0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 149 стр.As and a Level Book

Jul 30, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

As and a Level Book

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 14

As and a Level Book

© All Rights Reserved

- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Hormone Reset Diet: The 21-day Diet That Resets Your Metabolism
- Bloody Sunday: A Thriller
- WomanCode: Perfect Your Cycle, Amplify Your Fertility, Supercharge Your Sex Drive, and Become a Power Source
- The Final Day: A John Matherson Novel
- Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich
- Vermilion Drift: A Novel
- King, Warrior, Magician, Lover: Rediscovering the Archetypes of the Mature Masculine
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Managing Yourself (with bonus article "How Will You Measure Your Life?" by Clayton M. Christensen)
- Amity and Prosperity: One Family and the Fracturing of America
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- Chernobyl 01:23:40: The Incredible True Story of the World's Worst Nuclear Disaster
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- Free to Focus: A Total Productivity System to Achieve More by Doing Less
- Atomic Accidents: A History of Nuclear Meltdowns and Disasters: From the Ozark Mountains to Fukushima
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- The Power of Full Engagement: Managing Energy, Not Time, is the Key to High Performance and Personal Renewal
- The Subtle Body: An Encyclopedia of Your Energetic Anatomy
- Lost in the Solar System
- The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life, Work, and Team With Positive Energy

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

David Sang Graham Jones Gurinder Chadha and Richard Woodside

Frontmatter

More information

Gurinder Chadha and Richard Woodside

Cambridge International AS and A Level

Physics

Coursebook

Second Edition

University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom

It furthers the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of

education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

www.cambridge.org

Information on this title: www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press 2010, 2014

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,

no reproduction of any part may take place without the written

permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2010

Second edition 2014

Printed in the United Kingdom by Latimer Trend

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

ISBN 978-1-107-69769-0 Paperback with CD-ROM for Windows and MAC

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy

of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,

and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,

accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other

factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but

Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information

thereafter.

It is illegal to reproduce any part of this book in material form (including

photocopying and electronic storage) except under the following circumstances:

(i) where you are abiding by a licence granted to your school or institution by the

Copyright Licensing Agency;

(ii) where no such licence exists, or where you wish to exceed the terms of a licence,

and you have gained the written permission of Cambridge University Press;

(iii) where you are allowed to reproduce without permission under the provisions

of Chapter 3 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, which covers, for

example, the reproduction of short passages within certain types of educational

anthology and reproduction for the purposes of setting examination questions.

Example answers and all other end-of-chapter questions were written by the authors.

