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Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 23, No.

4, 2007


Mansoor Ahmad*, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon**, Imtiaz Ahmad** and Humayun Khan***

This paper examines the impact of training, on the agricultural production, imparted to the Community Members of the
Sarhad Rural Support Program (SRSP) working area in the four villages namely Batlang syeda, Lulo bandi, Singal kat and
Parian of district Mansehra during 2000. A number of Community Organizations members had received trainings in
agriculture, livestock and enterprise development. Due to these trainings the people have started farming on scientific lines.
The results were based on the data collected from 50% (70 in number) of the training recipients of the sampled villages. The
paper highlights the impact of trainings on cropping pattern, area and production of crops and income of the farmers. As a
result of the training crop yield has increased, vegetables and fruits production has also shown an upward trend and diseases
and mortality rate of the livestock has also been decreased. The study recommends extension of such programs to other
backward regions of the province to increase the pace of development in those areas as well.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, HRD, SRSP, Technology, Training

Agricultural is the main source of livelihood in the HRD is the process of increasing, knowledge, skills
less developing countries and their development and capabilities of all the people in a society.
directly depends upon the development of Nadler and Nadler (1989) define Human Resource
agriculture (Tetlay, etal 1988). Like most of Development as learning experiences, specifically
developing countries agriculture in Pakistan is the training, education, and development, organized
largest sector of economy. It contributes more than and provided by employers during certain periods
24 percent of gross domestic products. Majority of of time in order to encourage improvement of
the people population especially in rural areas performance and/or personal growth of employees.
directly or indirectly depends on this sector. It Pajestka (1980) calls HRD a change in skills
employees more than half of the employed labour knowledge, education, attitudes, self-awareness and
force and is the main source of foreign exchange. motivation to perform and act differently.
(Govt. of Pakistan-2000)
Agriculturists and other scientists have suggested a
Human Resource Development (HRD) is not a new large number of technologies/measures to develop
phenomenon. This has been based on various agriculture. This includes use of improved seeds,
approaches over time. Before 1960s it mainly chemical fertilizers, modern machinery, integrated
concentrated on education and least was switched pest management, and contacts with extensions
to systematic trainings in 1960s and 1970s. It was agents. These technologies have been introduced
thought instead of emphasizing more on formal and used from the last three decades but in spite of
education, there should be systematic and all this most of the developing counties have been
standardized training/education for jobs in the failed to achieve the desired goals of the
industries or skilled occupations. Focus of these development. Prasad (1994) has advocated that for
trainings was on young people and long terms transfer of technology and improving human skills
unemployed. During 1930s, HRD trainings were regarding developmental process training is an
more business oriented directed at improving important mechanism. To ensure agriculture
organization effectiveness. development present institutes needs to be
strengthened with well-planned system of training.
The approach used after 1990s calls HRD an Pandey et al. (1993) has further suggested that
integrated and holistic idea for change in work- HRD is a catalyst, in using high yielding seeds,
related behavior by using a wide-range of learning, optimum dosage of fertilities, and integrated pest
techniques and strategies. It emphases on personal management for bringing about change in
development in which individual recipient should agricultural production
take the responsibly. It states that trainers should
decide, what they need to learn, resources Keeping in view of its importance, a large number
person/managers should plays a facilitator role, of governmental and non-governmental
instead of formal education emphasis should be on organizations have placed HRD as one of the main
practical experience of learner and should link with item on their agenda. SRSP is one of the
work of the learners and development of the government sponsored NGOs established in
country. (Megginson et al., 1993). November, 1989 with a mission to built the
capacities of local communities through

Department of Agricultural Extension Education & Communication, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar - Pakistan

Department of Entomology, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar - Pakistan

Institute of Development Studies, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar - Pakistan

Mansoor Ahmad et al. Impact training imparted to enhance Agricultural production 1212

participatory community based organizations for 1994.

