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Evaporation Quiz 2

1) Strawberries contain about 15% solids and 85% water. To make strawberry jam, crushed strawberries and sugar
are mixed in a 45:55 mass ratio, and the mixture is heated to evaporate water until the residue contains one-third
water by mass. Calculate how many pounds of strawberries are needed to make a pound of jam.
2) Seawater containing 3.50 wt% salt passes through a series of 10 evaporators. Roughly equal quantities of water
are vaporized in each of the 10 units and then condensed and combined to obtain a product stream of fresh water.
The brine leaving each evaporator but the tenth is fed to the next evaporator. The brine leaving the tenth
evaporator contains 5.00 wt% salt. Determine the salt concentration in the 2nd-9th evaporator.
3) Fresh orange juice contains 12.0 wt% solids and the balance water, and concentrated orange juice contains 42
wt% solids. Initially a single evaporation process was used for the concentration, but volatile constituents of the
juice escaped with the water, leaving the concentrate with a flat taste. The current process overcomes this
problem by bypassing the evaporator with a fraction of the fresh juice. The juice that enters the evaporator is
concentrated to 58 wt% solids, and the evaporator product stream is mixed with the bypassed fresh juice to
achieve the desired final concentration. Calculate the amount of product (42% concentrate) produced per 100 kg
fresh juice fed to the process and the fraction of the feed that bypasses the evaporator.
4) An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/hr (10,000 lbm/hr) of a 20% NaOH solution in water entering at 60C
(140F) to a product of 50% solids. The pressure of the saturated steam used is 172.4 kPa (25 psia) and the pressure
in the vapor space of the evaporator is 11.7 kPa (1.7 psia). The overall heat-transfer coefficient is 1560 W/m2-K
(275 btu/h-ft2-F). Calculate the steam used, the steam economy in kg vaporized/kg steam used, and the heating
surface area in m2.
5) A single-effect evaporator is concentrating a feed of 9072 kg/hr of a 10 wt% solution of NaOH in water to a product
of 50% solids. The pressure of the saturated steam used is 42 kPa (gage) and the pressure in the vapor space is 20
kPa (abs). The overall heat-transfer coefficient is 1988 W/m2-K. Calculate the steam used, the steam economy in
kg vaporized/kg steam, and the area for the following feed conditions:
(a) Feed temperature of 288.8 K
(b) Feed temperature of 322.1 K