Contents

Introduction vii Chapter 5: Work, energy and power 69

Doing work, transferring energy 71

How to use this book viii

Gravitational potential energy 75

Chapter 1: Kinematics describing motion 1 Kinetic energy 76

g.p.e.k.e. transformations 76

Speed 2

Down, up, down energy changes 77

Distance and displacement, scalar and vector 4

Energy transfers 78

Speed and velocity 5

Power 80

Displacementtime graphs 6

Combining displacements 8 Chapter 6: Momentum 85

Combining velocities 10

The idea of momentum 86

Chapter 2: Accelerated motion 14 Modelling collisions 86

Understanding collisions 89

The meaning of acceleration 15

Explosions and crash-landings 91

Calculating acceleration 15

Collisions in two dimensions 93

Units of acceleration 16

Momentum and Newtons laws 95

Deducing acceleration 17

Understanding motion 96

Deducing displacement 17

Measuring velocity and acceleration 18 Chapter 7: Matter and materials 101

Determining velocity and acceleration in

Density 102

the laboratory 18

Pressure 102 iii

The equations of motion 20

Compressive and tensile forces 104

Deriving the equations of motion 22

Stretching materials 105

Uniform and non-uniform acceleration 24

Elastic potential energy 108

Acceleration caused by gravity 25

Determining g 25 Chapter 8: Electric fields 116

Motion in two dimensions projectiles 28

Understanding projectiles 29 Attraction and repulsion 117

ersity Press www.cambridge.org

The concept of an electric field 118

Chapter 3: Dynamics explaining motion 37 Electric field strength 119

Force on a charge 122

Calculating the acceleration 38

Understanding SI units 39 Chapter 9: Electric current, potential

The pull of gravity 41 difference and resistance 127

Mass and inertia 43

Top speed 44 Circuit symbols and diagrams 128

Moving through fluids 45 Electric current 129

Identifying forces 47 An equation for current 132

Newtons third law of motion 49 The meaning of voltage 134

Electrical resistance 135

Chapter 4: Forces vectors and moments 53 Electrical power 136

Combining forces 54 Chapter 10: Kirchhoffs laws 143

Components of vectors 56

Centre of gravity 59 Kirchhoffs first law 144

The turning effect of a force 59 Kirchhoffs second law 145

The torque of a couple 63 Applying Kirchhoffs laws 146

Resistor combinations 148

Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics

Chapter 11: Resistance and resistivity 156 P1: Practical skills at AS level 239

The IV characteristic for a metallic conductor 157 Practical work in physics 240

Ohms law 158 Using apparatus and following instructions 240

Resistance and temperature 159 Gathering evidence 241

Resistivity 162 Precision, accuracy, errors and uncertainties 241

Finding the value of an uncertainty 243

Chapter 12: Practical circuits 168 Percentage uncertainty 245

Internal resistance 169 Recording results 246

Potential dividers 172 Analysing results 246

Potentiometer circuits 172 Testing a relationship 248

Identifying limitations in procedures and

Chapter 13: Waves 178 suggesting improvements 250

Describing waves 179

Longitudinal and transverse waves 181

Chapter 17: Circular motion 258

Wave energy 182 Describing circular motion 259

Wave speed 183 Angles in radians 260

The Doppler effect 184 Steady speed, changing velocity 261

Electromagnetic waves 185 Angular velocity 261

Electromagnetic radiation 186 Centripetal forces 262

Orders of magnitude 187 Calculating acceleration and force 264

The nature of electromagnetic waves 188 The origins of centripetal forces 265

Chapter 14: Superposition of waves 192 Chapter 18: Gravitational fields 271

The principle of superposition of waves 193 Representing a gravitational field 272

iv Diffraction of waves 194 Gravitational field strength g 274

Interference 196 Energy in a gravitational field 276

The Young double-slit experiment 200 Gravitational potential 276

Diffraction gratings 203 Orbiting under gravity 277

The orbital period 278

Chapter 15: Stationary waves 210 Orbiting the Earth 279

ersity Press From moving to stationary 211

Nodes and antinodes 212

Chapterwww.cambridge.org

19: Oscillations 285

Formation of stationary waves 212 Free and forced oscillations 286

Determining the wavelength and speed of sound 216 Observing oscillations 287

Describing oscillations 288

Chapter 16: Radioactivity 222 Simple harmonic motion 289

Looking inside the atom 223 Representing s.h.m. graphically 291

Alpha-particle scattering and the nucleus 223 Frequency and angular frequency 292