sustainable social and economic development, with
a primary focus on rural poor and disadvantaged Information regarding HRD activities of SRSP
groups. were obtained from the head office Peshawar and
regional office Mansehra. On the basis of these
The main objective of SRSP are to improve crops, information four villages namely Batang Syedan,
livestock and forest production, awareness about Lulo Bandi, Sungal Kot and Piran were selected to
community development, environment protection collect data. These were the villages that had not
and conservation, raise the income of people, help only Community/Village Organizations but also
people organize themselves and enhance the status had 140 persons trained in agriculture and
and contribution of the women. These objectives livestock. A sample of 50 percent of their trainees
have been achieved through natural resource was drawn by using lottery system of simple
management, social organization, production, random sampling method. Data were collected
infrastructure, credit and enterprise development, thorough a pre-tested interview schedule. During
HRD and planning, monitoring and evaluation interview every effort was made to explain the
system. questions and its purpose, so as to gather correct
and reliable information. The time of each
Human Resource development program of the interview was fixed as per convenience of the
SRSP aimed at building the capacities of villagers respondents.
and staff at grassroots and organizational level.
Agriculture, livestock and activist training were RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
imparted to SRSP staff and villagers. Under Demographic Characteristics
agriculture the main training programs aimed at Table I shows that 75% of the sampled trainees
extension and improvement of cereal crops, fruit were young, more than half (52%) of these
and vegetables. Livestock training include belonged to age group 31-50, another 23 percent
livestock and poultry extension and animal were more young and fall in the age group of 21-
vaccination. Activist tainting aimed at enabling the 30. More than three-fourth (77%) of the total
management skills and the major programs under populations were literates and farming was their
this heading include leadership, management and main occupation (69%). Majority (63%) of the
skill trainings. sampled respondents who received training were
owner-cultivators and the rest tenants were more
HRD is one of the emerging indicators of the (23.1) than owner-cum-tenants (14%). Studies on
development of an area. It is now believed that input adoption consider education as one of the
development goals cannot be attained without most important factors that affect adoption
enhancing the skills of the target population. The decisions (Asfaw and Admassie, 2004)
present study was conducted to explore whether the
training can enhance the agriculture production of Types of Trainings Offered by SRSP and Received
an area or not and this is one of the pioneer attempt by Community Organizations (COs) Members
on the topic. Further, agriculture and its Table II states major training programs that had
development is the major concern of all the been offered by SRSP to enhance the skills of the
development agencies because of the association sample population in agriculture, livestock
and dependence of the majority of population on enterprise and leadership development. Agriculture
agriculture. This on one hand will help SRSP in development was the main focus of SRSPs Human
observing the role of training in agricultural Resource Development program as 67% of the
development and on the other hand this successful respondents received training to develop
experience can be extended to other areas of agriculture. Livestock development was other
operation as well. It can further help the other important training received by 27% of the farmers.
development agencies working on the subject to Leadership and enterprise development skills
design and implement their studies and training were received by 3% each.
development projects on the basis of this study
results. Agriculture Development Trainings Programs
Table III states that under agriculture two third
MATERIALS AND METHODS (67%) of the sampled respondents received training
The present study was conducted to observe the to enhance the production of cereal crops. Another
impact of Human Resource Development (HRD) 25% got training to grow fruits and vegetables and
activities on agriculture and its products. A number 8% storage of seeds for next year crops. The table
of NGOs were working on the subject but Sarhad also reports the high application of training
Rural Support Program (SRSP) was selected for the received by sample respondents. It states that
purpose as it was imparting trainings in the field of application of training was 100% for seed storage
agriculture and livestock in district Mansehra since
Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 23, No. 4, 2007 1213

