All other un
drawing.The maximum displacement of point
a particle from by the
might find this helpful determined using trigonometry or by scale
moments about any provided One newton
its equilibrium position.forces acting on the object equals the sum ofacceleration
is the force
constant that will give aconstant
A fundamental 1 kg massgiven
an by is done using th
R of 1 m s2 in the direction of the force.
when you are revising. Vectors such as forces can be resolved into
amplitude modulation A form of
anticlockwise modulation
moments in which
about that
= , where R is2the ideal gas constant
40 same kpoint.
1NN = 1 kg 1 m s or 1 N = 1 kg m s2
and NA is the speed is define
components. Components at right angles to one A
speed in the SI
another can be treated independently of the
onesignal causes variations
another. in the amplitude of a carrier Avogadro constant.
A couple is a pair of equal, parallel but opposite forces
wave.the Since the de
For a force F at an angle to the x-direction, whose effect is to produce a turning effectBoyles
on a bodylaw The pressure exerted by a fixed mass of gas
units for force
components are: analogue signal A signal that isgiving
without continuously variable,
it linear acceleration. The seven
is inversely base units
proportional to its volume, provided the
Equations t
x-direction: F cos having a continuum of torque
possibleofvalues. temperature
In mechanicsof(the
a couple = one of the forces perpendicular thestudy
gas remains
of forces constant.
and motion), the units
same base unit
y-direction: F sin analogue-to-digital conversion (ADC) the
distance between Conversion
forces of a we use are
braking based on X-rays
radiation three base units: when
produced the metre, kilogram
electrons are not happen the
continuous analogue signal toobject
discrete and second.(also
decelerated As wecalled
into studying electricity,
radiation).we will
The moment of a force = force perpendicular For an to digital numbers. the resultant
be in equilibrium, force
ersity Press angular
distance of the pivot from the line of action of displacement actingThe angle www.cambridge.org
on thethrough
object which
must be anzero
need to add another
and thecapacitance
resultant The ratio base unit, the
of charge ampere.
stored by aHeat requires
capacitor to
another base difference
the potential unit, the kelvinacross(the
it. unit of temperature). When each te
the force. moves in a circle. moment must be zero.
Table 3.2 shows the seven base units of the SI system. the equation
angular frequency The frequency of a sinusoidal carrier wave A waveform (usually sinusoidal) which is
Remember that all other units can be derived from these
oscillation expressed in radians per second: modulated by an input signal to carry information.
2 seven. The equations that relate them are the equations
angular frequency = Chapter 15: that
centre youofwill
gravity waves
learnThe point
as you go where the entire
along (just as F =weight of an
ma relates QUESTIONS
the appears
newton to act.
to the kilogram, metre and second). The unit
angular velocity The rate of change of the angular 5 Determi
position of an object as it moves along a curved path. centripetal
of luminousforce intensity Theisresultant
not partforce
of theacting
A/ASon an object
Questions at the end of each chapter begin with shorter answer antinode Aquestions, then
point on a stationary wavemove on to more
with maximum
moving in a circle; it is always directed towards the centre
Base unit Symbol Base unit
a press
of the circle. b energ
demanding exam-style questions,
some of which may require amplitude.use of knowledge from previous characteristic
End-of-chapter questions length x, l, s etc.
radiation Very intense X-rays produced in
m (metre)
atomic mass unit A unit of mass (symbol u) c densi
chapters. Answers to these questions can be found on theapproximately CDROM. anmass
X-ray tube, having specific wavelengthsm kg (kilogram)
that depend on
End-of-chapter questions equal to 1.661 10 27 kg. The mass of an
1 A ship is pulled at a constant speed by two small boats, A and B, as shown in Figure 4.27. The engine of the the
atom of 126 C = 12.000 u exactly.
timetarget metal. t s (second) 6 Use base
ship does not produce any force. equation
charge current Any charged particle, I such asAan(ampere)
1 Figure 15.19 shows a stationary wave on a string.
attenuation The gradual loss in strength or intensity of a
thermodynamic for atemperature
current. T K (kelvin) a press
signal. A =d
amount oflaw
Charless substance
The volume occupied n by a gas mol (mole)
at constant
average speed The total distance travelled by an object b dista
40 pressure
directly proportional I to its thermodynamic
cd (candela)
divided by the total time taken. = in
(absolute) temperature.
40 Table 3.2 SI base quantities and units. In this course, you will
vibrator learn about all of these except the candela.
Figure 15.19 For End-of-chapter Question 1.
Figure 4.27 For End-of-chapter Question 1.
a On a copy of Figure 15.19, label one node (N) and one antinode (A). [1]
b Mark
The tension on your
in each cablediagram
between the wavelength
A and B and theofship
the standing
is 4000 N.wave and label it . [1]
a Draw c a The frequency
free-body of the
diagram vibratorthe
showing is doubled. Describe
three horizontal the changes
forces inthe
acting on theship.
standing wave pattern. [2] [1]
b Draw a vector
2 A tuning diagram
fork whichto scale showing
produces a note these
of 256three forces and
Hz is placed usea your
above tubediagram to find filled
which is nearly the value
with water.
of the
Thedrag force
water onisthe
level ship. until resonance is first heard.
lowered [2]
a Explain what is meant by the term resonance. [1]
b The length of the column of air above the water when resonance is first heard is 31.2 cm.
Calculate the speed of the sound wave. [2]
3 a State two similarities and two differences between progressive waves and stationary waves. [4]
b Figure 15.20 shows an experiment to measure the speed of a sound in a string. The frequency of the 219
vibrator is adjusted until the standing wave shown in Figure 15.20 is formed.

vibrator pulley
75 cm

slotted masses
Figure 15.20 For End-of-chapter Question 3.

i On a copy of the diagram, mark a node (label it N) and an antinode (label it A). [2]