A simple model of the atom 225 Equations of s.h.m. 293

Nucleons and electrons 226 Energy changes in s.h.m. 296

Forces in the nucleus 229 Damped oscillations 297

Fundamental particles? 229 Resonance 299

Families of particles 230

Discovering radioactivity 231

Chapter 20: Communications systems 309

Radiation from radioactive substances 231 Radio waves 310

Discovering neutrinos 232 Analogue and digital signals 314

Fundamental families 232 Channels of communication 317

Fundamental forces 232 Comparison of different channels 319

Properties of ionising radiation 233

Contents

Chapter 21: Thermal physics 327 Chapter 27: Charged particles 422

Changes of state 328 Observing the force 423

Energy changes 329 Orbiting charges 423

Internal energy 331 Electric and magnetic fields 427

The meaning of temperature 332 The Hall effect 428

Thermometers 334 Discovering the electron 429

Calculating energy changes 336

Chapter 28: Electromagnetic induction 435

Chapter 22: Ideal gases 345 Observing induction 436

Particles of a gas 346 Explaining electromagnetic induction 437

Explaining pressure 348 Faradays law of electromagnetic induction 441

Measuring gases 348 Lenzs law 443

Boyles law 349 Using induction: eddy currents, generators

Changing temperature 350 and transformers 445

Ideal gas equation 351

Modelling gases the kinetic model 352 Chapter 29: Alternating currents 451

Temperature and molecular kinetic energy 354 Sinusoidal current 452

Alternating voltages 453

Chapter 23: Coulombs law 359 Power and a.c. 455

Electric fields 360 Why use a.c. for electricity supply? 457

Coulombs law 360 Transformers 458

Electric field strength for a radial field 362 Rectification 460

Electric potential 363

Comparing gravitational and electric fields 366 Chapter 30: Quantum physics 466

Modelling with particles and waves 467 v

Chapter 24: Capacitance 372 Particulate nature of light 468

Capacitors in use 373 The photoelectric effect 471

Energy stored in a capacitor 375 Line spectra 475

Capacitors in parallel 377 Explaining the origin of line spectra 476

Capacitors in series 378 Photon energies 477

ersity Press

Comparing capacitors and resistors 379 Electron energies in solids

www.cambridge.org

478

Capacitor networks 380 The nature of light waves or particles? 480

Electron waves 480

Chapter 25: Electronics 386

Components of an electronic sensing system 387 Chapter 31: Nuclear physics 489

The operational amplifier (op-amp) 393 Balanced equations 490

The inverting amplifier 397 Mass and energy 491

The non-inverting amplifier 398 Energy released in radioactive decay 494

Output devices 398 Binding energy and stability 494

Randomness and decay 496

Chapter 26: Magnetic fields and The mathematics of radioactive decay 497

electromagnetism 406 Decay graphs and equations 499

Producing and representing magnetic fields 407 Decay constant and half-life 501

Magnetic force 409

Magnetic flux density 411

Measuring magnetic flux density 411

Currents crossing fields 413

Forces between currents 415

Relating SI units 416

Comparing forces in magnetic, electric

and gravitational fields 417

Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics

The nature and production of X-rays 507

X-ray attenuation 509

Improving X-ray images 511

Computerised axial tomography 513

Using ultrasound in medicine 516

Echo sounding 518

Ultrasound scanning 520

Magnetic resonance imaging 522

Planning 530

Analysis of the data 532

Treatment of uncertainties 536

Conclusions and evaluation of results 538

Prefixes 542

Estimation 542

relationships 543

Data 543

Conversion factors 543

vi

Mathematical equations 544

Formulae and relationships 544

Glossary 546

ersity Press www.cambridge.org

Index 555

Acknowledgements 564

the CD-ROM 566

Introduction

This book covers the entire syllabus of Cambridge In your studies, you will find that certain key concepts

International Examinations AS and A Level Physics. It is come up again and again, and that these concepts form

designed to work with the syllabus that will be examined themes that link the different areas of physics together. It

from 2016. It is in three parts: will help you to progress and gain confidence in tackling

Chapters 116 and P1: the AS level content, covered in the problems if you take note of these themes. For this

first year of the course, including a chapter (P1) dedicated to Coursebook, these key concepts include:

the development of your practical skills Models of physical systems

Chapters 1732 and P2: the remaining A level content, Testing predictions against evidence

including a chapter (P2) dedicated to developing your ability Mathematics as a language and problem-solving tool

to plan, analyse and evaluate practical investigations

Matter, energy and waves

Appendices of useful formulae, a Glossary and an Index.

Forces and fields

The main tasks of a textbook like this are to explain the

In this Coursebook, the mathematics has been kept to

various concepts of physics that you need to understand

the minimum required by the Cambridge International

and to provide you with questions that will help you to test

Examinations AS and A Level Physics syllabus. If you

your understanding and prepare for your examinations.

are also studying mathematics, you may find that more

You will find a visual guide to the structure of each chapter

advanced techniques such as calculus will help you with

and the features of this book on the next two pages.

many aspects of physics.

When tackling questions, it is a good idea to make

Studying physics can be a stimulating and worthwhile

a first attempt without referring to the explanations in

experience. It is an international subject; no single

this Coursebook or to your notes. This will help to reveal

country has a monopoly on the development of the ideas. vii

any gaps in your understanding. By working out which

It can be a rewarding exercise to discover how men and

concepts you find most challenging, and by spending more

women from many countries have contributed to our

time to understand these concepts at an early stage, you

knowledge and well-being, through their research into

will progress faster as the course continues.

and application of the concepts of physics. We hope not

The CD-ROM that accompanies this Coursebook

only that this book will help you to succeed in your future

includes answers with workings for all the questions in

studies and career, but also that it will stimulate your

ersity Press the book, as well as suggestions for revising and preparing www.cambridge.org

curiosity and fire your imagination. Todays students

for any examinations you take. There are also lists of

become the next generation of physicists and engineers,

recommended further reading, which in many cases will

and we hope that you will learn from the past to take

take you beyond the requirements of the syllabus, but

physics to ever-greater heights.

which will help you deepen your knowledge and explain

more of the background to the physics concepts covered in

this Coursebook.

Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics

Each chapter begins with a short list of the There is a short context at the beginning of each chapter, containing an example of

facts and concepts that are explained in it. how the material covered in the chapter relates to the real world.

AS Level Physics

1 Describing movement

Chapter 1: Our eyes are good at detecting movement. We notice

even quite small movements out of the corners of

Kinematics

our eyes. Its important for us to be able to judge

movement think about crossing the road, cycling or

driving, or catching a ball.

be recorded on a photograph. This is a stroboscopic

photograph of a boy juggling three balls. As he juggles,

a bright lamp flashes several times a second so that

the camera records the positions of the balls at equal

Learning outcomes intervals of time.