where as the practical use of fruits and a vegetable remaining 1% was under orchards. The training
was 83% and cereal crops 81%. programmes opened new avenues and opportunities
for samples trainees. Almost all the farmers who
Effects of Trainings on Cropping Pattern Before were exclusively growing wheat and maize before
and After the Training the training started giving special emphasis on
SRSP trainings programs effectively improved the vegetables and fruits after the training. The area
cropping pattern, use of agricultural inputs, area under vegetable increased from 0 to 13% and 1%
and production of crops and income of the sampled for Rabi and Kharif season respectively as
farmers. corresponding to areas under orchards increased
from 1 to 2%. Potatoes become the second major
Table IV states that maize and wheat were the two crop wheat in Rabi season where as onion and
crops and grown on 99 percent of the cultivated tomato become the other crops in Kharif season.
area. Only a fractional land (1%) was under Similarly due to more area under orchards the
orchards. The SRSP training program motivated number of apple, apricot and lemon trees increased
the trainees to enhance the cropping area that form 60, 32 and 4 to 214, 278 and 210 respectively.
increased from 1462 kanals before the training to
1222 kanals after the training. Major change was Trainings further made a major effect on the yield
reported for the area under vegetables, which of both the already grown and new crops. The
increased from 0 to 12% before and after training. wheat yield increased from 1.66 to 2.88
Another 100 percent increase was acquired from maunds/kanal before and after the trainings. A
the orchards area. These changes can be similar increase, from 1.83 to 2.97, was also
considered, as positive trend on the area under cash reported for maize crop. The new yields of wheat
crops. and maize crops are more than the average yield of
district Mansehra (2.11 and 2.9064?/kanal) and
Use of Selected Inputs NWFP (1.79 and 2.59 maunds/kanal) as a whole
Table V states that chemical fertilizers and tractor (Agricultural statistics of NWFP).
plounghing and threshing through tractor were the
only inputs that were used by the sample farmers Except onion, the average yields of potato (12.75
before the training. The use of tractor was 91% maunds/kanal) and tomatoes (7.81 maunds/kanal)
each for ploughing and threshing and 37% for were also close to the average yield figures of
chemical fertilizer. district Mansehra and NWFP as whole. The similar
increase was also found in the per tree production
The training programs motivated the farmers to (in maunds) of apple, apricot and lemon plants.
adopt all required inputs. This resulted in 100% of
the farmers using chemical fertilizer insecticides, Other Effects of Trainings
improved seeds and ploughing and threshing Table VII states the other effects of the SRSPs
through tractor. This is a very great achievement, training programs. It describes that the training
while assessing the impact of Sarhad Rural Support programs along with new interventions created
Programme on Agricultural development and the more awareness (54%), improved farming (50%)
changes in the socio-economic condition of the and most importantly increased the income (80%)
people after the involvement of SRSP Jalil (2001) of the farmers. The awareness and new skills on
found that in the area where literacy rate was about one hand enabled the sampled trainees to get
83%, 50% increase was noted in maize and 43% in employment (26%), while on other hand it helped
wheat. The use of chemical fertilizer and and encouraged trainees to start business at village
insecticides were increased from 60 to 100% before level. The major achievement in this regard was
and after the SRSP intervention and increased in reported for the establishment of village shops
the number of livestock. (9%), pesticide business (14%) nurseries for
commercial purposes (6%) and dairy farming (3%).
Without mentioning the percentage improvement
Abbasi (2001), While evaluating different activities Latif (2001) found significant effect of training on
of NRSP under agriculture found high adoption for contribution of backyard chicken to household
improved seed of crops, use of chemical fertilizer, economy in Mardan division, in terms of number of
live stock vaccination and credit programme. eggs sold, gross, and cash income from the chicken
and number of birds sold. Training significantly
Area and Yields of Crops Before and After the increased gross and cash income of the female
Trainings farmers in the area. AMJAD 2002 concluded that
Table VI describes the area and yields of crops, the SRSPs-HRD Based Training positively
vegetables and fruits plants before and after the contributed to agricultural and livestock as well as
trainings. It states that 99% of the cropped area was socio economic development in the area. The
under cereal crop (wheat and maize). The agricultural training resulted in increased yield of
Mansoor Ahmad et al. Impact training imparted to enhance Agricultural production 1214

