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SPECIFICATION SHEET

IDENTIFICATION
Equipment Name Evaporator
Equipment Code V-2
Type Single Effect Vacuum Evaporator
Function To concentrate the Lactic Acid solution coming from the
Rotary Drum Filter before it is cooled in the cooler
Number of Unit/s 1 unit
Evaporator Capacity 500 kg/h
Mode of Operation Batch
Materials Handled Lactic Acid, Acetic Acid, and water
BASIC DESIGN DATA
Operating Pressure 70 kPa
Operating Temperature 110oC
Residence Time 17 mins
Heat Transfer Area 7.43 m2
FEED CONDITION
Feed Lactic Acid, Acetic Acid and Water
Mass Flow Rate 944.40 kg
Density 1094.414 kg/m3
Volumetric Flow Rate 0.863 m3/day
Viscosity 3.71 cP
Temperature 90OC
VESSEL DESIGN
Tube Design Drum Design
Fluid Handled Lactic Acid Solution Fluid Handled Saturated Vapor
Mass Flow Rate 944.40 Mass Flow Rate 883.95
Temperature Temperature
In Out In out
90 110 150 150
Pressure 70 Kpa Pressure 480 Kpa
Number of Tubes 186 Drum Diameter 1.7 m
Length 0.915 m Drum Thickness 3 mm
BWG No. 14 Head Thickness 3 mm
Outside Diameter 16 mm Bottom Thickness 3 mm
Inside Diameter 12 mm Tube Sheet Area 52 mm
Pitch Arrangement Triangular Downcomer Area 19 mm
Pitch 20 mm Tube Sheet Diameter 0.26 mm
Clearance 4 mm
PUMP
Power 1 hP
EVAPORATOR DIAGRAM
Design Assumptions:

a. Heat loss is neglected

b. Evaporation is assumed to be constant along the channel length


Design Equations:
A. Evaporator Design

(1 2 ) (2 1 )
=
( 2 )
ln 1
(2 1 )

Residence Time Calculation



=( )
( )

(Reference: Evaporator Handbook Volume 4th Edition)

B. Tube Layout Design


Number of Tubes


=

Rotated Square Pitch

= 1.25

Clearance

= 0.25
Bundle Diameter


= ( )

(R. K. Sinnot, "Heat transfer equipment design," in Chemical Engineering Design-Volume 6,


Elsevier, 2005, pp. 645-685)

Height of Evaporator Shell


=
( )
0.0172(

(Reference: Design Procedures for standard vertical short tube evaporator)

Thickness of Evaporator

= +
2

(Reference: ASME, Section VIII BPVC 2007, ASME, 2007)


Unit Operations

Amount and Components of Feed


Composition Mass (kg/day) Mass Fraction Density (kg/m3)
Lactic Acid 430.26 0.4556 1206
Acetic Acid 10.56 0.0112 1050
Water 503.55 0.5332 1000
TOTAL 944.40 1 See Below
**

*Density values are approximately at room temperature and pressure

Properties of Feed:
Feed Density:

= + +

= (0.4556) (1206 3
) + (0.0112) (1050 3 ) + (0.5332) (1000 3 )


= 1094.414
3
Feed Volume:

=


=

944.40
=

1094.414 3

= 0.863 3

Molar Concentration of the Feed:


Composition Mass(kg/day) Molecular Kilo moles
Weight(kg/kmol)
Lactic Acid 430.26 90.08 4.776
Acetic Acid 10.56 60.05 0.176
Total 4.952

Density of Lactic Acid:



= .

Density of Acetic Acid:

= .

Computing for the Molar Concentration of the feed:


=


.
=

.

= .
Viscosity of the Feed:

Using the Kendall-Monroe Relation:

= ln
=1

= (. ) (. ) + (. ) (. ) + (. ) ( . )

= .

= .
Residence Time Calculation


(. )(. )
=( )
(. )(. )(. . )
= .

=

(. )
= = .
.

(. )(. )(. )
= = .
.

Determination of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

= {1969.5 + 12.057( ) 0.085989( )2 + 0.00025651( )3 } 103

= {1969.5 + 12.057( ) 0.085989( )3 } 103

is the temperature of the boiling liquid inside the evaporator.

= {1969.5 + 12.057(120 ) 0.085989(120 )2 + 0.00025651(120 )3 } 103



= .

(Reference: El-Dessouky, H et al., Analysis of single-effect evaporator desalination systems combined
with vapor compression heat pumps, Desalination, 114(1997)253-275, 1998.)
Data from Energy Balance of the Unit

Heat needed:

= 973,401.58

For design purposes:



= ,

Steam:

Mass (kg/day) Temperature (oC) State


In 883.95 150 Saturated
Out 883.95 150 Condensate

For the minimum area (at 110 C):

=

=

(1 2 ) (2 1 ) (150 110) (150 90)
= =
(1 2 ) (150 110)
ln ln
(2 1 ) (150 90)
= 49.33

1
980000
17 60
=

2.62 2 (49.33)

= .

Steam Economy

=

.
= = .
.

Tube Layout Design:

Using the Perrys Engineering Handbook and in the assumption of the tube outside diameter being 5/8
in with a tube length of 12 ft.

Materials of Construction: SS 316

Outside Diameter : 5/8 in

BWG No. : 14

Inside Diameter : 0.459

Length : 3 ft

Determining the suitable tube sheet arrangement

Tubes are arranged usually in equilateral triangular, square or rotated square arrangements. Triangular

And rotated square have high heat transfer rates. Square or rotated square patterns is used for heavy
fouling liquids.