If we knew the time between flashes, we could Figure 1.1 This boy is juggling three balls. A stroboscopic

You should be able to: measure the photograph and calculate the speed of a lamp flashes at regular intervals; the camera is moved to one

ball as it moves through the air. side at a steady rate to show separate images of the boy.

define displacement, speed and velocity

draw and interpret displacementtime graphs

describe laboratory methods for determining speed

The text and illustrations describe and explain all of the facts and concepts

use vector addition to add two or more vectors Speed

that We

you need to know. The chapters, and often

can calculate the average speed of something moving if

the content within them as

If you look at the speedometer in a car, it doesnt

well,weare arranged

know the distance itin a similar

moves sequence

and the time it takes: to your

tell yousyllabus, but

the cars average with

speed; AS

rather, and

it tells you its

AS Level Physics A Levelaverage

content clearly

distance separated into the two speed halves of the

at the instant when book.

you look at it. This is the cars

speed = instantaneous speed.

time

2

In symbols, this is written as:

Figure 13.3 or a similar graph of displacement against

Questions

QUESTION throughout the text

QUESTION d

time illustrates the following important definitions about v=

t give you a chance to check that

1 Look at Figure 1.2. The runner ran 10 000 m, and

waves and wave motion: Determine

1where v is thethe wavelength

average speed and amplitude of eachtravelled

d is the distance youthehave understood

clock shows the Calculate

the total time taken. topic his

The distance of a point on the wave from its undisturbed in of thet.two

time Thewaves shown in

photograph Figure1.2)

(Figure 13.5.shows Ethiopias youaverage

havespeedjust read

during about. You

the race.

viii position or equilibrium position is called the displacement x. Kenenisa6 Bekele posing next to the scoreboard after

can find the answers to these

Displacement / cm

The maximum displacement of any point on the wave breaking4 the world record in a a mens 10 000 metres race.

from its undisturbed position is called the amplitude A.

The amplitude of a wave on the sea is measured in units

The time2 on the clock in the photograph

b enables us to questions on the CD-ROM.

Units

0

work out his average

2 5 10 speed. 15 20 25 30 35

of distance, e.g. metres. The greater the amplitude of the In the Systme Internationale dUnits (the SI system),

If the

4 object is moving at a constant speed, this

wave, the louder the sound or the rougher the sea! distance is measured in metres (m) and time in seconds (s).

equation

6 will give us its Distance

speed / cm

during the time taken. If its

The distance from any point on a wave to the next exactly Therefore, speed is in metres per second. This is written as

similar point (e.g. crest to crest) is called the wavelength speed is changing, then the equation gives us its average

Figure 13.5 Two waves for Question 1. m s1 (or as m/s). Here, s1 is the same as 1/s, or per second.

(the Greek letter lambda). The wavelength of a wave on the speed. Average speed is calculated over a period of time.

There are many other units used for speed. The choice of

sea is measured in units of distance, e.g. metres.

unit depends on the situation. You would probably give the

The time taken for one complete oscillation of a point in a

wave is called the period T. It is the time taken for a point to BOX 13.1: Measuring frequency This

speed of abook does units

snail in different notfromcontain

the speed of a racing

car. Table 1.1 includes

AS Level some alternative units of speed.

Physics

ersity Press

move from one particular position and return to that same detailed instructions for doing

position, moving in the same direction. It is measured in You can measure the frequency of soundwww.cambridge.org

waves Note that in many calculations it is necessary to work

units of time, e.g. seconds.. using a cathode-ray oscilloscope (c.r.o.). Figure 13.6 inparticular

SI units (m s1). experiments, but you

wave is called its frequency f. For sound waves, the higher

shows how. will find background

m s1 metresinformation

per second

the frequency of a musical note, the higher is its pitch.

A microphone is connected to the input of the about

cm s1 the practical

QUESTIONS workper

centimetres yousecond WORKED EXA

c.r.o. Sound waves are captured by the microphone

Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz), where 1 Hz = one

oscillation per second (1 kHz = 103 Hz and 1 MHz = 106 Hz). and converted into a varying voltage which has the need

km s1

7 to do inhow

Calculate these Boxes.

muchkilometres There

per second

gravitational potential 3 Calculate th

The frequency f of a wave is the reciprocal of the period T: same frequency as the sound waves. This voltage is are

km also

h1 or km/h two

energy chapters,

is gained if you climbP1

kilometres aper and

hour

flight of stairs. mass 800 kg

displayed on the c.r.o. screen. mph Assume that you have a mass

miles of 52 kg and that the

per hour 30 m s1.

180

f=

1 Figure 1.2 Ethiopias Kenenisa Bekele set a new world record P2, which height provide detailed

you lift yourself is 2.5 m.

T forItthe

is best tometres

10 000 think ofrace

a c.r.o. as a voltmeter which

in 2005. Table 1.1 Units of speed. Step 1 Cal

Waves are called mechanical waves if they need a is capable of displaying a rapidly varying voltage. To information

8 A climber of about

mass 100the practical

kg (including the equipment Ek = 12 mv2 =

substance (medium) through which to travel. Sound is one do this, its spot moves across the screen at a steady skills you need to develop during

she is carrying) ascends from sea level to the top

of a mountain 5500 m high. Calculate the change = 160 kJ

speed, set by the time-base control. At the same

example of such a wave. Other cases are waves on strings,

time, the spot moves up and down according to the

your course.

in her gravitational potential energy. Step 2 Cal

seismic waves and water waves (Figure 13.4).

voltage of the input. 9 a A toy car works by means of a stretched rubber Ek = 12 mv2 =

Some properties of typical waves are given on page 183

Hence the display on the screen is a graph of the band. What form of potential energy does the = 360 kJ

in Table 13.1.

varying voltage, with time on the (horizontal) x-axis. car store when the band is stretched?