almost all crops, fruits and vegetables. Similarly, orchards, so area under cereal crops had been
the livestock training resulted in increased size of reported decreased but for crops such as potatoes,
livestock, milk production and increased onion, tomatoes had been increased along with the
vaccination and medication of livestock. Annual number of lemon, apples and apricot trees.
mortality and diseases reduced and the income of
the respondents has also increased considerably. Though the area under wheat and maize had been
reported decreased but the wheat and maize yield
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS increased from 1.66 and 1.83 maunds/kanal to 2.88
Since HRD program of SRSP aimed at building the and 2.97 maunds/kanals in addition to the income
capacity of local population for sustainable social they had from cash crops such as potatoes, onions
and economic development with primary focus on and tomatoes. The similar types of results were
poor and disadvantaged, the training at village level reported for fruits production. Besides, enhancing
were mainly imparted to manage village based the agricultural production, the training also gave
organizations and natural resources. To exploit the them awareness, that improved their farming, some
village based resources in district Mansehra SRSP also got employment on the basis of training while
gave special emphasis to agricultural development. other had started pesticides and other business on
Besides, providing credit and identifying small scale level. Some trainees had also
agricultural input supply centers and places, established nurseries and dairy farms. Besides the
trainings were imparted to grow to improved seed trainees gave vaccination. As a whole training has
crops, followed by fruits and vegetables and seed motivated farming community from cereal to cash
storage. Those who received trainings were mainly crops and fruits where besides the enhancement in
young, literate and doing agriculture. Most of the the area under crops and number of fruits trees, all
trainees applied the improved techniques and the farmers had started using the required inputs
technologies. Before the training wheat and maize and consequently production of cereal cash and
were the only crops grown in other study area fruit crops had been increased. Training had also
while after the training a positive trend was created employment and other income generating
reported in growing vegetables and orchards activities for many of the trainees. The study
besides the cereal crops wheat and maize. Similarly recommends that qualified and competent person
tractor in most cases and chemical fertilizers to be engaged for training in different fields especially
some extent were the only inputs used by the in poultry and dairy farming and enterprise
sampled farmers which after the training had not development to raise the income of rural
only been increased to 100 percent but also the population. The training process should be further
trainees had started using insecticides and enhanced through the demonstration of on-farm
improved seeds. On the other hand, as the sample trails of cash crops and continuous technical
trainees had stared growing vegetables and fruits support through project line departments staff.

Table I. Personal/Demographic Characteristics of the Sample Respondents

Personal Characteristics No (n=70) Percentage (%)
21-30 16 23
31-50 36 52
51-60 8 11
61 & above 10 14
Literacy Level
Illiterates 16 23
Literates 54 77
Farming 48 69
Services 14 20
Business 8 11
Tenurial status
Owners 44 63
Owner-cum-tenants 10 14
Tenants 16 23

Table II. Types of Trainings Offered and Received by Sample Respondents

Training Types Number Percentage
Agriculture Development 47 67
Livestock Development 19 27
Leadership Skills Development 2 3
Enterprise Development 2 3
Total 70 100
Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 23, No. 4, 2007 1215

Table III. Agriculture Development Trainings Programs by Sample Respondents

Training Received (N=48) Applied (N=40)
Cereal Crops 32 67 26 81
Fruits& Vegetables 12 25 10 83
Seed Storage 4 8 4 100
* Figure indicates the percent of respondents who received that particular type pf training

Table IV. Cropping Pattern Before and After the Training

Crops Before Training After Training Percent Change
Area % age Area % age
Wheat/Maize 1454 99 1654 86 13
Vegetables 0 0 232 12 12
Orchards 8 1 36 2
Total 1462 100 1922 100 25

Table V. Use of Selected Inputs

Types of Inputs Before training After training
Nos. % age Nos. % age
Chemical Fertilizers 26 37 70 100
Insecticides 0 0 70 100
Improved Seeds 0 0 70 100
Tractor Ploughing 64 91 70 100
Threshing 64 91 70 100

Table VI. Area and Yield of Crops Before and After the Trainings
Crops Percentage Area/Trees Field (maund/Kanals)
Before After Before After
Cereal Crops
Wheat 99 87 1.66 2.88
Maize 99 85 1.83 2.97
Onion 0 4 - 9.4
Potatoes 0 13 - 12.75
Tomatoes 0 5 - 7.81
Apples* 60 214 1.96 3.16
Apricot 32 278 1.25 1.59
Lemon 4 210 1.20 5.12
Figures under fruits show number of trees and yield per tree in maunds.

Table VII. Other Effects of Trainings

Training Effects Nos. % age
Farming Improved 35 50
Pesticides Business 10 14
Nursery Development 4 6
Seed Storage 4 6
Dairy Farming 2 3
Vaccination 6 9
Small Business 6 9
Employment 18 26
Awareness 38 54
Income Increased 56 80

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