For this kind of solution, Triangular arrangements are preferred and the pitch is given by,

= 1.25 ( )
= 1.25 (0.015875 )
= .

= 0.25 ( )
= 0.25 (0.015875 )
= .
Surface Area for Each Tube:

=
= 0.015875 0.9146
= 0.0456 2
Number of Tubes

=

8.47 2
=
0.0456

= . =

Total Area Occupied by Tubes:

( 2 sin 60)
=
2
186 (20103 )2 sin 60)
=
2
= 32.22 33
The central down-comer area is generally taken as 40 to 70% of the total cross sectional area of tubes.

Consider 50% of the total tube cross sectional area.


= 0.5 ( ( ) 2
4


= 0.5 186 ( ) (0.015875)2
4

= .

Total Area of Tube Sheet in Evaporator:

= +

= 33 + 18.41

= 51.41

Tube Sheet Diameter:


4(52)
=

= 0.257

Calculating the Bundle Diameter

Based on the table from Coulson and Richardson book for single pass triangular pitch evaporator.

1 = 2.142
1 = 0.319
1
= ( )1
1
53 1
= (0.015875)( )2.142
0.319
= . .
Area of evaporator Drum:

=
( )
0.0172(


=
10943.414 2.57 )
( (0.0172 2.57 )
Using an entrainment factor of 1.3

0.995
=
10943.414 2.57 )
(1.3 (0.0172 2.57 )

= . .
Drum Diameter:

2.2 = ()2
= 0.836
= 0.836 2 = 1.67 .
Drum Height:

Drum Height is usually taken as 2 to 5 times that of the tube sheet diameter

= 5 ( 0.257) = 1.287 .

From Perrys Chemical Engineerings Handbook:

AISI Type Yield Strength (MPa) Tensile Strength/Ultimate


Strength (MPa)
316 290 579
Maximum Allowable Stress
=

Where: =

=
=
=
=

For Type of Steel Factor, rule of thumb is to use 20-25%. On an average,


20 + 25
= %
2
= . %
For Material Factor, 0.97 is to be used for normal or flange steel.
= .
For Stress-relieving Factor, use a value of 1.06.

= .
For Radiographic Factor, assuming material was radiographed for a maximum performance, use a value
of 1.12.
= .
Computing for the working stress:
= (579 )(0.225)(0.97)(1.06)(1.12)

= 150.022 =

Maximum Internal Pressure


For the stress exerted by the tubes:

BWG No. Weight per foot length, lb


14 5/8 in. OD 0.704
Total weight of the tubes:
0.704 3.28 1 0.915
= 186
1 2.2
= .

Total pressure exerted by the tubes (for the tangential stress):



=


=
(. )()( )


(178.631) (9.81
2)
=

(186 )()(0.015875 0.01165) (0.915 )

= .

For the stress exerted by the Lactic Acid solution:

= (. )( )( )


= (186 ) (1094.44 3
) [( ) (0.01165)2 (0.915)]
4

= .

Tangential stress exerted by the Lactic Acid Solution:



=


=
(. )()(0.012) (4.87 )


19.86 (9.81 )
= 2

(186 )()(0.01165)(0.915 )

= .

Stress exerted by the compressed steam:

For the maximum internal pressure:

. = + +

. = 775.738 + 31.283 + 70

. = 70.807 11

Drum Thickness:
(From the Process Equipment Design by Hesse and Rushton)

= + ( )
( 0.6) 2
Where: =

=
=

=
=
=

For the efficiency of joints, assuming doubled welded butt joints are used as radiographed, use a value of
1.0
= .
For corrosion allowance, use a value of 1/16 in.

= .

Therefore,

( )(. )
= +

[( ) (. ) (. )( )]

= . = . =

Head and Bottom Thickness


Using the design equation for the Ellipsoidal Head
(From Process Equipment Design by Hesse and Rushton)

= +
2 0.2

For the efficiency of the joints, DT < 180 (Seamless), use a value of 1.0

= 1.0
Corrosion Allowance, use a value of 1/16 in
1
= .
16

( )(. )
= +

[( ) (. ) (. )( )]

= . = . =
For Uniformity of the equipment the Head and Bottom Thickness would be designed the same as that of
the drum thickness

= = =

Insulation Thickness

In order to determine the insulation thickness required, the worst case scenario is considered.
The following parameters are needed to do the calculation.
Ambient temperature is assumed to be 30oC
Internal temperature of the evaporator = 120oC
Therefore the maximum temperature difference for the worst case scenario is 90oC

= 0.04

= 980,000

2(1 2 )
=
ln ( 2 )
1
2 2(0.04)(0.9144)(120 30)
ln ( )=
0.125 980,000
2 = 0.125352
Computing for the insulation thickness:

2 = 1 +
0.125352 = 0.125 +
= 0.352
For the optimum thickness which varies with temperature wherein 12.77 mm (0.5 in) at 95oC, 25.4 mm (1
in) at 200oC. For Design purposes the thickness should be:

= 20
(Reference: Rules of Thumb Ludwigs Applied Process)

Pump Selection
Capacity:

. .
= ( )=
.
Pressure Head:
. ( )
= = =

.

Power:

=
. .
( )
. (. ) (. )

= = . =
. (. )