Step 3 Cal

If we know the horizontal scale, we can determine b A bar magnet is lying with its north pole next

change in k

the period and hence the frequency of the sound to the south pole of another bar magnet. A

student pulls them apart. Why do we say that Hint: Take c

wave. Worked example 1 shows how to do this. (In

the magnets potential energy has increased? by squaring

Chapter 15 we will look at one method of measuring Where has this energy come from? change in s

the wavelength of sound waves.) incorrect va

Kinetic energy

As well as lifting an object, a force can make it accelerate. QUESTIONS

Important

Again, work isequations

done by the forceand other

and energy is transferred

76

facts

to theare shown

object. inwe

In this case, highlight

say that it hasboxes.

gained kinetic 10 Which has

travelling

energy, Ek. The faster an object is moving, the greater its

250 kg tra

kinetic energy (k.e.).

11 Calculate

mass 200

Figure 13.6 Measuring the frequency of sound waves For an object of mass m travelling at a speed v, we have: the groun

Figure 13.4 The impact of a droplet on the surface of a liquid

from a tuning fork. kinetic energy = 12 mass speed2 it at 12.2 m

creates a vibration, which in turn gives rise to waves on the

surface. Ek = 12 mv2

g.p.e.k.e

Deriving the formula for kinetic energy A motor drags th

The equation for k.e., Ek = 12mv2, is related to one of the hill. The car runs

equations of motion. We imagine a car being accelerated as it goes (see Fig

from rest (u = 0) to velocity v. To give it acceleration a, it to reach the top o

is pushed by a force F for a distance s. Since u = 0, we can first. It accelerate

write the equation v2 = u2 + 2as as: The motor pro

2 car to the top of t

In the earlier examples, we described how the motion A group of colliding objects always has as much

of one trolley appeared to be transferred to a second momentum after the collision as it had before the collision.

trolley, or shared with it. It is more correct to say that it This principle is illustrated in Worked example 1.

is the trolleys momentum that is transferred or shared.

(Strictly speaking, we should refer to linear momentum, QUESTIONS

because there is another quantity called angular

momentum which is possessed by spinning objects.) 2 Calculate the momentum of each of the following

As with energy, we find that momentum is also objects:

conserved. We have to consider objects which form a a a 0.50 kg stone travelling at a velocity of 20 m s1

closed system that is, no external force acts on them. The b a 25 000 kg bus travelling at 20 m s1 on a road

principle of conservation of momentum states that: c an electron travelling at 2.0 107 m s1.

(The mass of the electron is 9.1 1031 kg.)

Within a closed system, the total momentum in any 3 Two balls, each of mass 0.50 kg, collide as shown in

direction is constant. Figure 6.6. Show that their total momentum before

the collision is equal to their total momentum after

the collision.

How to use this book

The principle of conservation of momentum can also be before after

expressed as follows:

2.0 m s1 3.0 m s1 2.0 m s1 1.0 m s1

Wherever you

total needof to

momentum know

objects how to use a formula to carry out a calculation,

before collision

there are worked= example

total momentum boxes

of objectsto

aftershow

collision you howFigure

to do 6.6 this.

For Question 3.

88

WORKED EXAMPLE

1 In Figure 6.5, trolley A of mass 0.80 kg travelling at a Step 1 Make a sketch using the information given in the

velocity of 3.0 m s1 collides head-on with a stationary question. Notice that we need two diagrams to show

trolley B. Trolley B has twice the mass of trolley A. The the situations, one before and one after the collision.

trolleys stick together and have a common velocity of Similarly, we need two calculations one for the

1.0 m s1 after the collision. Show that momentum is momentum of the trolleys before the collision and one

conserved in this collision. for their momentum after the collision.

Step 2 Calculate the momentum before the collision:

momentum of trolleys before collision

before positive after = mA uA + mB uB

direction

= (0.80 3.0) + 0

uA = 3.0 m s1 uB = 0 vA+B = 1.0 m s1 = 2.4 kg m s1

A Level Physics

Trolley B has no momentum before the collision,

because it is not moving. AS Level Physics

A B

0.80kg A 0.80kgB

0.80 kg 0.80 kg 0.80 kg 0.80 kg Step 3 Calculate the momentum after the collision: Key words are highlighted in the text

Glossary

momentum of trolleys after collision

= (mA + mB) vA+B

= (0.80 + 1.60) 1.0

when they are first introduced.

