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416 VISION.

Hibernation and Allied States in Animals. WESLEY MILLS. Trans.


Roy. Soc. Canada ; Section IV, 1892. Pp. 49-66.
Dr. Mills reviews the evidence regarding the nature and duration
of hibernation in the woodchuck, squirrel, black bear, bat, and vari-
ous kinds of fish. Passing to the discussion of similar states in man,
he instances three cases, one of which came under his personal ob-
servation, of individuals who remained for long periods in the trance
state. The case referred to is described at some length ; the patient,
an old woman, had remained in a comatose condition for thirteen
years; the autopsy showed the absence of any gross lesion of the
brain. Any explanation of the nature of hibernation must take
account of the fact that all degrees of functional cessation are found,
from normal sleep to the lowest degree of activity consistent with
the maintenance of life. There is abundant reason to connect these
states together. In sleep the functional activities are lowered ; the
animal, therefore, requires much less food, and its excretions are
greatly diminished. The same laws apply to trance and hiberna-
tion. The hibernation of amphibia, reptilia, etc., is protective,
being the result of adaptation to environment; this explains equally
well why the trait may be lost when the animal is transferred to a
different environment. H. C. WARREN.

VISION.
Uber die latente Hypermetropie. CL. DU BOIS-REYMOND. Zeitschr.
f. Psych., VIII, 34-43. 1894.
When a hypermetropie person makes use of glasses for the first
time, he is at first unable to accommodate sharply for the furthest
portion of his new accommodation-field ; but after short use he
gains control of a portion of this, differing in extent with his age.
The author attempts to explain this phenomenon. By extending
Donder's presbyopic curve into the first years of childhood, he finds
a value of about twenty diopters for the earliest accommodation.
Dividing the total activity of the ciliary muscle into twenty parts,
he calls each of these units an entony (Entonie), and assumes that
these units are approximately equal. He further assumes that pres-
byopia is dependent only on diminished elasticity of the lens, and
not at all on a weakening of the ciliary muscle. In case a child is
hypermetropie, it fails to gain practice in making use of the first
entonies, in number corresponding to the diopters, which are un-
used; the whole hypermetropia is latent, and a practical far-point of
accommodation is formed. If in later life glasses are used, these