Base units, derived units QUESTION

The metre, kilogram and second are three of the seven SI

Figure 6.5 The state of trolleys A and B, before and after = 2.4 kg m s1 see thermodynamic scale. The pull

absolute scale of temperature; base

Avogadrounits.constant

These areThe defined

numberwithofgreat precision

particles in one so that 4

the collision. weight) i

So, both before and after the

absolute collision,

zero every

mole of

the trolleys have

The temperature standards

at which a system has laboratory

any substance can reproduce

approximately (6.02them

1023correctly.

mol1),

a combined momentum of 2.4 kg m s1energy;

. Momentum OtherNunits,

has to 273.15 C. such as units of speed (m s1) and internati

minimum internal denoted

equivalent A. of force a

been conserved. acceleration

band theory(m Thes2idea

) are that

known as derived

electrons unitsor

in a solid because

liquid

absorption line spectrum A dark line of a unique reasons

wavelength seen in a continuous spectrum. You willthey also

can have find

are combinations

energies definitions

withinof certain

base units. ofSome

ranges or derived units,

bands, between useful de

such as the newton and the joule, have special names

acceleration The rate of change of an objects velocity: these words which are in the

forbidden Glossary.

values.

which are more convenient to use than giving them in

v bandwidth (communications) A measure of the width of

terms of base units. The definition of the newton will show

a=

t a range of frequencies being transmitted. Other SI un

you how this works.

Unit: m s2 . base units Defined units of the SI system from which all Using only seve

Defining

other units are the newton

derived. of quantities ha

Cambridge International AS Level Physics Isaac

best fit Newton

line A(16421727)

straight lineplayeddrawnaas significant

closely aspart

possible to

would be confu

which is close to the true value of the quantity. units were also

in

thedeveloping

points of athe graph scientific

so thatidea of force.

similar Building

numbers on lie

of points

acoustic impedance Acoustic impedance Z is the product were defined as

Galileos

above andearlierbelowthinking,

the line. he explained the relationship

of the density of a substance and the speed c of sound in of water would

between force, mass

binding energy Theand acceleration,

minimum external which we now

energy write

required

that substance (Z = c). Unit: kg m2 s1. unlikely that th

as F = ma. For thisneutrons

reason, the andSIprotons

unit of of force is named

There is a summary of to separate all the a nucleus.

Summary activity The rate of decay or disintegration of nuclei in a after him.

bit A basic unit of information storage, the amount of

exactly the mas

key points at the end radioactive sample. kilogram, whic

which ix

We can use the equation F = ma to define the newton (N).

Forces are vector quantities that can be added by The principle of moments states that, for information

any object stored by a device that exists in only two all mass

of each chapter. You ampere The SI unit of electric current (abbreviated A).

means of a vector triangle. Their resultant can be distinct states, usually given as the binary digits 0 and 1.

that is in equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise All other un

amplitude

drawing.The maximum displacement of point

a particle from by the

might find this helpful determined using trigonometry or by scale

546

moments about any provided One newton

Boltzmann

its equilibrium position.forces acting on the object equals the sum ofacceleration

is the force

constant that will give aconstant

A fundamental 1 kg massgiven

an by is done using th

the

R of 1 m s2 in the direction of the force.

when you are revising. Vectors such as forces can be resolved into

amplitude modulation A form of

anticlockwise modulation

moments in which

about that

= , where R is2the ideal gas constant

40 same kpoint.

1NN = 1 kg 1 m s or 1 N = 1 kg m s2

and NA is the speed is define

components. Components at right angles to one A

speed in the SI

another can be treated independently of the

onesignal causes variations

another. in the amplitude of a carrier Avogadro constant.

A couple is a pair of equal, parallel but opposite forces

wave.the Since the de

For a force F at an angle to the x-direction, whose effect is to produce a turning effectBoyles

on a bodylaw The pressure exerted by a fixed mass of gas

units for force

components are: analogue signal A signal that isgiving

without continuously variable,

it linear acceleration. The seven

is inversely base units

proportional to its volume, provided the

Equations t

x-direction: F cos having a continuum of torque

possibleofvalues. temperature

In mechanicsof(the

a couple = one of the forces perpendicular thestudy

gas remains

of forces constant.

and motion), the units

same base unit

y-direction: F sin analogue-to-digital conversion (ADC) the

distance between Conversion

forces of a we use are

braking based on X-rays

radiation three base units: when

produced the metre, kilogram

electrons are not happen the

continuous analogue signal toobject

discrete and second.(also

decelerated As wecalled

moveBremsstrahlung

into studying electricity,

radiation).we will

The moment of a force = force perpendicular For an to digital numbers. the resultant

be in equilibrium, force

ersity Press angular

distance of the pivot from the line of action of displacement actingThe angle www.cambridge.org

on thethrough

object which

must be anzero

object

need to add another

and thecapacitance

resultant The ratio base unit, the

of charge ampere.

stored by aHeat requires

capacitor to

another base difference

the potential unit, the kelvinacross(the

it. unit of temperature). When each te

the force. moves in a circle. moment must be zero.

Table 3.2 shows the seven base units of the SI system. the equation

angular frequency The frequency of a sinusoidal carrier wave A waveform (usually sinusoidal) which is

Remember that all other units can be derived from these

oscillation expressed in radians per second: modulated by an input signal to carry information.

2 seven. The equations that relate them are the equations

angular frequency = Chapter 15: that

Stationary

centre youofwill

gravity waves

learnThe point

as you go where the entire

along (just as F =weight of an

ma relates QUESTIONS

T

object

the appears

newton to act.

to the kilogram, metre and second). The unit

angular velocity The rate of change of the angular 5 Determi

position of an object as it moves along a curved path. centripetal

of luminousforce intensity Theisresultant

not partforce

of theacting

A/ASon an object

course.

Questions at the end of each chapter begin with shorter answer antinode Aquestions, then

point on a stationary wavemove on to more

with maximum

moving in a circle; it is always directed towards the centre

Base unit Symbol Base unit

a press

of the circle. b energ

demanding exam-style questions,

64

some of which may require amplitude.use of knowledge from previous characteristic

End-of-chapter questions length x, l, s etc.

radiation Very intense X-rays produced in

m (metre)

atomic mass unit A unit of mass (symbol u) c densi

chapters. Answers to these questions can be found on theapproximately CDROM. anmass

X-ray tube, having specific wavelengthsm kg (kilogram)

that depend on

End-of-chapter questions equal to 1.661 10 27 kg. The mass of an

1 A ship is pulled at a constant speed by two small boats, A and B, as shown in Figure 4.27. The engine of the the

atom of 126 C = 12.000 u exactly.

timetarget metal. t s (second) 6 Use base

ship does not produce any force. equation

electriccarrier

charge current Any charged particle, I such asAan(ampere)

electron,

1 Figure 15.19 shows a stationary wave on a string.

attenuation The gradual loss in strength or intensity of a

responsible

thermodynamic for atemperature

current. T K (kelvin) a press

signal. A =d

amount oflaw

Charless substance

The volume occupied n by a gas mol (mole)

at constant

average speed The total distance travelled by an object b dista

40 pressure

luminousisintensity

directly proportional I to its thermodynamic

cd (candela)

divided by the total time taken. = in

(absolute) temperature.

40 Table 3.2 SI base quantities and units. In this course, you will

vibrator learn about all of these except the candela.

B

Figure 15.19 For End-of-chapter Question 1.

Figure 4.27 For End-of-chapter Question 1.

a On a copy of Figure 15.19, label one node (N) and one antinode (A). [1]

b Mark

The tension on your

in each cablediagram

between the wavelength

A and B and theofship

the standing

is 4000 N.wave and label it . [1]

a Draw c a The frequency

free-body of the

diagram vibratorthe

showing is doubled. Describe

three horizontal the changes

forces inthe

acting on theship.

standing wave pattern. [2] [1]

b Draw a vector

2 A tuning diagram

fork whichto scale showing

produces a note these

of 256three forces and

Hz is placed usea your

above tubediagram to find filled

which is nearly the value

with water.

of the

Thedrag force

water onisthe

level ship. until resonance is first heard.

lowered [2]

a Explain what is meant by the term resonance. [1]

b The length of the column of air above the water when resonance is first heard is 31.2 cm.

Calculate the speed of the sound wave. [2]

3 a State two similarities and two differences between progressive waves and stationary waves. [4]

b Figure 15.20 shows an experiment to measure the speed of a sound in a string. The frequency of the 219

vibrator is adjusted until the standing wave shown in Figure 15.20 is formed.

vibrator pulley

75 cm

slotted masses

Figure 15.20 For End-of-chapter Question 3.

i On a copy of the diagram, mark a node (label it N) and an antinode (label it A). [2]

- Complete NEET Crash Course PDF.pdfЗагружено:saksham modq
- Consciousness MechanicsЗагружено:Caleb Thomas
- Basic Characteristics of Electromagnetic Radiation.Загружено:JagroopSinghBalhra
- Fundamental of physicsЗагружено:RICHA DHARANI
- Dat Test Sampleitems (1)2Загружено:Manan Belani
- Science AssignmentЗагружено:PR RC
- Electromagnetic EnergyЗагружено:Uma Venkata Sumanth
- 151727-cambridge-learner-guide-for-igcse-physics.pdfЗагружено:lolism
- ReflandTx-2Загружено:Anshul Saprey
- Electromagnetic Spectrum Powerpoint 150311100317 Conversion Gate01 (1)Загружено:Anonymous xagGSId
- YR 11 P2. PHY QUEЗагружено:Farouk
- Phase 1_Cristian David FajardoЗагружено:Cristian Fajardo
- 09(T) - Electromagnetic WavesЗагружено:Er Rajesh Bura
- WavesЗагружено:Keith Marie Yee
- Ferrel1958predictedЗагружено:pakukeras2
- t7_hertzЗагружено:Veerareddy Vippala
- 04 Emw Theory Jeemain.guruЗагружено:Rohit Ghere
- Section IV 15 WavesЗагружено:danwilliams85
- Silberberg7eISMChapter7Загружено:Ihtiandiko Wicaksono
- Lecture 2 Radiation and AtomЗагружено:Lajja Parikh Patel
- introduction_lesson_radiating_electromagnetic_systems _2015_2016_v1.pdfЗагружено:romolusw
- Quantum TheoryЗагружено:José De Jesús Serralta
- glass pptЗагружено:api-291003259
- Radiation Theory of Moths AssemblingЗагружено:alkatel007
- Basic Physic ConceptЗагружено:Yopi Siswono
- FoundationsOfSensationandPerceptionЗагружено:Rudy Rinaldi Nugraha
- 9A23402 Analytical Methods in BiotechnologyЗагружено:sivabharathamurthy
- TGD Stelathskater.com - OrMES 10 - Barry Carter - Callahan Studies on Resonance vs GravityЗагружено:theherbsmith
- PETMALU.docxЗагружено:Bombet Avila
- WCT_Brochure.pdfЗагружено:Michael White

- Physics NotesЗагружено:Imran Mirza
- Interpretting Cumulative Frequency GraphsЗагружено:harshil
- Economics Notes.pdfЗагружено:Esther
- Position Paper Format 20171Загружено:harshil
- Active and Passive VoiceЗагружено:Fxwireless
- Light Reflection & Refraction Lesson PlanЗагружено:harshil
- Indirect SpeechЗагружено:varunun131
- 342593 June 2015 Examiner ReportЗагружено:harshil
- Circle Theorems AnswersЗагружено:harshil
- 92_tree-diagrams.pdfЗагружено:harshil
- ICT Notes 0417Загружено:Maaz Rashid
- Circle TheoremsЗагружено:harshil
- 20 Mean Median Mode RangeЗагружено:Joel Gray
- Practice Ecology QuestionsЗагружено:harshil
- interdependence-questions.docЗагружено:harshil
- 0500_s15_in_21(2)Загружено:cfcbefucbueiw
- 0522_s12_qp_3Загружено:harshil
- 0522_s12_qp_2Загружено:harshil
- 0522_s12_ms_3Загружено:harshil

- TR Technical Guide 2006 EnЗагружено:Husnain Associates
- LDTC.pdfЗагружено:Akshay Chaturvedi
- Electricity.pdfЗагружено:scartaru
- detector camp magnetic.pdfЗагружено:Claudiu Mircea
- OX-A431.pdfЗагружено:Jair Sandoval
- lm340Загружено:Johnson John
- Control Technique DriveЗагружено:surjitvarma
- fotocelda desarrolloЗагружено:Jeysnen Contreras
- EDC Lab ManualЗагружено:vanithapremkumar
- IRFP140Загружено:Andi K Indrawan
- path loss2Загружено:TarunVarma
- ElectroplatingЗагружено:Himanshu Gupta
- Telecommunications/ElectronicsЗагружено:hoanglinha5
- Direct Current and Alternating CurrentЗагружено:Yuva Raj
- Samsung P2470HD Service Manual (EN)Загружено:Mandu Ceriano
- Flex IO Selection GuideЗагружено:Nicolás A. Selvaggio
- ZeemanЗагружено:svsreerama
- High-Gain Single-Stage Boosting Inverter for Photovoltaic Applications.pdfЗагружено:LeMeniz Infotech
- Leds DisplaysЗагружено:Romeu Corradi Júnior
- Pq TheoryЗагружено:Francisco Armando Ramos Ccalla
- Wiring and Cabling_ How to Lace Cable HarnessesЗагружено:Douwe66
- rd2007-dataspecificationЗагружено:Jos2
- 3AH_Catalog.pdfЗагружено:alsilva2014
- Beosound 9000 MK-III Type 257x_2580.pdfЗагружено:Test
- MMIC Design, Part 3 - Packaging & TestingЗагружено:Vishal Iyer
- PSGuard Applications 1.6Загружено:epicF41L
- 10450.pdfЗагружено:Trinath31
- manual sony modelo Cdx Gt250s, EtcЗагружено:Edith Judith
- 12-Chemistry-Exemplar-Chapter-3.pdfЗагружено:Neema Tiwari
- ENG_CS_EPP-2443_1510 (1)Загружено:Sang Sek

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.